SVETOOPTIKA! ANY!

SVETOOPTIKA! ANY!

Most machines of lighting effects (AES), including homemade design for the decoration of discos, Christmas and other holidays (see “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 4 and 5 in 1995), can at best give only a reprogrammable combinations of light. Even with all the variety of used circuit design, these devices usually can not at least in a time interval arbitrarily change the order of playable effects and patterns. I offered as my development devoid of these shortcomings.

 

The first of these structures (Fig.1) is performed on the basis of three typical circuits. But even she is able to work in the “chaos” with the arbitrary change of the order and the number (0 to 5) turn on lamps. All in all, this ASE provides 32 combinations of light and repetition period of one of them variable. When a certain speed of switching of lamps you can get the effect “running fire” in a forward or backward direction or other options ordered, “move the world”.
 
The second design is the ASE has eight channels. Performed using eight chips (Fig.1), it can demonstrate the cycle of “running fire” in forward and reverse direction. The first is 8-times the displacement “light plot” generated by one of the eight lamps (mode “chaos single”). The second term of the cycle also consists of 8 one-time “Pro-begonia fire.” But this creates the effect of random inclusion of several lamps of eight.
 
As in the first design of ASE, there is also absolutely unpredictable repetition of a particular combination. And the transition from one effect to another within the cycle automatically. And “running fire” always starts with a different light first flashes one room category which is older than the last, shining in the mode of “chaos single”.
 
Speed control switch of lamps of both machines manually. But it can be “linked” with the rhythm of percussion instruments in the musical accompaniment, adding ASE to the special attachment (Fig.2).
 
Since the generators Г1и G2, and the shaper short pulses (FCI), the designs are the same, so far and they are depicted in the expanded view of only the circuit diagram of the first ASE and the rest of the illustrations — conditionally, as functional blocks, with explanatory inscriptions. Simplistically, in the form of numbered boxes show all machines and the control circuit (SU) light devices. They can also be the same, made by the most appropriate of standard variants (Fig.3).
In my proposed design of the ASE used a simple random number generators. Each of the guns G1 works on the logical ele ments DD1.1 and DD1.2 chip К176ЛА7. Driving change light combinations, it can change its frequency in the range of 0.5—3 Hz, which provides the resistor R1. The generator G2 on the logical elements of DD2.1 — DD2.3 the second chip К176ЛА7 is higher than G1, the frequency of generation. Participating in the creation of combinations of light, he “recognizes” control “time”, and when used in the composition of the second, significantly complicated the machine, serves for transmitting the pulses coming from the G1.
 
Between G1 and G2 is enabled and the shaper of short pulses. Assembled on the logic elements DD1.3 and DD1.4 chip К176ЛА7, it forms a short pulse at the output of 11 DD2.4 each time the inputs DD1.3 and 5, DD1.4 receives the signal edge with output 11 DD1.2 of generator G1.
 
The short pulse generated by a broad pulse generator G1, is required to incorporate the G2 and generates a “bundle”. Duration it should be small to make the almost imperceptible flickering of the lamps during operation of the generator G2 in conjunction with the DD3 counter. But here you must exercise caution. Because excessive reduction of the duration of short pulse reduction of the capacity of the capacitor C2 is threatened by failures and stop the formation of light combinations “by accident”.
 
On the wiring diagram from G2 (Fig.1) shows a jumper between terminals 5 and 6 DD2.1. Its purpose is to switch to generation mode when the external enabling signal of high level (log. 1) input 8 DD2.2. With the removal of this jumper (and the terminal 5 DD2.1) G2 can also operate as a repeater of the pulses coming in 8 DD2.2, and as a generator of “packets” from the same impulses.
 
On the PCB generator ¥ 2 (Fig.1) the jumper is already installed. Therefore, the counter DD3 will do a “bundle” of equal duration with a short pulse. After determining the number of the contained pulses, the counter stops and will include some combination of lamps. Then the whole cycle will be repeated starting with the output pulse from G1 to include new combination lamps.
 
