“VICTORY” ON SKIS AND A PROPELLER

Limitless Russian expanses, but in winter their snowy immensity had become impassable for virtually all vehicles. That is why with the advent of powerful internal combustion engines, the designers started thinking about creating machines that are able to easily overcome this “snow-covered vastness”. The choice of propulsion device for a snowmobile vehicle, it was a small caterpillar, wheel Yes auger. In combination with the supporting pillars, mostly with skis – at the beginning of XX century was built a lot of all kinds of snowmobiles. However, such machines did not have either the terrain or speed.

With the advent of the first airplanes, but rather their propeller systems, there was a fundamentally different scheme of a snowmobile with the engine whose parameters are not dependent on the characteristics of the underlying surface with the air screw. In Russia, the novelty has received the name “snowmobile”.
 
One of the first Russian snowmobile was created in 1905 by a talented Russian engineer S. Nezhdanovskoe. But this was not the vehicle, but only a mobile device for testing of aircraft propeller systems. However, the speed of the movable stand has inspired many designers to create a real snowmobile.
First in series, Russian transport planes began to produce in 1912 Russo-Baltic wagon works in Riga, by order of war Department. Later, in 1915, Russia had collected a batch of 24 combat planes, some of which were armed with machine guns, a few cars were intended for communications and intelligence, and the rest to transport the wounded.
 
With the outbreak of the First world war, the snowmobile appeared in the German army – General Hindenburg used them in combat units for communication.
 
Snowmobile
Snowmobile “North-2”, created in OKB N. And. Kamov
 
Basic dimensions of the snowmobile
The principal dimensions of the snowmobile “North-2”
 
The layout of the snowmobile
The layout of the snowmobile “North-2” (made according with the original drawing, signed N. And. Kamov):
 
1 – romance; 2 – fuel tank; 3 – a fire extinguisher; 4 – the lever of the pitch control of the propeller; 5 – steering wheel; 6 – the body of the snowmobile on the basis of the body of the GAZ-M20 “Pobeda”; 7 – oil tank; 8 – the hood of the engine and the oil tank; 9 – exhaust manifold; 10 – engine AI-14 PC; 11 – the plug of the air propeller; 12 – cooler; 13 – rear frame; 14 – compressed air system; 15 – driver seat

 
In the 1920-ies on the initiative of prominent scientist-aerodynamics N. E. Zhukovsky created the Commission on organization of construction of a snowmobile – in short COMPASS. Its aim was the development of snowmobile technology for military purposes. In the creation of the snowmobile took an active part head scientific research institutes, TSAGI and US, as well as outstanding scientists of our country – A. Arkhangelsky, Tupolev, E. Chudakov, N. Briling and others.
 
One of the major state organizations that took an active part in the creation of the snowmobile, was the people’s Commissariat of communications. Already in 1930, in the Chuvash Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic between the cities of Cheboksary and Kanash were we arranged the first mail and passenger line length of 85 km. By order of the people’s Commissariat of communications produced the snowmobiles of OSG-6 with the national radial engine M-11.
 
At the beginning of the great Patriotic war, Soviet industry received the order to deploy the serial production of the snowmobile.
 
So, on August 2, 1941 issued a decree of GKO on the manufacture 4000 (via next month GKO this number was increased to 5000) snowmobiles for the red Army. In the autumn of prototypes of combat NKL-26 and NKL-16-41 issued by Narkomles, passed factory and state tests. However, due to the lack of snow to test them had wheeled.
 
The most common in the armed forces began combat NKL-26, was developed in 1941 by talented designers M. Veselovsky and N. Andreev. The machine was equipped with the aviation engine M-11 G 110 HP, its maximum speed was 70 km/h the crew of the NKL-26 consisted of two people – the commander (aka gunner) and driver. Snowmobile were armed with 7.62 mm machine gun DT.
 
At the beginning of the war, the armored forces of the red Army created a special Department, which was entrusted the work of organizing and ensuring we combat and transport units. Then started the formation of the first we battalions.
 
A lot of combat and transport operations were accomplished during the war, these unusual units. High speed and excellent cross on the virgin snow provided the snowmobile the sudden appearance in the area of the enemy, the transience of combat operations and operational waste after their completion.
 
With the end of the war, the need for the snowmobile is not decreased. Above all, such vehicles required the Ministry of communications – previously model snowmobile NKL-16 deliver mail in the North were out of action because of complete wear.
 
Snowmobile “North-2”
 
In accordance with the decree of the Council of Ministers and the Central Committee of the CPSU No. 300, March 16, 1957 “On measures to develop the economy and culture of the peoples of the North” and the order of the Ministry of aviation industry № 229 dated 13 April of the same year, the development of new, more modern mail snowmobile were tasked OKB famous designer of helicopters, N.And. Kamov. The main task of the designers was to create a vehicle capable in the winter to provide mail transportation in remote areas of the far North, Siberia and the Far East. In this case as the basis of the snowmobiles was proposed to use the body of the car GAZ-M20 “Victory” or army jeep GAZ-69.
 
