Garden plots on hilly or bristih places put in front of growers a number of problems associated with the cultivation of the earth. And above all — prevent the leaching of the topsoil? Usually in such cases the area of land divided into terraces, located at different levels. On the border between them with a slight slope make the slope for a large build a retaining wall.
Before beginning construction of the wall must be marked on the site location. Most likely it will divide the territory in half — on the lower and upper terraces. The form of retaining walls is preferable to choose a curved or broken, as straight less durable.
Besides the smooth curves look prettier in the garden than direct, more typical of urban parks.
After marking are the heavy — earth — work: to move a piece of soil from the lower terrace on the top. Superficial fertile layer (approximately 0.25 m) must be maintained. So its better to remove and discard away from the construction site so that after the erection of retaining walls to return to the place. Further work depends on the design and material of retaining walls.
Schematic terracing of the garden plot:
1 — cut off the ground level lower terrace, the 2 — pour the ground level of the upper terrace, 3 — retaining wall.
The most affordable material for retaining walls — logs, the length and diameter of which depend on the difference in level of the terraces: for example, if the wall height up to 1 m, the diameter of the logs should be not less than 150 mm, and the length not less than 1.5 m (1 m above ground and 0.5 m in the ground). If you increase the height of the wall increases the diameter and respectively the length of the logs.
Before installing the logs, you need to dig a trench, repeating configuration pattern of the whole retaining wall in the plan. The depth of the trench should be at 50-100 mm greater than the length of pour in part of the logs. Width larger than the diameter of the logs 200 mm.
As the wooden retaining wall is in the ground, it must be protected from the effects of soil moisture. To do this, the logs should be covered with hot bitumen or burn.
After all the preparatory work starting to set the log in the trench. Her bottom should be covered with a layer of gravel thickness of 50-100 mm and thoroughly compacted. Have logs close to each other and vertically. To temporarily fix them in this position, you must each log in to connect the top with the adjacent nails (an oblique face), and the bottom covered with gravel. Finally, the trench is filled with concrete M 100 and further work is produced only after complete setting of the solution.
A retaining wall can be executed from monolithic ferro-concrete and rubble concrete. The use of these materials eliminates the need to dig a deep trench under the Foundation as a monolithic design only deepens slightly, about 150-250 mm. Due to the large strength of the concrete retaining wall has a small thickness: 100 mm — and 250 mm of concrete — rubble concrete.
Monolithic retaining wall build by casting in the mold. It is collected from the boards in place in a curved configuration or the pre — made boards- with broken. The formwork consists of two walls, between which concrete is poured. First set the wall located on the side of the lower terrace. Shields down along the wall of the excavated trench, securely connect with each other and with the outer side of them to kill powerful props; they have to withstand the weight of poured concrete.
To obtain a smooth front surface of the future retaining wall the inner side of the formwork necessary to sheathe with plywood, hardboard, or roofing felt. Having done this, set the second row of shields and joined with the first in the upper part of the temporary bars or boards are also securely fixed props. Further work depending on the material used.
To obtain the concrete wall between the shuttering boards set two rows of reinforcement steel grids. If not, you can use metal rods, cutting water pipes, which are interconnected by steel wire.
In the lower part at a height of 50 mm from ground level for water drainage from behind the wall to lay plastic drainage tubes, placing them through each meter. After completing all the preparatory work, the form is filled with concrete M 100 and kept it to full setting.
Retaining walls in the context of:
1 — topsoil, 2 — ground level lower terrace, 3 — gravel base, 4 concrete Foundation 5 — drainage 6 — soil of the upper terrace, 7 — fertile layer, 8 — retaining wall, 9 — drain tube.
A — a log retaining wall, B — Podgornaya concrete wall, is the retaining wall of natural stone.
Rubble concrete walls have the advantage — it does not require reinforcement. In addition, the consumption of concrete is reduced by filling it butovymi stones, the masonry of which is somewhat reminiscent of brick, but is maintained in the mold at Bay. The bottom row are placed from larger stones dry, filling the voids with gravel. Then pour the concrete in a thin layer, where the recessed next row of stones. In the lower part, as well as in the reinforced concrete retaining walls, laying a drainage pipe. Laying rows, filling them with a solution to fill the formwork.
