Everyone, of course, their concerns. I, for example, the problems associated with the mechanization Ubangi, say, peppermint, no PI will take seriously. Other business — the potato, which is of importance and value, no wonder the second bread styled. How hard hard is! A little troublesome that the culture of the plant is to grow. Vintage klubka’re digging in is released outdoors period of time necessary, And without losses from the field to bring home. Where is the technique?Glancing around, stopped his gaze on starinnom long utagassen pile motorcycle “Voskhod-3”. Immediately (as, probably, many who are in a similar situation there is a decision to be this veteran (the good, the engine chain) to harvest potatoes motomania.
Kinematics and design in General is fairly simple. Based on the need to reduce speed to the optimum (harvesting potatoes — not motorally), in the kinematic scheme introduced intermediate shaft with two asterisks. Moreover, in the first stage of torque transmission could well leave the “native” sprocket from a motorcycle. But “unification”, they are replaced with suitable from agricultural equipment (the more — the opportunity was available). As for the second stage chain transmission PR-19,05, the ratio of teeth in sprockets (taken, again, from agricultural machinery) 1:4,5.
The differential is missing (because of its scarcity and high cost). Are leading both wheels. And for easier control when cornering is provided a clutch-coupling. Through it achieved some freedom of rotation of the wheels relative to each other and to the axis of the cultivator. In fact, a small gap is introduced (see ill.). And instead of two may be limited to one clutch.
the possibility of the release of the wheel from engagement with the shaft. It is enough to set the clutch-coupling back side (without the lip) to the slot on the hub and further balance the trolley on the line traction, as it turns out is two to one drive wheel. And from former problems disappear.
Carefully selected, well-functioning engine does not deliver trouble. The more that to improve the reliability it is subjected to a small (but as practice showed, very valuable) modernization. The essence of the last — to install a mini-system of forced air cooling. This is the electric motor designed for operation from 12-volt DC network (used on cars) with the simplest homemade impeller. Strengthening this fan on a special bracket. A is connected to the generator engine walk-behind via a diode bridge and a capacitor (see diagram).
Layout machine
The layout of the machine:
1 — fuel tank 2 — exhaust silencer, 3 — fan forced air cooling, 4 — power unit (the engine of the motorcycle), 5 — bracket with rectifier to power the fan, 6 — damper, 7 — frame, 8 — transport wheel (2x), 9 — coupler-coupling (2 pieces), 10, tool the implement (plow, potato digger, etc.), 11 — gear intermediate shaft (2 PCs), 12 — throttle, 13 — handle clutch, 14 — the rods-tie, 15 — dashboard.
Kinematics of two-wheel tractor
The kinematics of walking tractor:
1 — power unit (the engine of the motorcycle “Voskhod-3”, modified with forced air cooling), 2 — star, leading the chain transmission PR-19,05, 3 — wheel transport, basic or arable (2 PCs), 4 — an intermediate shaft 5 — shaft wheel, 6 — coupler-coupling (2 PCs.)

Frame with racks and the hitch mechanism
Frame with racks and a hitch mechanism of:
1 — frame with cross member (welded steel construction area 36×36 mm), 2 — stand under the engine (230 mm section a steel angle 36×36 mm, 4 PCs.), 3 — beam mount-working tools (the square rod 22×22 mm ST5), 4 — rotary side member of the hitch mechanism (270-mm strip of St3 section 40×8 mm, 2 pieces), 5 — axis-bolt M16 (2); 6 — washer (4 PCs), 7 — nut M12 (4 holes) 8 — mounting bracket bearing shaft Assembly, wheels, weld-in (200-mm section of steel area of 36×36 mm, 2 PCs.).

