THIS CAR

THE CAR.Residents of the city of Togliatti not easy to surprise a new car. In their streets they first meet a prospective model of the Volga car, the new foreign firms. But wherever there was a miniature yellow car with a funny name “the Gingerbread man”, he attracts the attention of passers-by and motorists. And after transfer can be where the design was presented to the multimillion audience, interest in it increased even more.

Answering numerous requests of TV viewers and readers of our journal, we published a description and drawings of this interesting machine, prepared by the author designer Vase Victor T. Gorbunov, and our correspondent S. Nazarovym.
 
Firmly established in the everyday life of modern man a car. The models offered by industry are reliability, ease of operation and maintenance, and versatility. However, Amateur car, even using the maximum number of standard units, rarely copy them, and create are usually original designs, most appropriate for the purpose of the machine. Lovers of nature are attracted to the schema-wheel-drive vehicles with increased ground clearance; camping – on the contrary, a low, squat car with a streamlined body; those who prefer a holiday “on wheels” with the whole family, more satisfied with the layout of the minibus.
And what kind of car you need city dweller for everyday commuting, shopping, household needs, for short suburban routes? The answers of experts to the present time “coming to terms”. This car must have a minimum length of about 3 meters, spacious, suitable for frequent boarding and alighting body with a succinct, convertible due to folding rear seats Luggage compartment. It needs to have excellent maneuverability and its engine in first efficiency and low emissions. And really, who of the motorists did not notice the movement in the overall transport flow equalizes the advantages and rapid “Lada”, and powerful “Volga” and nimble “the Cossacks”: they all move at the same speed. Spacious and on highways the maximum speed is limited by the amount available to any modern car. But the driver of the small, short car feels the city is much more confident: it is easier to maneuver on expensive, to find a place in the Parking lot or at the curb and quickly to Park the car. Despite its modest external dimensions, the body of the mini-car is no less convenient. In fact, statistics show that on average, each car transports one or two people and little cargo. Therefore, even a compact car with a 4-5-seater saloon and a capacious trunk most of the time transports… air. While the mini car-the rear seat can be used as needed and as a passenger and as a cargo compartment. Such a layout solution allows to significantly reduce the length of the body. Engine power 30-40 HP for easy machine enough. And, moving around the city, you will not feel the difference in dynamics and speed in comparison with serial passenger cars. While fuel expenses are much lower: the best models of cars of small at 100 km, consuming about 5 liters of gasoline. Yes, and the toxicity of the exhaust gases is less. Because the smaller the engine capacity, the more it works on regimes close to the nominal, where the lowest specific fuel consumption and minimal content of harmful components in the exhaust gases.
 
Fig. 1. Device city car Kolobok
 
Fig. 1. Device city car Kolobok:
 
1 – safety pad (elastic bumper), 2 – generator, 3 – fuel pump 4 – carburetor, 5 – the opening of the air intake system of ventilation and heating of the body, 6 – output vent. 7 – absorber, 8 – spring rear suspension, 9 – floor, 10 – main gear, 11 – tank, 12 – connecting the transmission shaft, 13 – elastic finger sleeve, 14 – drive cable 15, and a Pitman arm 16 – exhaust pipe, 17 – absorber, 18 – spring front suspension, 19 – rod, 20 – starter, 21 extension, 22 – transmission 23 – cross bars engine installation, 24 – transmission, 25 – the lever of a manual brake, 26 – lever rear suspension, 27 – handbrake cable. 28 silencer 29 – wheel drive, 30 – fuel filler neck of the fuel tank, 31 – upper arm front suspension, 32 – lower control arm-front planning. 33 – cooling fan of the engine. 34 – blower bracket, 35, a drive pulley.
 
Fig. 2. Diagram of body
Fig. 2. Scheme of the body:
 
1 – the spars of the subframe, 2 – tubular frame with removable front bodywork, 3 – brackets fixings front suspension, 4 – rear cross beam, 5 – upper part of the body, 6 – wheel housing to a structure for mounting spring rear suspension, 7 – a bracket of fastening of the lever of the rear suspension.
 
