“LATE TO THE TABLE”

Ships built for combat — the approval that seems quite obvious. However, many warships of various classes and sizes and failed never “smell the gunpowder”. Fortunately for mankind in the XX century the number of universal war, seized most of the planet, limited to two, otherwise it could not survive. But. that is a grief for many people, it becomes a moment of truth for combat vehicles, specifically created for the rare moments of sea battles.

 
So it was the First world war was the true test for ships of all classes, and not least for cruisers. We have already talked about participation in the battles and campaigns, and legacy of “Le Corsaire”, and the latest cruisers. Both main party to the war at sea, Britain and Germany, continued to build new ships in this class and in the four-year “great grinder”. Many of them managed to participate if not in battle (they are war at sea is not too full), then at least in the military campaigns. However, among the steel and Skorokhodov were clear losers, just late for “the last performance of the season”, completed too late to ever go to sea to search for the enemy, or not at all embodied in the metal.
 
Of course. among the “victims” were the British: Britain literally “baked” cruiser n a large number, and fearing that the same thing makes it the main enemy — Germany. Admiralty deepali only fragmentary and not entirely reliable information about the plans of the Central Union. But. it came, seemingly testified to a new and dangerous for the British trends. Intel talked about the fact that in 1916 in Germany and Austria-Hungary started to build a strong and fast fighting units, armed with a large number of 150-mm guns or new guns of heavier caliber 170 mm or even 210 mm.
 
In such considerations, there was a very obvious reason: if the “Central” allies clearly could not compete with the “enlightened sailors”, could compete in single player skirmishes. Therefore, the British admirals with all seriousness to the threat, albeit exceptionally vague (intelligence couldn’t give reliable information neither on the number nor on the size and armament of the future “trump cards” of the enemy).
 
Originally the British went for a very reasonable middle of the road. Although the needs of the Navy is quite satisfied already in the construction of the last series and many variations of the type “si”, armed with five 152 mm guns, arranged in the diametrical plane, which gave in a volley as many guns as their German opponents, the admirals suggested “add more”. Thus was born the next type, the designation for the next letter of the alphabet. In fact, the “Dee” was a rough cut the front “Cape town”, “inserted” section with an optional sixth instrument of Course, this is nothing more than shaped reception, because in reality case not only extended. but on the floor meters increased its width to provide necessary stability. Outwardly, however, “Danae” with the company gave the impression of an unnecessarily elongated, which, however. did not prevent the “British response” to a nonexistent German threat to become a strong ships, in Addition to the additional six-inch guns, they got much more powerful torpedo armament. The widened body to accommodate the three-pipe torpedo tubes, with 12 tubes a cruiser could provide a shot equal to that of a division of destroyers start of the war. But perhaps equally important was the new equipment to control the fire, approaching the capabilities of similar systems of battleships-dreadnoughts.
Of course, “Di” did not hurt in the battle with the Germans, but the chances that they have had very little. “Leased”. “Dauntless” and “dragon” was laid at the turn of 1916 and 1917, and despite a very good pace of construction, the lead ship of the series was commissioned only eighteen months later, in the summer of 1918. However, “Danae” and “dragon” was already in p composition Garlicky light SIP, but the Germans at that time in the sea has not come out, In 1919, in a vain attempt to “smell the gunpowder” couple was on the Batik, where they had safely escaped the mines, in contrast, 0t victims “Sisak”, but did not show himself.
 
Meanwhile. once running, the flywheel continued to spin, now quite empty. For the first three was followed by the second, possessing the same graceful pinched a sloping bow that “captainy”. not only beautiful, but is primarily useful from the point of view of seaworthiness. She got the names of the large cities of the vast possessions of the British crown. “Delhi” and “Dunedin” was completed relatively quickly, in mid-1919, but the “Durban” stuck in the stocks more than a year. He is not left alone. The first six were to follow the second, but here, finally, the Admiralty remarked that the war has already ended. Four less advanced in the construction of the unit is simply disassembled, and reached the descent “Dispatch” and “Diomede” regretted and slowly completed within four years. Not without benefit for future generations: the “Diomede” was first installed in the nose two-gun is completely closed (though more from the spray than from shells) 6-inch artillery.
 
But even very beautiful, but it is a good “Di” happily lasted until the Second world war and even participated in it. Their contribution could be even more important if we could implement that appeared in the late 1930-ies of the plan of conversion in their cruiser defenses. It was supposed to remove all 152-mm and 76-mm guns and replace them with four paired universal 114-of graph paper in the tower installations and a couple multi-barrel 40-mm “POM-pomul”. The shortage of ships able to fight the aircraft was huge, and upgraded “D”, undoubtedly, would have been very popular. However, the lack of funds and time have put an end to this interesting idea. In the end, an old-fashioned ships were in the second and third roles, to the extent that the “dragon” and “Durban” has found its end as part of a huge breakwater-pier “mulberry”. established on the Normandy coast during the d-day landings in 1944.
 