For the new machine, called “North-2”, a body “Victory” – in contrast to the body “jeep”, it had a faired, enclosed cockpit, and therefore was more comfortable. “Victory” also borrowed the front suspension, hubs and steering parts, front double seat and some details like lights and moldings cladding. Strut rear suspension also came from the production unit, created in OKB kamovsky helicopter Ka-15. Designers had only to link together the finished product, adding their newly created hoods, skis, engine mount, and oil and dual fuel tanks. The latter was located under the front “wings” body, filler tanks, covered with spring-loaded valves, are placed at the top of the wing.
 
For snowmobiles picked up 260-horsepower, single-row radial 9-cylinder carbureted 10-liter engine AI-14 R with a built-in gearbox with a ratio of 0.79, created in the Bureau of Chief designer A. G. Ivchenko. The motor worked on aviation gasoline B-70 or B-91/115, ignition of the fuel mixture is carried out using a magneto.
 
Ski snowmobile
Ski snowmobile “North-2”:
 
1 – front plate; 2 – the mount of the sole of the ski; 3 – the shell plating of skis; 4 – ribs; 5 — shell of a ski pylon; 6 – pig; 7 – a bolt of fastening of the pylon; 8 – bracket the hog; 9 – bronze bushing; 10 – rear panel; 11 – the sole of the ski; 12 – framing area; 13 is undercut; 14 – the sole of the ski (polyethylene or Teflon)

 
March 13, 1959 was built a chassis layout, and after a couple of days testing began. As it turned out, the maximum speed of the snowmobile reached 70 km/h and when driving in cruise mode at a speed of 40 km/h the engine consumed about 20 kg of fuel per hour. Subsequently for snowmobiles has developed a special, more economical engine AI-14 RS (gear, sledge) the same power, but the forced instances of the engine in the “takeoff” mode can develop power up to 400 HP
 
At the end of the test was a list of defects, which took 14 typewritten pages. So, tests showed the ineffectiveness of the scraping of the brakes is more appropriate VISH was reversible, three-blade variable-pitch propeller, which not only provided reliable braking and, if necessary, allow the snowmobile to move backwards.
Initially running on the layout track of the front and rear skis were different, which reduced both the speed and the efficiency of the machine, which had to Torit four track. To increase the gauge of the front ski, the developers were forced to change the design of their suspension.
 
Another reserve improve the efficiency of the snowmobile had in the selection of material to cover the soles of the skis. At first this was done by sheet metal, however, such soles needed to warm up to prevent them from freezing in the Parking lots. The designers tried to use for soles and other materials, but only facing them with Teflon (PTFE) made a miraculous skis are not frozen to the snow if any sub-zero outside temperature, and the speed of the snowmobile due to the record low friction coefficient in a pair of snow-or ice Teflon-Teflon has increased by as much as 30 percent.
 
5 January 1960 snowmobile “North-2” has entered the state tests, after which they are recommended for serial production.
 
The design of the snowmobile “North-2”
 
“Sever-2” was chetyrekhyadernye snowmobile with steerable front skis. Body – steel, carrying, from car Pobeda GAZ M-20, is additionally insulated. The heating system is Autonomous, provided heated windshields and cabin and warm up the engine before it is started up.
 
The body consisted of four compartments. The first took place under the hood of the former car – it is missing the automobile engine was located batteries of aircraft type, for a voltage of 12 and 24, tools, as well as covers that the engine of the snowmobile was hiding during long stops.
 
The second compartment was in the front part of the passenger cabin is here with quite the comfort of the car was the driver and the mailman. The cabin is almost not different from “Poberovskii”, but instead “native” instrument panel was established specially designed for snowmobiles, with an abundance of aviation toggle switches and devices. Some machines were equipped with magnetic compasses and radio stations.
 
By the way, on the dashboard was missing so necessary to the driver the speedometer – any mechanical or air used in aircraft. Mechanical did not differ reliability and the refusal to air was because he started to work only at speeds above 50 km/h, while for snowmobiles, this figure was close to the maximum. Yes, and Northern winds could make the speeds a significant error.
 
The driver of the snowmobile
 
The driver of the snowmobile
 
The driver of the snowmobile
The driver of the snowmobile:
 
1 – cabin floor; 2 – throttle; 3 – air duct heating; 4 – flap electroridopuncture; 5 – a switchboard with toggle switches and indicator lights; 6 – front panel of the cab; 7 – windshield; 8 – wiper arm; 9 – wiper blade; 10 – instrument panel control power unit; 11 – compass; 12 – steering wheel; 13 – control handle spotlight; 14 – the ignition switch and the magneto switch; 15 – drawer for documents, a 16 – doorway; 17 – control knob (left to right): louver motor, louver cooler, damper air inlet of a radiator; 18 – a lock front hood and trunk; 19 – the lever of choke control; 20 – lever manual fuel pump; 21 – the lever of the pitch control of the propeller; 22 – the handle of the plunger of the starter pump; 23 – flywheel camshaft air valve system engine start; 24 – check start-pump; 25 – a control air system; 26 – the driver’s seat; 27 – the lever of a fire hydrant; 28 – valve air system; 29 – gauge air system; 30 – damper control, the heating of the cabin

 
Third, a cargo compartment located in the rear of the cabin, intended for mail (Newspapers, parcels and letters), or other cargo weighing up to 500 kg. there If necessary for folding the bench could accommodate up to three passengers.
 