The duration of each of svetooptika that can be obtained when using the second of my proposed machines, is 8, and the entire cycle of 32 clock pulse generator I. of the characteristics of an electrical circuit of this ASE it’s also important to note that immediately after power-on is provided by the simultaneous installation in the zero position of the counters DD4 and DD7, which is a logical element DD6.4. And as the first svetooptika acts as a “running fire” straight direction.
 
Between counters DD4 and DD7 is the pulse shaper edge and decay of the incoming signal, running on DD5, DD6.1—DD6.3. VD3—VD5 serve to eliminate the mutual influence of the outputs and sum the log. 1 meter DD7.
 
Features of the ASE can be understood on the example of formation of the last two effects in the loop. In particular, when the seventeenth after admission pulse will replace the logical unit with a low signal level (logical zero) on the output 11 of the counter DD4.
 
Getting at terminal 5 DD2.1 log. On the generator G2 will work as a relay of pulses from G1. The result of a change of voltage levels at pin 11 of IC DD4 is sending a pulse from the pulse shaper edge and decay of the output with a 4 DD5.3 counter DD7. This will result in the movement log. 1 from terminal 2 to 4. DD9 multiplexer, receiving the log. 1 to pin 14, connect the leads (second to fifth) decoder DD8 with the corresponding control circuits, and DD3 will lead the countdown to the beat of the pulse generator And which are broadcast by the generator G2.
 
Codes will be decrypted DD3 and DD8 played lights as “running fire” reverse direction. Immediately after this effect (turning off the last lamp) from the generator G1 will go the twenty-fifth pulse, which will lead to the replacement logical unit zero to the output 11 of the counter DD4 why G2 will have permission to work as a generator “packs”. The pulse shaper edge and decay, reacting to it, will cause the counter to shift DD7 (the pulse on pin 14) of the log. 1 from terminal 4 to 7. A multiplexer DD9, waiting for a similar offset from the output 14 to 9, will switch off the outputs (second, third) decoder DD8, but connect the control circuit with the outputs of the counter DD3 (third through sixth).
 
From EA get “packs” DD3 counter and the output, the control scheme will play a chaotic 8-time inclusion of several lamps. Moreover, the outputs 0, 1, 6 and 7 at the decoder DD8 will remain connected to the control circuit for the entire light effect. The trip will follow only after eight times flashes randomly selected a few bulbs on the counter DD4 will go to the thirty-third (in time) pulse. Appearing at the output 10 DD7 “an extra-short” log 1 will translate it into the zero position (that is, terminal 3 is set to “1”), and then begin a new cycle.
 
Relatively simple (I) and complex (II) machines, lighting effects
Fig.1. Relatively simple (I) and complex (II) automatic machines of lighting effects:
 
a — schematic; b — sketch of the printed circuit Board; numbering of the used electronic components through
 
Fig.2. Schematic and PCB of the device to anchor the frequency of switching lamps to the rhythm of percussion instruments musical accompaniment

Fig.2. Schematic and PCB of the device to anchor the frequency of switching lamps to the rhythm of percussion instruments musical accompaniment
 
Control lights
Fig.3. The control circuit of the light devices:
 
a — low; b — high voltage, relay and 100-watt load; in—contact switching powerful loads; g with the optocoupler in the control value
 
Now some words about the mentioned console for “binding” (approval) frequency of switching lamps to tempo percussion music. As can be seen from the circuit diagram (Fig.2), the device is a filter (VT1, R3, R4, C2) with a cutoff frequency of 100 Hz connected to the analog-to-digital Converter (VT2, VD1, VD2, and DD1). As well as the output 11 DD1.3 is equivalent to the earlier conclusion 11 DD1.2 generator G1 (Fig.1), it becomes quite feasible connecting the tuner to the shaper short pulses using a standard toggle switch SB1.
 
