TRANSPORT FOR WINTER

TRANSPORT FOR WINTERDouble snowmobile “SQUALL-3”. With the advent of motoparaplane and trikes culture of designing power plants with propellers significantly increased, and today Amateur designers create rotor setup with decent traction engines using relatively small power. Accordingly, began to appear more frequently and wingless versions of these vehicles – hovercraft, snowmobile and aerolizer.

Today we acquaint readers with the design of double chetyrehlistnyj snowmobiles “Squall-3” with the engine power 22 HP

 
Snowmobile “Squall-3” – double chetyrehrazovoe vehicle with aerodynamic propulsion. Its basis is space frame of thin wall steel pipes with a diameter of 30 mm and 40 mm. it has a double single door (left door) closed body mixed design with a light frame of steel pipes of small diameter, with plywood stringers and frames and foam filler. Joints of the elements of the frame reinforced steel gussets thickness of 2.5 mm.
 
Rama was going on a simple staple consisting of a mounted on a level floor wooden trestles, on which were fixed the spars. The connection of elements is done using carbon-dioxide arc welding.
 
Snowmobile front suspension-wishbones with prinovozemelsky shock absorbers of the motorcycle “Ural”; rear – longitudinally swinging an arc with the same dampers.
The rack and pinion, steering shaft and “bagel” – from the VAZ-2109.
 
Brake – scraper type. Their actuators constitute the hinge attached to the rear ski l-shaped bracket rotatable with the cable actuator from the brake pedal.
 
The Assembly of the front suspension arms was carried out on the slipway -the same which were welded the frame of the snowmobile. To start with the axle fixed in them cups (bearing in which rotates the fork axle) was mounted on the special wheels, and then in the bearing housings of the suspension arms were fixed lugs, and this site has prihvatyvaya to the frame by welding. Further to the bearing housing lever and bearing node of axle were fitted a couple of cross members and welded in accordance with the drawing. Similarly mounted on the frame and rear suspension -longitudinal swinging arc.
 
Fig. 1. Double snowmobile
 
Fig. 1. Double snowmobile “Storm-3”
 
Fig. 2. Chassis snowmobiles (on the top view of the skis conventionally not shown)
 
Fig. 2. Chassis snowmobiles (on the top view of the skis conventionally not shown):
 
1 – longeron (steel tube diameter 40×2,5); 2,4 – prinovozemelsky shock absorbers (motorcycle Dnepr or Ural); 3 – bracing frame (steel pipe ø 30×2,5); 5 – brace badmotor-th frame (steel pipe diameter 22×2,5); 6 – rotor powerplant; 7 – radiator of engine cooling system (oil cooler from the car GAZ-53A); 8 — under engine frame; 9 – rear ski; 10 – arm rear suspension; 11 front ski; 12 – support of the front shock absorbers (steel tube diameter 40×2); 13 – the lever of a front suspension; 14 – front drive axle; 15 – front cross member (steel pipe ø 30×2,5); 16 rear cross member (steel pipe ø 30×2,5); 17 – a back axle shaft; 18 – rear coil shock (steel tube diameter 40×2,5); 19 – base sub-frame (steel tube diameter 40×2,5, 2 PCs.)

 
Fig. 3. Rear ski
 
Fig. 3. Rear ski:
 
1 – the basis of ski (Vileika of plywood plates s4); 2 – stiffener (pine, boards, s30); 3 – bushing (steel pipe diameter 24×3); 4 – self-tapping screw fastening podraza; 5 – brace (steel pipe ø 20×2,5, 4 pieces); 6 – undercut (steel strip s3); 7 – flange (steel strip s4); 8 – self tapping screws mounting of the braking device; 9 – the lateral wall of the brake scraper (steel, s4); 10 – the basis of a braking device (steel, sheet s4); 11 – the sole of the ski (laminate s1,5); 12 – biscuit brake cable; 13 – adjusting device; 14 sheath of the brake cable; 15 – scraper braking device (steel, sheet s4); 16-brake cable; 17 – axis scraper (steel rod with a diameter of 10); 18 – hinge scraper (steel, pipe diameter 16×3)

 
Fig. 4. The theoretical drawing of the hull of the snowmobile
 
Fig. 4. The theoretical drawing of the hull snowmobiles
 
Fig. 5. Sub frame made of steel pipes of rectangular section 30x24x2,5; mounting lugs of the engine and the radiator is welded in place
 
Fig. 5. Sub frame made of steel pipes of rectangular section 30x24x2,5; mounting lugs of the engine and the radiator is welded in place
 
“Squall-3” has a single-door double rear location driver and passenger according to the scheme of the tandem – one behind the other. The base of the body – frame of steel pipes with a diameter of 14 to 18 mm, on which are fixed formatada stringers and frames cut out of plywood with a thickness of 5 to 10 mm. Between the stringers and formers were glued on an epoxy binder blocks of construction foam.
 
The first stage of manufacture of the body – tracing the theoretical drawing in full size overlaid with the drawing of the roll cage. Further, for the frame was selected a suitable tube, cut in accordance with the drawing and temporarily gathered using wire twists. The Assembly is made on a level floor, on which was fixed the wooden trestles. Pipe frame fixed with wire twists.
 
The next stage of manufacture of the body – tack, and after checking the symmetry of the frame – the final welding of the frame, and the symmetric elements should be secured alternately to the process does not have any intractable leashes design.
 