Right wheel, sprocket and bearing Assembly on the shaft of the wheels
The right wheel sprocket and bearing Assembly on the shaft of the wheels:
1 — asterisk Z4-45 (decommissioned farm), 2 — the frame with fatty bracket (steel bracket 36×36 mm), 3 — MB installation screw pan head, 4 — bolt M12 (2 pieces) 5 — washer (2 PCs.), 6 — Grover washer (2 PCs), 7 — nut M12 (2 PCs), 8 — hub cap (from discarded farm machinery, 2 piece), 9 — hub (decommissioned agricultural equipment), 10 — wheel disc 5,00=10 , 11 – bolt M8 (4 PCs) 12 washer (4 PCs) 13 – washer
Grover (4 PCs), 14 — nut M8 (4 PCs), 15 — bolt MIO, 16 — washer 17 — washer grower 18 — nut M10 19 — coupler-hitch (52 mm pipe cut 40×6 steel seamless cold-rolled), 20 — bushing-coupler (152-mm pipe cut 40×6 steel seamless cold-rolled), 21 — bolt MB (8 PCs), 22 — washer Grover (8), 23 — the shaft of the wheels (Steel 45), 24 — bearing Assembly with self-aligning ball bearing (from the harvester SK-5), 25 — key prismatic.
Intermediate shaft (Steel 45)
Intermediate shaft (Steel 45).
Air cleaner
Air cleaner:
1 — the clamp (0,7 mm steel sheet rolling), 2 — bushing (70-mm section of the tube 45×2,5 steel seamless hot-rolled), 3 — cover (from a tin), 4 — case (from a tin), 5 — mesh wire (2 .PCs.), 6 — filler (impregnated with lubricating oil nylon thread), 7 — bolt M5 pan head, 8 —Grover washer, 9 — nut M5.

The silencer
1 sleeve (40-mm section of the tube 30×2,5 seamless hot-rolled steel; hole and slot for place settings), 2 — washer weld (2 mm STZ), 3 — body (335-mm section of pipe 76×2,5 steel seamless cold-drawn), a 4 — divider (2 mm STZ, 9 PCs), 5 — 312-mm rod (hot rolled round steel), 6 — MB nut (18 PCs.); a — s option flush partitions with R=38 mm (R=35,5 mm).

Making the impeller
Manufacturer of impeller.
Electrical schematic rectifier for power supply system fan forced cooling
Electrical schematic rectifier for power supply system fan forced cooling.
Design coupling
The design of the hitch.
Rubber — arable
With rubber — arable.
The base of the trailer with swivel node (bottom view)
The base of the trailer with swivel node (bottom view):
1 — frame welded (steel area 40x40mm), 2 — seat (10-mm strip size 150×40 mm, STD, 2 PC.), 3 — bracket (10-mm plate 100×40 mm, ST5,2 PCs.), 4 — driveshaft (Steel 45, 2 pieces), 5 — wheel of 5.00=10 in the collection (from discarded farm machinery, 2 PCs.), 6 — pole (1200-mm pipe, cold rolled seamless steel 45×4), 7 — head gimbal (from discarded agricultural machinery), 8 — pin-hitch (farm), 9 — Polycom fatty (cuts steel angle, 5 pieces), 10 — rotary axis of the drawbar (steel hot-rolled round and 36 mm or cut steel pipe 36×6), 11 — nut M36 (2 PCs), 12 — washer, 13 —crossmember weld (cut a steel angle 40×40 mm) 14 — axis-spacer (steel hot rolled round 40 0 mm), 15 — Klondike (10 mm of STZ, 2), 16 — M20 nut (4 PCs), 17 — grower washer (4 PCs), 18 – bolt M20 (4 piece).

The potato digger
Potato digger:
1 — fry (from serial tractor cultivator), 2 —field strap (steel area 50×50 mm), 3 — tip (trimmed paw cultivator), 4 — tooth-vytryahivanie (from the garden fork with the ground off at a 45° angle after the welding to the tip at the lower end, 2 pieces).
With this truck — what a tractor!
With such a truck than a tractor!