The choice of a particular control scheme (Fig.3) depends on the objectives and capabilities of the manufacturer. Note, however, that VT2 should have a surplus of 1K, 20-30 percent above the maximum load current. Deciding to use variants with relay, it is useful also to know what is popular among radio Amateurs RES22 can manage (without thyristor switching power circuit) with a load not exceeding 100 W in a contact group. Besides, the relay circuit is the most “slow”; their use is justified if the planned switching frequency of no more than eight switches per second. It is possible and the control of the thyristor through a pulse transformer. However, it would require a separate generator and auxiliary circuit switching.
Source of power for any of the ASE and consoles can serve both homemade and ready-made power supply units with output voltages from 5 to 12 V. including stable — the calculator. It is only necessary to note that when the 6-volt supply, for example, the machine consumes current up to 20 mA, a prefix of up to 10 mA, plus more of the control circuit of the light devices not to mention switched the bulbs.
The least economical relay control circuit. For example, when using relay RES22 resistance 175 Ohm winding control circuit with 12 volt supply voltage will consume at least 70 mA per channel.
 
Rectifier diodes VD3—VD6 circuits of the thyristors should have a supply of current, 30 percent greater than the sum of Potr all lamps. If the required high-current valves at hand do not prove, that instead of one common diode bridge to apply multiple rectifiers, each of which will feed as many channels as he can provide.
 
Building machines is to verify that the generators G1 and G2. If ASE is powered from a source with a voltage other than 6, you have to adjust the values of resistor R2 (and getting to And produced pulses in the desired range)and capacitor C2 (the increased Range capacity decrease and increase low).
 
The design of the machines used resistors MINTS or their analogues. Variable resistor R1 is any of group A. select the type of capacitors, including electrolytic bolsaescola, practically is not limited. Diodes D9 completely interchangeable counterparts. Instead of transistors KT315, you can install КТ312, КТ3102, КТ209. Power semiconductor triode КТ815А (КТ815В) model on КТ817 with indices from A to G in the name.
 
The thyristors it is necessary to take more powerful and install on the radiators (preferably with forced cooling for lamps over 600 watts per channel). Rectifier diodes: 5-amp-wide — КД202Ж, КД202К, КД202М, Д231Б, Д245Б; 10-amp – Д231А, Д232А, Д233, Д245А, Д246А, Д247. Relay: 5-volt — RES9 (passport RS4.524.203), РЭС10 (RS4.524.304); 12-volt – RES9 (RS4. 524.202), РЭС10 (RS4.524.312, RS4.524.322), РЭС15 (RS4.591.004), RES22 for direct control of lamps (RF4.523.023-01 or coil resistance 175 Ohms, RF4.523.023-05).
 
With the replacement chip, the situation is somewhat more complicated. In particular, in place К176ИЕ2 in the first machine (the counter DD3) acceptable use К561ИЕ11 or К165ИЕ14. In this case, the ASE will be four channel. And К561ИЕ11 is included according to figure 1, except that the terminal 10 is served -Usup. When installing К561ИЕ14 the pins 9 and 10 connect to +Usup. Conclusions these chips the same purpose.
 
The second machine is acceptable to use as a counter DD4 chips К561ИЕ11, not К176ИЕ2. However, the ASE will have to adjust a little: o 10 newly installed circuits be grounded, and the second enable instead of 11. In addition, the output 15 of the counter DD4 will need to make a pulse generator G1.
 
You can also change К561ИЕ8 (counter DD7) К561ИЕ9 change but the soldering of the diode VD2, the new location, which is between terminals 11 and 15. And as a counter DD3 is permissible to use other than scheduled К561ИЕ11, chips. For example, К561ИЕ14 with a corresponding adjustment: the output 9 of the counter should now apply +Usup .
 
In conclusion, an important reminder. When replacing the chips for the imminent corresponding changes in the PCB layout.
D. ATAEV, Sterlitamak, Bashkortostan

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