Breaks are allowed after laying the last stone of any row. Before resuming laying the top row must be cleaned from dirt and moisten with water. Completed retaining wall is kept in the formwork prior to the concrete setting about three days, then remove the formwork without it withstand further without loads, for about a month.
Wall of natural stone
By its design it reminds of rubble concrete, but there is no formwork, which allows to give the wall a variety of forms. Its thickness depends on the height. For example, if the height of 1 m thickness will be 250 mm.
The base is not reinforced monolithic concrete Foundation. It evenly transfers the weight of the structure to the ground and provides a clean and smooth surface for laying. As a rule, the Foundation must be three times greater width than erected on it a wall. Concrete thickness to wall height of 1 m will be approximately 150 mm. Concrete is placed in the trench on a well compacted gravel base thickness of 50 mm. the Upper level of the basement should be not less than 150 mm below ground level.
Masonry wall like a brick: she is also series. For each row you should select stones of similar height; however, compensate for unavoidable irregularities in filling the smaller factions, or the selection of appropriate stones for the next row.
At the bottom also need to lay the drainage tube is indented from each other at 1 m. This can best be done after the removal of masonry from the ground.
After the construction of retaining walls (regardless of material and shape), from the upper terrace satisfied with the overall drainage between the wall and the soil poured a layer of gravel with a thickness of 70-100 mm. This is done simultaneously with the crust of the soil.
Despite the fact that the gravel creates more pressure, it serves both as a disintegrating layer, well overlooking the water to the drain holes.
The levelled terraces should have a slight slope to ensure drainage. The ground level of the upper part should be slightly below the wall, as you will need to fill removed prior to construction the topsoil.
Retaining wall of brick, besides its direct purpose — to strengthen the slope, has also a decorative function. Especially advantageous it looks in the garden plots, where the house is also of brick.
In design scheme this option is like lined with natural stone and has a similar Foundation from monolithic reinforced concrete. For masonry, use normal or cold-resistant clay brick of plastic pressing.
Wall thickness depends on the height and position of the brick: if the clutch is in one brick, the wall thickness will be 215 mm, in a half-brick — 102,5 mm, in half of 327.5 mm.
Retaining wall height of eight rows of masonry (600 mm) can be built without fear thick in a half-brick. Higher can be strengthened with pilasters, every few meters (see table 1). They should be placed evenly and mark sharp turns and cliffs walls.
Another option is the gain — broadening the lower part of the wall (5-6 rows) to one and a half or two bricks (table 2).
Retaining wall thickness of a half-brick usually laid with one spoon (long side of bricks), but you can simulate other types of masonry, splitting the brick in two.
To determine the required number of bricks, it is necessary to estimate the area of masonry: for walls in a half-brick required for 1 m
2 62,2 stuff, and one brick — on 1 m 2 of 124.5 pieces. If the stock of brick is already available, it is possible to use another calculation: 1000 pieces $ 16 m 2 wall in a half-brick or 8 m 2 for thickness of one brick.
The quality of the masonry is achieved only by practice and provided patient. A solution composed of one part cement, three parts fine sand, and such quantity of water so that the solution remain on the trowel when it is tilted, and then slid off the whole lump. Kneading should be done based on an hour and a half of work so he began to seize and lost plasticity.
1 — topsoil, 2 — primer 3 — the Foundation (gravel), 4 — reinforced monolithic concrete Foundation, 5 — drain pipe, 6 — drainage, 7 — retaining wall.
A — uniform retaining wall, B — retaining wall with extended bottom part.
During the laying it is recommended to embroider the seams better when the cement hardens a little. Their profile must be either convex, or flush with the wall plane, but in any case not to utaplivajutsja in the clutch.
The first row of masonry provide drainage holes for water drainage from behind the wall. The easiest way is not to put the mortar in the vertical joints every four bricks, but more perfect — fitting joints with plastic tubing.
Tube a slightly tilted to the side of the lower terrace.
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