Fig. 3. The tubular frame of the bottom of the body
 
Fig. 3. The tubular frame of the bottom of the body:
 
1 – front cross tube, 2 – side members of the subframe (under the mounting brackets of the engine), 3 – a Central longitudinal, 4 – cross-section pipe, 5 – mounting of the heat exchanger of the heating system of the body, 6 – side spar, 7 – rear cross beam, 8 – tube amplification of the Bottom compartment, 9 – bracket housing mounting main gear.
 
Fig. 4. The accessory drive
Fig. 4. A drive of auxiliary units:
 
1 – the alternator bracket. 2 – generator 3 – engine. 4 – high-voltage wire of ignition system, 5 – idler roller, 6 – bracket fan 7 – cooling fan engine, 8 – drive pulley, 9 – V-belts. 10 – bolt-ratchet. 11 – the hub of the drive pulley, 12 – drive pulley. 13 – oil seal 14 – housing of the drive unit. 15 – engine cover, 16 – spherical ball bearing. 17 – roller, 18 – sliceval sleeve. 19 – rear shank of the crankshaft 20 to the crankshaft gear.
 
Based on these requirements and was designed and made Kolobok. Its length 3.1 m and width 1.5 m, but in the cabin can accommodate four adults. When riding alone the rear part of the body is transformed into a roomy Luggage compartment with a flat bottom. Access is via a large rear door. The bottom plane of its connector is located at a height of 0.5 m from the ground, so loading even heavy objects into the car is straightforward. Small body size, large angles of rotation controlled wheels at base of slightly more than 2 m ensure the machine excellent maneuverability. Salon even quadruple option is convenient for the driver and passengers. The comfort obtained by increasing the height of the body: landing on higher seats familiar and comfortable, especially with frequent stops and exits the car. Of course, such a car is less streamlined for the counter flow of air, but for urban speeds increase aerodynamic drag, not so much.
 
THE CAR.
 
Learn more about the device.
 
Body – bearing, three-door, with tubular strengthening the floor and engine compartment. Used in its manufacture body parts VAZ-2102: side and back door, roof, pillars and sills. To fit them into the selected dimensions, doors increased in length and a height of 100 mm, and the roof is significantly shortened and narrowed to 100 mm.
 
The lower and upper parts of the body were made separately. The first was the welded tubular frame with mounting brackets the installation of the wishbone suspension, engine, and elements of depreciation. He then trimmed with steel plates forming the floor of the cabin and four wheel. The last form is hemispherical, with no pockets and niches where they could be trapped moisture. These niches available for the control of n thorough anti-rust treatment compositions. The upper part of the body – together pillar, roof and side rear compartment mounted on the bottom; after welding, they form a rigid body. Tubular reinforcement in the bottom of the cabin to facilitate the thresholds; each one of its walls facing the interior, was cut. In addition to reducing the width of the threshold, it contributes to the simplification of anti-corrosion care of the body: now the internal cavity of the threshold using large holes perforated the wall has excellent access for the application “anticorrosive”.
 
Body front, reinforced tubular frame, has a removable design: it is fastened by bolts. This will make it easy to replace in case of an accident, and with the greatest convenience to maintain or repair the engine.
 
The hood is of the alligator type. It can recline back almost to the windscreen fully opening hood space.
Instead of bumpers, which limits the maximum dimensions of the machine, but the perimeter of the body elastic fitted safety cover. It performs also the function of decorative molding, giving a relatively high body great swiftness.
 
For the glazing of the cabin side glass standard used cars: lifting mechanisms – in the door and mounted movably in the rear of the body. Windscreen – car ZAZ-968, rear – from the VAZ-2102. “Vents” on the front and rear racks – homemade, mounted in a fixed position, but the ventilation of the interior through outlet openings in the rear pillar is quite effective.
 
Power unit “Bun” is two-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled engine from a motorcycle “Ural”. Its power is 36 HP at 5600 rpm, enough for the movement of the machine mass of 700 kg with a speed of 100 km/h the Average consumption of gasoline A-76 at 100 km – 6 l Thanks to its boxer engine scheme is “fit” in a tiny hood space and air cooling, does not require installation of a radiator in the front of the machine, gave the opportunity to give the body a V-shape. Advantages of the selected engine made the car such a short.
 