The next phase – the manufacture and installation of formatada frames and stringers. These parts are cut from plywood in accordance with the theoretical drawing. To mount them to the frame tubes should also wire twisting.
Frame the only door is welded from a 14-mm steel pipe, it is attached formatada frames and stringers made of 8 mm plywood. Further work on the manufacture of the door was made jointly with a body for which the door frame is fixed in the door opening in the closed position.
 
The space between the frames and stringers were filled with tiles, carved from construction foam. Fixing of tiles in the frame – on epoxy glue. After curing the binding allowances of foam were cut a special long knife, honed to the sharpness of razor blades. Next, the surface of the cabin had pasted on plywood a strip of coarse sandpaper to the required symmetry and smoothness, and then was covered with three layers of fiberglass, putty, rig-Rena, primed and painted with enamel. Inside the cabin are covered with one layer of fiberglass, and over her artificial skin.
 
Fig. 6. Silencer
 
Fig. 6. Muffler
 
Glazing exterior – 4 mm plexiglass. The side Windows are fixed stably, and the ventilation of the cabin is made using the air inlet with hinged cover located under the windshield.
 
As mentioned earlier, the larger “Storm-3” – chetyrehlistnyj schemes such sleds have significantly less resistance when moving through the snow than trehmernye.
 
Each ski of the snowmobile is laminated in a special stocks of the five 4-mm plywood plates. A stiffener cut from a Board 30 mm thick, on the ski is fixed with epoxy glue and self-tapping screws. The sole of the ski is made of laminated plastic (the material is veneer kitchen furniture) with good durability and great glide in the snow. All skis are equipped with undercuts of stainless steel, and the back – and scraper brakes.
 
Hinge joint skiing is a steel sleeve welded to it with four struts of steel pipes; to the free end of each brace is welded to the flange, through which hinge joint with screws and nuts attached to the ski.
The power plant made the type of those that are widely used in light aircraft. Its basis is suspended 22-HP engine “Whirlwind-30” equipped with chetyrehluchevoy V-belt gear with a ratio of 1.6. The use of a reducer to substantially increase the thrust of the screw rpm at maximum engine power.
 
Driving and driven pulleys are machined from aluminum alloy; the engine flywheel drive pulley secured with ten bolts and M5 self-locking nuts. Cantilever axis of the driven pulley are fixed by bolts on the spacer, steel 5 mm plate. Himself driven pulley rotates in three ball bearings.
 
Plate-spacer, in turn, is mounted on the crankcase of the engine; the tension of V-belts is manufactured using welded to the spacer sleeve and bolt with nut.
 
Engine cooling – liquid, as applied to the radiator oil cooler from the car GAZ-53A, mounted on the frame of the snowmobile tubular struts. Pump – improvised, with the impeller from the water pump “Kama”. Silencer – homemade, assembled from blocks of used car oil filters with the filling in their “drain” chips or thin wire with thread waste.
 
Fig. 7. V-belt reducer power plant
 
Fig. 7. V-belt gear power plant:
 
1 – bolt M10; 2 – washer; 3 – propeller (Vileika of pine boards); 4, 17 – bolts M8; 5 – lock washer; 6 – thrust bearing 8204; 7 – ball-bearing 204; 8 – cantilever axis; 9, 10 – sleeve; 11 – ball bearing 205; 12 – a remote washer; 13 – a lock ring; 14 – nut M8; 15 – a bolt mechanism for the belt tensioning; 16 – driven pulley; 18 – bolts-adapters; 19 – bracket reducer (2 PCs); 20 – V-belts (4 PCs); 21 – drive pulley; 22 – rivet (steel, diameter 5 mm); 23 – spacer; 24 – engine “Whirlwind-30”

 
Fig. 8. Pusher propeller
 
Fig. 8. Pusher propeller
 
The engine is mounted on the skin-vector frame, and that, in turn, on the frame of the snowmobile. The stiffness of the engine mounting provided by a pair of tubular struts.
 
Propeller planes made of well seasoned pine wood. Billet screw is laminated on the epoxy adhesive of the four boards in the thickness of 11 mm; in the process of curing, it is desirable to withstand under pressure or, in extreme cases, to pull the workpiece through a dozen traverse from scraps of steel channel and bolts M12 nuts.
 
After curing the resin in the blank, drill a center hole, then it is labelled in accordance with the drawing of a propeller.
 
For further processing of the screw must be made of sheet aluminum 2 mm thick templates of the control cross-sections screw – separately for the upper and lower bow sections. Next on the templates by round bastard a file on the workpiece propisyvayutsya grooves, which then use the plow and plane are combined in the specified control surface sections. When fine-tuning screw, the main thing – to achieve symmetry: both mass and aerodynamic. After finishing the screw is balanced, glued by a layer of fiberglass, sanded and finally painted.
 
The fence of the propeller is a ring, is laminated from three layers of 3-mm plywood. Bakpaka is made on particle Board, which is circumferential with a diameter of 1400 mm in increments of about 10° fixed “triangles”, assembled from wooden bars 40×40 mm. Plywood strips with a width of 200 mm, cut across the layers are lubricated with epoxy glue and are fastened by clamps to the “triangles”. After curing the binder ring is cleaned, puttied, painted in the body colour and mounted on a snowmobile. From the back of the ring is tightened rare wire-mesh cell is approximately 100×100 mm.
 
Igor KARAMYSHEV

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