A SMALL STEP FOR SMALL STEP…

A SMALL STEP FOR SMALL STEP...Nearly five years, the ousting of John Holland, a private company in 1904 came to a natural end. Amateur inventor had left the firm and his place was taken by young and energetic professional Speer. However, the impact of such a significant figure at the successor remained in force. The first series of submarines SPIRA, type “B” was the direct development of the “hedgerow” and the actual “Hollands”. And in the creation of the project participate directly to the Patriarch of the underwater shipbuilding. Fortunately, the task before the designers enough.

 

As one of the main directions of development of submarines could easily choose and move along the French path Maxim Labefa. We are talking about the transformation of the “true submarine” submarines (which were, in particular, all boats Holland) to “diving”. By the time engineers are already well aware that the available level of technology made it possible to achieve much-needed cruising range only due to transitions in the surface position. A large range firmly tied to seaworthiness: hardly anyone wanted a boat able to go a few hundred miles, but only in complete calm. Accordingly, it was necessary to make a decisive step towards new housing forms and new technical solutions.
 
But to overcome this “gap” in one jump is hardly possible. Speer chose a cautious movement. Boat type “b” (they are the same type “Viper”, which means “the Viper” is a good name for a submarine “snake”) essentially differed little from hollandsch “ashek”. The most significant was the emergence of the second torpedo tube: single tube “hedgerow” even in those days seemed to lack. Because the slightest malfunction of a single unit completely deprived the submarine of the ability to conduct combat operations. “Gadyukino tribe” mounted two torpedo tubes, side by side. While not without strange engineering quirks: both were closed by a single cover, rotating around a Central axis so that both holes could either be closed or open. The need for a hermetically sealed lid is clear: on the one hand, the constant presence of the torpedo in the sea water affects it very negatively, on the other, in “flooded” the device difficult, if not impossible, to prepare “fish” to the shot, and finally suffered speed because of the disadvantages of a flow hole of the bow with water. In General, without a lid on trouble. But it is not necessary to do it both on a single machine, since in this case, water was filled in both tubes. Had to release both deadly projectile, either simultaneously or with a relatively small gap to drain from the unused pipe was impossible. Strange technical solution, quite beautiful from the point of view of pure mechanics, but very inconvenient in battle. But to get rid of it failed somehow at once: the total cover on the next series, “C”.
Other innovations on the “b” may be noted a direct drive from the motor to the screw. The result was at least partially to get rid of a loud noise couplings, forcing deaf crews “hedgerow”. An interesting design and got the screw. It had variable pitch, but to turn the blades was only possible when a full stop. However, the ability to adjust has led to a marked increase the range of “just so”. From the point of view of increasing the seaworthiness and habitability on the surface managed to do the bare minimum: a little boost add-on. Yet submarines remained a truly underwater descendants of “the Hollands”.
 
Submarine type
 
Submarine type “b” Viper (SS-10), USA, 1907:
 
1 – periscope with a fairing; 2 – housing; 3 – hatch for loading torpedoes; 4 – outer light housing; 5 – propeller (three-blade); 6 – wheel; 7 – the clutch and the bearing shaft; 8 – electric (N=70 HP); 9 – gasolinevin motor Otto (N=240 HP); 10 – rear battery compartment; 11 – front battery compartment; 12 – the torpedo; 13 – fuel (gasoline) of the tank; 14 – torpedo tubes (2 PCs.)
 
It was built by the firm “Fore river”. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 145/175 T. Dimensions: length 25.1 m, width 3.8 m height 3.2 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: gasoline engine capacity of 250 HP + electric motor 150 HP, speed, surface/submarine project – 9/8 ties. Armament: two 450mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). Crew: 10 persons In 1907 built 3 units: “Viper” (“In-1”), “Catfish” (“In-2”) and “Tarantula” (“In-3”), In 1912, carried on transports to the Philippines for the defense of bases, excluded from the lists in 1922, used as training purposes.

 
Submarine type
 
Submarine type “C” “octopus” (SS-9), United States, 1907:
 
1 – periscope; 2 – combat tower; 3 – vent pipe; 4 – exhaust device; 5 – the alarm bell; 6 – battery compartments; 7 – anchor; 8 – torpedo tubes; 9 – nose cone; 10 – deck anchor; 11 the hatch for loading torpedoes; 12 – motor; 13 – coupling; 14 – motor; 15 – shaft support; 16 – screw
 
It was built by the firm “Fore river”. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/ surface 238/275 T. Dimensions: length of 31.13 m diameter 4.2 m. Material of hull: steel. Immersion depth up to 45 m. Engine: 2 diesel engine capacity of 500 HP + 2 electric motors producing 300 HP, the speed of surface/submarine project – 10,5/9 ultrasonic tests – 11 /10 kt. Armament: two 450mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). Crew: 15 people In 1907 – 1909 built 5 units: “octopus” (“s-1”), “Stingrey” (“C-2”), “Tarpon” (“C-3”), “Bonita” (“S-4”) and “snapper” (“C-3”). In the years of the 1st World war was used for the defense of the Panama canal. Excluded from the lists in 1920