THE CAR.
 
How economically used hood space in the fore part of the body, is so spacious and roomy is the salon of the car.
 
In the power supply system instead of two carburetors mounted on each cylinder, applied single – type To a-127. It is attached to welded steel pipes total intake manifold above the engine where it is convenient to make the adjustment. To improve operation in cold season, the bottom manifold exhaust heat is heated: to its bottom wall directly adjacent arc-shaped tube connecting the exhaust of both cylinders. During engine operation a portion of hot gases passes through it and warms its warmth to the wall of the intake manifold.
 
Air filter – oil-inertial type. Due to its small diameter under the hood to the left of it left enough room for the spare wheel.
 
The fuel in the carb takes the fuel pump a diaphragm type, driven by an eccentric washer from the shaft of the oil pump.
 
For even cooling of cylinders and avoid overheating when working in hot weather the engine is equipped with forced-air cooling system: in front of each cylinder is mounted a metal three-bladed fan, driven in rotation V-belt drive. For the device of such a drive had to dobranotch front of the engine. In the cover of distributive pinion gears coaxially to the crankshaft was machined hole under the body node of the drive pulley. It is mounted on the cover bolts or special welding. The roller pulley is mounted in the housing for self-aligning ball bearing and is driven in rotation by a splined sleeve attached to the end face of the crankshaft gear. Double pulley, assembled from the two pulleys water pump VAZ, is mounted on the shank cushion with key and fixed ratchet bolt. V-belt transmission from the drive pulley to the fan is the two straps. Right fan leads and the generator, left – only fan. The tension is regulated by the position of the first generator and the second additional roller.
 
The engine lubrication system in General remained unchanged. However, the oil filter from a layout considerations had to be horizontal: this will require some steel bushings and rubber o-rings. And for improved cooling oil to the underside of the sump welded on some steel parts.
 
To start engine electric starter flywheel modified. In an extension ring, concentrically welded to the end face of the flywheel pressed standard ring gear from the flywheel ZAZ. Starter reverse rotation is mounted on a turned steel clutch housing.
 
Clutch double disc, dry. Its design is enhanced by the type of car. Drive clutch release lever cable.
 
Transmission standard, Zhigulevskoye, but it is not attached to the clutch housing like most cars, and a strip with an intermediate shaft, so by car it is located between the front seats. This arrangement, despite the small complication of the transmission, provides better weight distribution of the car, and most importantly, allows greater freedom for the location of the control pedals.
 
The extender consists of a segment of thin-walled steel pipe (as a preset you can use the driveshaft from the car “Moskvich-408”). On one side it is welded to a round flange for connection to the clutch housing of the engine. On the other hand, the pipe is cut a longitudinal groove, and on top of wearing a wide collar – to connect with the glass flange of the gearbox. This flange is made of a standard end wall of the clutch housing of the engine of VAZ. In the Central hole is fixed by welding thick-walled steel Cup with a bearing and the intermediate shaft seal. Additional rigidity to the connection attach the four steel brace. The intermediate shaft is supported on the front shank bearing press-fitted in the inner flange of the flywheel and the rear through a connecting spline sleeve and the bearing Cup mounting flange. This shaft transmits the rotation from the driven clutch to the primary shaft of the gearbox. When assembling the body parts of the intermediate shaft to join the motor and transmission into a single power unit, which is mounted to the vehicle body at three points: by two brackets on the frame and on the cross bar under the rear part of the box.
 
Fig. 5. The connection between the engine and transmission
 
Fig. 5. The connection of the engine with the transmission:
 
1 – crankshaft 2 – the motor housing. 3 – flywheel, 4 – extension ring with a ring gear, 5 – starter 6 – clutch pressure plate. 7 – clutch 8 – flange extender, 9 – tube extension cable, 10 – shaft 11 – washer-catcher, 12 – spline coupler, 13 – tension band 14 is the input shaft of the gearbox. 15 – brace Cup. 16 – the glass flange of the gearbox. 17 – flange for the transmission. 18 – the front wall of the gear box.
 