Although the cruisers of the “Di” could fight on equal terms with the best German units, the Admiralty this seemed insufficient. How so on an equal footing? It is necessary that “personal meeting” the British had an advantage, preferably an overwhelming, And in 1915 the crafters received an application to create a new cruiser with a more powerful artillery armament, higher speed — not less than 30 knots and cruising range. Specifically, that new ships should have weapons capable of hitting an enemy ship from great distance, before he will be able to answer from their 150-mm guns. At the same time the lords of the Admiralty proposed to develop the project immediately. Well, British designers such queries are used. Work began a week after the receipt of the application. It was immediately clear that satisfaction of the “growing needs” will lead to an increase in displacement not less than two times in comparison with the prototype. A prototype chose a very peculiar way: the project was called “improved Birmingham”, which seemed a kind of mockery of common sense. Although really, the layout of the new submarine monster resembled the good old “the city”, only two times larger, with a new 190-mm cannons instead of six-inch and five knots greater speed. In General, “similarity” is about the same. like the boxers – one in the weight “flies” and another two-meter champion heavyweight. But mostly in relation to offensive weapons -“gloves”.
 
As for protection, it remained exactly on the same level as that of the “Birmingham”. “Si” and “Di”, the Zone had the same maximum thickness 51 mm 25 mm padded, with only about one third of the area in the middle of the body, refining to the bow and stern and above Board Does not impressive and the armor deck, for the most part 12.7 mm; thicker sheets, 25-mm and 38-mm, defended the arrangements and steering gear is Only a small improvement of the reservation became a kind of “box”, in addition to defend the cellar, which later became the hallmark of all the British cruisers. However, their thickness was only 13 mm. Continuing the Boxing analogy, loomed the mighty figure of a hulking athlete with a powerful “left hook,” while unable to hold back, However, not all right was and with artillery. The shell of the powerful 7.5-inch gun weighed over 90 kg, twice more than the six-inch guns, and the open deck setup to mechanize was very difficult. I had to resort to technical solutions to the end of the XIX century: to build each weapon the circular track, it was moving the truck with the shell, which stands there manually works a couple of sailors from the most physically strong. It is not surprising. the suitability of a 190-mm guns for fighting destroyers destroyers raises serious doubts. Without further ADO, the English for this circuit entered the second caliber. And also dubious: although the rate of fire 76-mm guns match the task. their projectile was unlikely to stop a modern destroyer, a displacement of which by that time exceeded 1000 t
 
However, despite the many doubtful moments of the project, the Admiralty immediately expressed the desire to build a large number of these cruisers. To stop such madness could only financial considerations. Value, according to first estimates, was close to a million pounds, and the order was limited to five units. All of them received the names of famous English admirals of the navigators of the era of Queen Elizabeth I, and is therefore often called “Elizavetinsky”.
 
Meanwhile, the new German light cruiser did not appear on ocean communications, and the need of supercruisers became more and more questionable. Instead of surface raiders of England were threatened, very seriously, an underwater enemy. To combat submarines were needed at all other ships, “Elizabethans” began to actively “slow down”. The last of them, “Effingham”. laid in 1917. Work at all the shipyards was carried out very slowly and “cruiser-killers” and did not take part n the fighting. The only commissioned before the end of the First world war was “Vindictive”, and he was in the Grand fleet in the role, very far from the original. At the end of the war the Royal Navy was in dire need of ships capable of carrying aircraft. Even then, the aircraft have high hopes, however, mainly as the “eyes of the fleet”. Indeed, during the Jutland battle the British suffered acutely from a lack of information about the enemy, who, in the end, successfully escaped. The admirals have taken a real search in the shipyards suitable material: it is enough fast and large corps, on the basis of which it would be possible but would quickly “collect” carrier. “Elizavetinsky” fit for the purpose, and the victim is most ready to “Cavendish”. It was renamed the “Vindictive” and quickly transformed into a very peculiar aircraft-carrying ship. The restructuring did not touch the “innards” of the ship, which were supposed, if necessary, to reiterate in a cruiser. In the bow was equipped with a hangar for 6 seaplanes, the roof of which was located a flight deck length of 36 m and a width of 16 m. Behind a smoke of the pipe were second deck, landing, length 59 m. landing the aircraft was dragged to the flight deck through the narrow bridge along the left side. In fact, landing on a tiny feed “handkerchief”, also liberally covered with hot gases from the chimney, was almost impossible. Seaplanes simply lifted from the water by a crane, located aft.
 