Fourth compartment – the engine, it was located where “Victory” was the trunk. Over this compartment on the tubular underframe was installed engine AI-14R (a gear), an indoor removable metal hood. Under engine frame, in turn, fastened with nuts and bolts to lugs at the rear of the side members of the body. The space under the engine, took the oil cooler, compressed air cylinders, exhaust pipes, aggregates of the starting system of the engine, as well as Autonomous heating system with its own fuel tank. On the roof of the bodywork to the fairing before the engine mounted oil tank.
 
The engine was completed with a three-blade propeller variable pitch device with its input in reverse mode during braking of the snowmobile.
ensure the safety of passengers and crew area of rotation of the propeller had tubular fence, painted in bright red color; on the outer pipe ends of the fence mounted Parking lights red and green.
 
Lubrication system, oil MS-20 or MK-22, consisted of oil tank installed in the pylon fairing on the roof, and oil cooler in the lower rear of the body. For blowing past outside, on the sides of the rear body, it was a two intake.
 
Starting the engine is performed by the driver by means of compressed air coming from the cylinder. Filling the air the last was performed by a compressor located in the engine, or from an external source. If necessary, when severe frosts, warm up the engine before start with hot air from a stationary heater.
 
The front suspension was different from the “Poberovskii” sizes only cross-beam – it had to extend to the front track match the back.
 
Operation of the snowmobile “North-2”
 
Mass production of the snowmobile “North-2” was deployed in the far Eastern seaside town of Arsenyev plant “Progress”, which, along with the defense products produced for the society DOSAAF gliders and training aircraft Yak-18A. The first nine production vehicles was delivered to the Komsomolsk-on-Amur on 26 November 1960 commenced postal traffic. In the process of operation of the sled it identified many deficiencies. To eliminate them in the design of cars has made a number of enhancements: in particular, strengthened the body, changed the design of the ski. However, the front suspension is borrowed from the “Victory” turned out to be too weak for heavier vehicles.
 
During the period from 1960 to 1961, “Progress” has released 100 snowmobile “North-2”, and most of them (97 machines) placed at the disposal of transport enterprises of the Ministry of communications, where they were used to deliver mail to areas which previously could be reached only by air or dogsled.
 
More than just a lucky snowmobile that is sent in the Khabarovsk territory there were organized courses of drivers of these cars, and sheds for their storage and repair. But this approach to new technology was the exception rather than the rule. Other transport departments of the Ministry of communications is sometimes not stocked even aviation gasoline and oil, not to mention the construction of shelters for snowmobiles and boxes to repair them.
 
Snowmobile
 
Snowmobile “North-2” – exhibit of the Museum of the air forces in Monino (photo snowmobile equipped with erratic wheel chassis)
 
Snowmobile
 
Snowmobile “North-2” in the test run
 
Snowmobile
 
Snowmobile “North-2” on the withdrawable chassis is in the Museum of the air forces of Russia (Monino)
 
Annual mileage postage snowmobile “North-2” made about 13 thousand km at an average speed of 30 km/h. the Tracks were on virgin snow and hummocky ice, and go flight drivers had sometimes at temperatures up to 50 degrees below zero. Mail was delivered to the villages located on the banks of the Amur, the Ob, Lena and Pechora, carried out regular mail and passenger flights in the Far East, Kazakhstan and Siberia.
 
The time mercilessly not only to people but also to their creations. No exception snowmobile “North-2” – almost all of them within three to four years due to total wear was decommissioned, and they were replaced by more versatile, more durable and more capacious snowmobile Ka-30 car scheme set up in the same “helicopter” design Bureau headed by N. And. Kamov. As for the snowmobile “North-2”, from hundreds of serial machines, to the present day preserved only, not a complete copy of these snowmobiles, which is stored in Monino aviation Museum. Unfortunately, the question of its restoration is not due to lack of funding this project.
 
Technical characteristics of the snowmobile “North-2”
 
Length, mm……………………………………………………………………………….6010
Width, mm……………………………………………………………………………2925
Height, mm……………………………………………………………………………..3270
Base, mm………………………………………………………………………………….3415
Track, mm………………………………………………………………………………..2500
The diameter of the propeller, mm……………………………………………….2700
Maximum chassis weight, kg……………………………………………..2350
Engine designation……………………………………………………AI-14РС
Engine power, HP…………………………………………………………..260
Payload, kg………………………………………………………..500
Maximum speed, km/h……………………………………………………..70
The duration of the course, h……………………………………………………. 5
Range, km……………………………………………………………………360

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