Wheels — the most that neither is common: 5,00—10″. The best fit from agricultural machinery. They are also, incidentally, dust-proof and self-aligning ball bearings. For work on heavy soils used metallic wheels with grousers. To make such by numerous publications (see for example, № 8’90, 10’91). But it’s easier to use, of course, from ringed harrows (see ill.). Throttle and clutch will fit “motociclista”. From the “Voskhod-3” and the kickstarter, exhaust pipe. Cables gas and the clutch is extended.
The frame of the cultivator welded. Made from scraps of steel area 36×36 mm. In its front part (strictly along the axis of the cultivator) has a welded stand for the engine. And in the rear two bolt M1 6 mounted the hitch mechanism. Rotary. Near it there are holes (two on the right and on the left, on Il. conventionally not shown) for installation of the racks under the intermediate shaft. Moreover, the design of the latter is quite simple. We note only that it is 300 mm cut area 40×64 mm, with two holes at the wide (intermediate shaft bearing) welded to steel plate-the base (8 mm STZ size 40×90 mm).
Dimensions (without steering wheel and trailer), mm ……………………………..1100x800x1000
Track mm…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 500… 700
The base of the walk-behind cart, mm…………………………………………………………………… 2130
Minimum turning radius with the bogie, mm……………………………………………. 2150
The maximum speed when transporting, km/h……………………………….. 20
The operating speed in plowing, the shock of potatoes, km/h ……………………………………… 3,5
Engine power (without regard to its repair), HP…………………………………………. 14
The installation space for the bearings VAPA wheels are from the bottom to the middle part of the frame rails. They look nothing like a 200-mm steel angles 36×36 mm, with appropriate holes for the bolt connection.
Swivel the hitch mechanism, as can be seen from the illustrations, consists of two side members of rectangular cross section 40×8 mm, axis-M16 bolts and beams for fastening of the workers guns, fixed elements which*are clamped in serial sockets (inner size 46×17 mm, conventionally not shown) of tractor cultivators. Moreover, each of the side members has several equidistant from each other holes 0 16 mm (conventionally not shown), designed for U-shaped clamps-clamps with thread M16 on the ends. The second end of the latter attached to the uprights of the intermediate shaft manufacture
tion which, by the way, and set him on the sprockets and bearings is not much difficulty.
The shaft of the wheel set it on nodes and details.
Here is a special mounting hubs and couplings-couplings. Transmitting the torque, is the articulation introduces a small gap — “substitute” the differential, if any, opens the kinematics, making the wheel spin free.
As shown, this ingenious mount is sufficient to perform on one wheel, and the second is to fix rigidly to the shaft by any of the well-established methods. For example, using a through bolt with a nut. Keeps well and keyway, reinforced retaining (set) screw.
In any cases, one of the hubs remains a rather complex structure, with two covers, the sleeve hitch. But the task is greatly simplified if we can get it ready the hub of agricultural machinery. Then remains only slightly counterbore the center hole in the lids up to a diameter of 40 mm and weld one side (facing the frame tillers) sleeve-coupling, made of 52 mm cut steel pipe with a wall thickness of 6 mm, having at the opposite of the axis of the machine end of the rectangular cutout. It will include the lug-hook.
Cut from the same pipe manufactured coupler-coupling; the shaft of the wheels it is fitted with bolted connection. So if necessary the progress wheel just in few minutes make free. It is enough to Unscrew the nut, pull the bolt and turn the clutch-coupling mechanism by 180°, set it in place with subsequent rigid fixing on the shaft.
Air filter homemade. Running a segment of steel pipe, wire. mesh and tin cans (see ill.). But as a filler it would work fine oiled nylon thread: Installed the air cleaner with a steel clamp, securely tighten the M5 bolt with a nut.
The muffler is homemade, too. The basis of it is made of a piece of steel pipe, which is created to exhaust a kind of “maze” made of steel 2 mm partitions. And you can strengthen them in different ways.
The most successful can consider two ways of fixing partitions. First — using the “stringing” of the steel rod stud with nuts. But this requires that the walls had a Central hole for the mount. The second way in the grooves done in the case of a pipe — casing of the muffler, where are inserted, followed by welding on the outer surface of the septum, the radius of which is increased according to the thickness of the shell wall. Except, however, the last disk partition.
To connect the muffler with the exhaust pipe is welded to the front sleeve. In fact, this is a common section of pipe with a slot and hole sizes and the exact location of which at the place of installation.
Other elements of the design of the tillers, their manufacture and mounting, it seems easy for everyone not cause. Unless, of course, to focus on the presented illustration.
For fan is the best suited small-sized motor type МЭ14-A12/15 (ГОСТ3940-84). But you can use any other, calculated to supply DC voltage of 12V. In our case, as already mentioned, working from a makeshift rectifier (see diagram), is connected directly to the generator, walking tractor. Diodes with a capacitor mounted in a plastic case and housed together with the fan itself on a special bracket.