 
142. Light cruiser “Enterpris” (England, 1926)
 
It was built by the firm “.John Brown”. The displacement of 7550 tonnes; maximum length of 173.7 m, width 16.6 m; draught 5,61 m Power chetyrehbalnoy turbine plant 80 000 HP, speed 23 KTS. Armament: seven 152/45 mm guns, five 102-mm anti-aircraft guns, three 40-mm antiaircraft gun, four 47-mm saluting guns, four 533-mm torpedo tubes three-pipe. Reservations: the Board of the 76 — 38 mm, deck 12f7 — 2S mm, cutting 25 mm. Only in 1926, built two units: “enterprise” and “EMERAUDE”, third, “Uprates” dismantled on the slipway. Both excluded from the lists in the years 1946-1948.
 
143. Light cruiser “Delhi” (England, 1919)
 
Was built by firm “Armstrong”. Displacement 4970 tonnes, length of maximum 143,61 m; width of 13.91 m; draught of 5.00 m. the Capacity of double-screened steam turbine 40 000 HP, speed 29 KTS. Armament: six 152/45 mm guns, two 76-mm anti-aircraft guns, two 40 mm anti-aircraft gun, and four 533-mm torpedo tubes three-pipe. Booking: boron” 76 — 51 mm, 25 mm deck, cabin 152 mm. Only, and 1918 – 19?? I . built eight units: “Danae”, “dragon”, “Dauntless”, “Delhi”. “Dunedin”, “Durban”, “Dispatch” and “Diomede”, and four units dismantled on the stocks to a small degree of readiness. “Dunedin” torpedoed by a German submarine in December 1941, the “dragon” and “Durban” used as a temporary landing in the landing in Normandy in June 1944, the remaining excluded from the lists in 1946
 
144. Cruiser “Frobisher” (England, 1924)
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Davenport. Displacement 9750 tons; maximum length 184,41 m; width of 19.8 m; draught 5,92 m Power chetyrehbalnoy turbine plant of 60,000 p. S., the speed of 30 kt. Armament: seven 190/45-76/50 mm and six mm guns, four 76 mm anti-aircraft guns, four 47-mm cannon, father-in-law 533-mm torpedo tubes. Reservations: the Board 76-51 mm, deck 13 — 38 mm, cutting Only 75 mm. in 1918— 1922, constructed five units: “Hawkins”, “Cavendish”, “Raleigh”, “Frobisher” and “Effingham”. “Reilly” patib on the rocks in August 1922, “Cavendish” were finished as aircraft carrier “Vindictive”, “Effingham” died as a result of a navigation accident in may 1940, the two remaining excluded from the list in 1947 — 1948

 
The “Vindictive” tried to be a cruiser, He maintained four 190-mm gun and the same “mine” 76-millimetrovogo. It even retained under the project torpedo, finally making a strong ship in a rather ugly and useless hybrid.
 
In General, “Admiral Elizabeth” were extremely unlucky ships. One can even say harmful to the British Navy. For a start, they have caused considerable I damage to the Treasury. Already the head, “Hawkins”, which was built about three years, cost more than 1 million 600 thousand pounds. despite the fact that their pseudoprotocol, “Birmingham”, cost 4.5 times cheaper! But even these huge sums of money were not a limit. The last two units of the series. “Frobisher” and “Effingham”, was built twice as long and exceeding two million pounds. It is clear that such a significant increase in prices was partly associated with post-war podeshevlenie pounds, but still curious to compare the costs with the cost of even more new battleships of the type “Nelson”, costing about six million, but, moreover, is clearly more valuable than three poorly protected “killer light cruisers”
 
It is not surprising that the Admiralty was jealous of their “gold” ships. When in 1921 the Washington conference on limiting naval armaments, England to the last defended his desire to keep them in the fleet. The result was disappointing for “mistress of the seas”, which had to agree to the right building with his rivals as large and heavily armed cruisers. The conference participants decided to round the maximum displacement of members of this class up to 10,000 tons and the calibre of artillery to eight inches. Thus was born the notorious “Washington”, or heavy cruiser, possessing the power bases around the world that would allow her to dispense units of the smaller displacement, putting potential opponents at a disadvantage. And the reason for this strategic loss was, in fact, ordinary greed, which, moreover, did not go for the future. Entered service in 1921 “Rape” served only one year. then popped into the rocks off the coast of Canada. The cruiser could not be saved; his several years used as a target for target practice, and then just blew up the remains. It is curious that the same fate 18 years later suffered another “Elizavetino”. “Effingham” found “sing” the rock (but marked on the map) in the Norwegian archipelago during the Second world war in may 1940. To remove it also failed, and the British had to sink it with torpedoes and artillery fire.
So in the beginning career of five “hokinson” true cruisers have only three. Aviators and builders continued to torment “Vindictive” until the end of 1920-ies, giving it an experimental catapult and constantly changing composition of the air group Ended the story of the sufferer. what it for several years brought to the reserve and rebuilt, first in a training ship, and then, already in 1940-m to year — in flowmasters. “Good” career for a cruiser — hunter of their own kind!
 