Fig. 6. Elastic finger coupling shaft coupling
 
Fig. 6. Elastic finger coupling shaft coupling:
 
1 – a secondary shaft of the gearbox. 2 – finger drive. 3 – finger. 4 – steel yoke, 5 – snap wire ring. 6 – rubber disk, 7 – centering thrust bearing. 8 – spherical shaft pivots. 9 – the coupling shaft.
 
Fig. 7. The drive wheels
 
Fig. 7. The drive wheels:
 
1 – axle shaft-wheel, 2 – brake drum. 3 – front suspension. 4 – wheel hub. 5 – universal joint. 6 – the propeller shaft. 7 – main gear.
 
Fig. 8. Device is the interior heater
Fig. 8. The device of the compartment heater:
 
1 – flange connection to the exhaust pipe of the left cylinder. 2 – mounting brackets to the body. 3 – flange for the exhaust pipe right cylinder. 4 – the supply pipe of the cold air, 5 – water outlet of the heated air. 6 – partition. 7 – outlet pipe, 8 is a heat exchanger covered with asbestos.
 
With the main gear box is connected another shaft. As the car uses independent suspension of the rear wheels, Carter, the main transmission is attached to the body almost motionless – with the help of rubber bushings. Therefore, the connecting shaft is u-joints you can use the elastic finger coupling.
 
Reducer main transmission has a gear ratio of 4.1. Its short axle are connected to wheel axles, two propeller shafts.
 
And hub bearing assemblies rear wheel you can use motorized wheelchairs beyond. To increase the reliability and durability instead of standard wheel axles mounted homemade, with large diameter journals for bearings No. 205 and No. 206.
 
THE CAR.
 
When choosing the size of the wheels (5.0 to 10) takes into account not only nedvizimosti and cheap tires. Their size largely determined the entire layout of the body: the smaller the wheel, the less the value of the wheel arches, and consequently, more space in the cabin. The use of light, the small wheels is beneficial to the comfort and driving dynamics: the easier, the less moment of inertia and unsprung weight of the suspension. Finally, a smaller outside diameter of the wheels determines the lesser the gear ratio of the transmission: the more compact the gear, the main transmission. Disadvantages of small wheels is somewhat more rapid wear and the worst throughput. However, the first kompensiruet cheap rubber and the other in the city is of secondary importance.
 
All wheel suspension – independent. Front – cross and back – trailing arms, modemfirmware coil springs and hydraulic shock absorbers VAZ.
 
Steering – the traditional scheme: the worm gear (“Cossacks”) with its bipod moves the tie rod connected to the spherical hinges of levers of a steering trapeze on the front wheel hubs.
The electrical system is 12-volt with generator and relay-regulator VAZ. Battery – 6-ST-45, but a good design of the engine compartment allows the installation of any battery of the car. Includes all the necessary signal and control equipment: lights, direction indicators, brake lights, horn instrument panel – VAZ-2103. Not forgotten, and additional interior lighting, a spacious glove box, rear window defroster and wiper, and a radio receiver and a tape recorder.
 
The necessary comfort when operating the machine in the cold season provides the original heater compartment.
 
Arranged heater. The exhaust pipe of the right and left cylinders via a heat-resistant corrugated pipe attached to the heat exchanger is welded from stainless steel sheet capacity. Where pipes converge into one, which then gets out and connects with the damping system. To the upper part of the housing of the heat exchanger is welded to two short pipe for supply and discharge air hoses, and the inside of the tank welded longitudinal steel baffle, guiding the flow of air between them on the maximum path along the heated exhaust gases pipes. To reduce heat exchange with a counter current of air blown at the movement Assembly, the housing of the heat exchanger is insulated with asbestos. Circulation of air through the heater provides a two-speed fan mounted under the hood near the air intake flap. The temperature generated in the passenger compartment air can be adjusted by the flap in the flap, changing the ratio of cold and hot air. In the cabin, the outlets of the system are made across the windshield, on the sides of the front panel with vents to supply air to the side Windows and lower part of the interior: at the feet of the driver and passenger in the front seat.
 
THE CAR.
 
All seats in the car are separate. Have front adjustment for length and backrest angle. The back can be folded forward. Moreover, in addition to passenger and cargo variants, a possible intermediate: folding one of the rear seats, get a triple cabin from the load compartment side of the rear passenger.

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