As shown by many years of operation of the cultivator used in the design of the cooling system is significantly more effective than that which is available on motorcycles. And winning is evident in all seasons. However, in the winter to maintain optimal temperature mode of the engine it is desirable to put the fan not four-and two-blade impeller, the production of which differs little from that given in the illustrations.
The fuel tank, you can use any. Including homemade. Fuel is supplied by gravity from him. The same tank is attached to the rack intermediate shaft— steel corners for curved steel strip 40×4 mm cross-section (STZ). Bending creates additional rigidity and fits well in the layout of the whole structure in General. This same plate serves as the basis for installation in it of the instrument panel and signalov turn (when driving with a trailer truck, conventionally not shown).
The wheel control is virtually no different from those that have been published in the descriptions of improvised designs under the “Small mechanization”. These are the same two pipes of suitable cross section, curved appropriately attached thereto handles “gas” (right) and clutch (left). To impart greater rigidity to both pipes tie together the top and bottom rails. Moreover, the material for making the last… all the same pipe. Attaches the steering wheel in the lower part of the nuts and bolts directly to the frame of the cultivator.
Brake lever it is desirable to set the steering wheel to the left, just below the bottom rail. And next — the lever (pedal) switching speeds. So that when linking with the tow truck they were easy to use..
And few more features. The steering wheel in the middle of its part is attached to the upper part of a strut of the intermediate shaft by means of a round rod couplers threaded on the ends (for better durability). And the CAT switch and ignition coil are located under the fuel tank, behind the instrument panel. There is also the tensioning device of the chains.
The design of the coupling shown in the illustrations. But how to do conversation need special.
Hitch (hitch) will not fail. Because it is performed on the basis of already finished parts having a large margin of safety (head shaft drive pin-hitch), and no less reliable homemade rotary unit of the trailer (truck). The latter, in turn, consists of two coaxial thick-walled steel pipe, the diameter of which is chosen so that the contiguous surfaces work similarly angular contact ball bearing. In addition, the inner tube is simultaneously the swivel axis. And outer — drawbar, which not only serves to transmit traction forces on the cart, but also allows freedom of tilt of the latter about the axis of tillers (left or right).
The front end of the inner tube is welded to the gimbal head. On the back there thread M36 to backlash in the longitudinal direction and the corresponding attachment to weld the crossmember of trailer frame. And one more feature. To avoid rotation in the vertical plane and prevent zavalivanija hitch when turning horizontally located two finger cross braces are welded to the horizontal fork of a propeller head.
Trailing truck frame (see ill.) thanks to the inclusion of the triangle (which, as you know, the toughest figure) elements and its use as a structural material steel area is very reliable. The rectangular part is sutured lining, forming the bottom of the body. But it is possible here to use a 6-mm steel sheet. To the frame is welded on four upward Z00-mm rack steel area that serve as the basis for fixing the boards. And they, in turn, can be executed from boards and sheet steel of appropriate thickness. The rear Board is rotatable, flip-down. With clip and clamps, similar to those used on trucks.
The seat is also hinged. Fixed front swivel two triangular brackets made of 10 mm steel rod.
In the head part frame (bottom) it is desirable to provide a swivel the Parking support. As is done, for example, in the design, drawings and description of which was published in the 3rd’90.
To match the frame and rigid construction of “suspension” wheels. Shock absorbers, as can be seen from the illustrations here. To work in a field they are, on a deep belief of the author, is not needed. But it significantly increased the reliability of the whole trailer. For this reason, as a material for the manufacture of axle-spacers used round steel rod with a diameter of 40 mm. To slightly increase ground clearance trailer truck, axle shafts, wheels mounted on the brackets. They are welded to the thrust bearings and reinforced gussets out of 10 mm steel sheet.
As for the trailer wheels, then it is better to take from a decommissioned farm machinery. From our experience, we dare to say: will serve you perfectly. The more that mounted these wheels on their hubs self-aligning ball bearing.
Hiller-digger, too, can borrow from agricultural machinery. Although quite suitable and improvised construction similar to published in No. 2’86. But the bar field, it is desirable to not perform from 6 mm Sgz and use angle steel 50×50 mm. And welded to the angle 5° to the horizon, and the order of 3E— then the potato digger is on the field smoother.
For better separation of tubers from the ground should also slightly increase the length of the tooth-vytryahivanie for 10 mm on both coordinates. Then the Hiller-digger will be as shown in the illustration.
The rake (and without them — what a harvest) can easily be fabricated according to drawings and design description, published in the fourth issue of the journal for 1990. As, however, and to equip his metopomancy dozer blade (ibid.). But a plough and a harrow to do, focusing on the relevant material printed in No. 10’91.
Vladimir SOLOVYEV, the Republic of Mari El

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