In fact. The Admiralty and could not our proper use of such seemingly desirable ships. Initially it was assumed significant upgrade with the removal of deck 190-millimetrovogo and replace them with three 203-mm two-gun turrets. The result would be somewhat “crippled”, but it “Washington” cruiser. Good idea, however, would cost a third of the cost of a new ship, and. in the end, the project is “buried” due to the lack of available funds and the available shipyards. In the second half of the 1930-ies was followed by the decision to re … the six-inch guns. Really work managed to complete only on the “Effingham”. It’s hard to say, unfortunately or fortunately. Nine old 152-mm guns was significantly inferior to the eight new six-inch light cruisers – “leaders” and on the firing range and rate of fire and projectile weight. In addition, the “Effingham” were behind the “young comrades” in speed by more than two nodes, and had significantly lower cruising range. So former supercruiser, the founder of the heavy, in the end, he was quite flawed easy.
 
But much of late with the introduction of “Elizavetinsky” were the last cruisers losers of the British Navy, not ripened to “their” war. In 1917, the British greatly impressed by the attack by German light forces on the Scandinavian convoys. Light cruiser-craft “Brummer” and “Bremse” seemed to develop at enormous speed. Oil poured into the fire, the intelligence seems to be indicating that the new German “cities” may also have accelerated to 32 knots. Meanwhile none of the prepared or built British light cruisers, including the “killer” with a 190-mm artillery, could not develop more than 30. No matter that these data were typical misinformation. Not long thinking. The Admiralty then demanded, in addition to the most powerful ship is still the fastest.
 
As the basis for the project took the type “Di”. already received extension once a well balanced and “si”. Now the operation had to be repeated again. as powerful boilers and turbines required much more space. The new cruiser there was one boiler room with dopolnitelnoi third pipe, which is arranged behind the turbine, which gives it a peculiar and unique look. (This scheme is called echelon and is widespread in the 1930-ies all over the world how to reduce the risk to stop the ship with one hit by a torpedo or missile.) The mechanisms, the capacity of which is twice that of the modest “si”, without much thought took the leaders of the “Shakespeare” by installing on each cruiser a couple of sets of turbines and boilers. All ego has led to the fact that the type “E” got the proportions characteristic of the high-speed destroyers. But the long case allowed for positioning in the diametrical plane for seven six-inch in deck installations, five of which could shoot on both sides and the remaining pair was located in the center on the sides. This project arms received only the “EMERAUDE”. and “Enterprise” nose is a pair of single cannons appeared experimental two-gun tower as the “Diomede”, but the enhanced type. It became the prototype for the artillery towers of the British cruisers of the 1930-ies.
 
Extremely powerful for that time was anti-aircraft armament, consisting of five 102-mm anti-aircraft guns. In order that runners could maintain their quality in a stormy sea, they got a long forecastle and a high upturned prow.
 
Overall, the project turned out good but it has once again ruined the main “enemy” of the British cruisers in wartime — speed of construction Speed of the unit managed to lay only in 1918, and only in the amount of three pieces. The war ended long before they managed to lower the water. It is clear that rush now it was nowhere. Laid the last “Uprates” (“Euphrates”) does immediately understand the benefit to them was almost nothing, and “Antillais” and “EMERAUDE” continued slowly to finish over the next seven years. Was put into operation, they are only in 1926, very shortly before all countries have begun to create a fundamentally new post-war projects of the “E” really has reached its over-planirovanii high speed and remained the most high-speed cruisers of the British fleet (at least formally) until the end of his career, immediately following the end of world war II. In the course of this war they were used quite actively in all areas of the globe, from domestic water to the Far East in Places without success. So, in December 1943, “Entrpris” along with the new cruiser “Glasgow” met off the island of wassan in the English channel a squadron of five German destroyers, armed with 150-mm guns, and six destroyers. The shooting was noticeably hampered by the wind and heavy sea; the gunners have outdoor plants on the deck “Enterprise” had hard times. But even worse was the case of the Germans, who soon fled. The share of “Enterprise” dropped the rebound of the damaged torpedo boats T26 and T25, which were recorded to account fast “the old man”. Among the “missions” of both “E” consisted of such “exotic” as the British transport ka gold and fire with the German batteries on the progress of operation overlord the Normandy landings They were searching for German raiders and “priyateli” of the blockade, and the share of “Enterprise” fell rescue more than a thousand sailors who survived the sinking of the Japanese dive-bombers, two heavy cruisers in the Bay of Bengal in April 1942. In General, this pair, though already outdated by that time, at least partially justify the expense incurred by England for the creation of different versions of “sverkilstrup”, intended for the other, First world war, and hopelessly at her late
 
V. KOFMAN

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