 
Submarines of the type
 
The submarines of the type “D”, USA, 1909
 
It was built by the firm “Fore river”. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/ surface 288/377 T. Dimensions: length 41,12 m, diameter 4,2 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 60 m. Engine: 2 diesel engine capacity of 600 HP + 2 electric motor producing 260 HP, the speed of surface/submarine design and 11.75/9,5 knots on tests up to 12,5/11,5 KTS. (“Salmon” up to 12.5 kN.) Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). Crew: 15 people In 1909 – 1910 built 3 units: the “Narval” (“D-1”), “Grayling” (“D-2”) and “salmon” (“D-3”), All excluded from the lists in 1922

 
A much more decisive step, he made his (now without the participation of Holland) boats third series, “C”, or type “octopus”. (Head unit was just called the name “Octopussy”.) The new chief designer is not pressed nor the authority of his illustrious predecessor, nor the Holland, to the end of his career it is believed that the submarine must have only one screw located, if possible, more strictly along the horizontal axis of the housing. The increased more than two times, compared to “adderly”, “Octopus” this decision led to the need to have a very large screw and special means for connecting the motors to the shaft. Therefore, he chose a logical transition to the two-shaft unit with two screws. This allowed to make a “mechanic” more than just applying the same direct drive. Doubled the number of batteries reaching 120. However, all this has led to terrible distress, even impossible to repair a failure of one of the motors without shutting down the and the second. Needless to say, at this point the submarine became just helpless.
 
However, technical progress was breaking through on a quite unexpected direction – in the field of communications. The “C” in the experimental procedure set up the equipment audio, downright begs for underwater vessels, because the sound spreads in the water very well. Moreover, not only the transmitting equipment (electric siren), but reception. Even more important was the emergence of radio, albeit in very primitive form. The boat was required to rise to the surface, to raise a 10-metre mast with a 15 metre “wire”antenna and try to get a signal. Range then the radio did not exceed 40 miles, but this step was very important: the submarine received the communication with the base and command in battle. Before that disappeared behind the horizon as the boat would have gone up to return.
 
Finally managed to do something in relation to seaworthiness. It again goes on add-ons and cutting, grown in size. But while the submarine was still mostly underwater. Its body consisted of a body of rotation, a well-streamlined submerged, like modern nuclear submarines. But the characteristic “pickle” form (though much “thinner”) maintained primary reserve of buoyancy, incidentally, is still quite small, only 12% of capacity, close to the center of the body. Accordingly, in the excitement he had a tendency to dig into the water, instead of rises on a wave. For the latter required “air bag” in the bow. Or at least in the stern, but there the creation of the buoyancy prevented the control surfaces, screws, and other very useful for underwater ship “junk”. Accordingly, the waves with all her weight bore down on the deck in the stern, so that the add-back chose not to continue. She felt too much tension; I had it specially strengthened that does not affect the weight of discipline, so important for any ship, and underwater.
 
But the ride qualities were the sailors, if not admiration, then respect. On tests of “octopus” was a bit over 11 knots on the surface and successfully held 10 knots underwater (which shows how he remained the “underwater” boat). A thing of the past and a long immersion process. Gasolinevin motor it was possible to drown in just five seconds, the operation of the electric only took a couple of seconds more. To close the sunroof, rotate the rudders of depth and in 40 seconds the submarine was at a depth of eight meters. Huge progress compared to, e.g. the French “steamers”. More durable in comparison with their predecessors, the case was allowed to dive to a depth of 60 meters and stay there up to half an hour. All in all, under water without surfacing “octopuses” could be the whole day. Though could very well keep the depth, even the minimum: on the test boat could hold only 30 cm of water “over your head” at maximum speed. Americans rightly believe type “To” very important step in the development of submarines. Indeed, their submarines for the first time in literally broke away from the bases, albeit still not in the open ocean. But because these boats are deservedly allocated in the new class coastal. In General, this series Speer has proven its very high engineering professionalism, going beyond the usual “after improver”, albeit only one step.
 
The case to move forward, however, was not slow to appear. “Octopus” has not yet started testing, when in the summer of 1906, the U.S. Congress has allocated for the development of submarine shipbuilding round sum of one million dollars. And just for comparative testing of prototypes. (Remember again the poor Holland, for whom the fifth part of this would allow one to overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles.) Moreover, a few months suddenly became generous congressmen tripled rate! Now companies and designers clearly had something to fight for.
 
Of course, a place for fans of here have already left. A battle broke out between the major firms: “electric boat” and the lake. Although the order is received both the “contestant” is, in essence, won the battle company SPIRA, and it is due to the presence of nearly completed and very successful by the standards of “Octopus”. Commission from the Navy considered his most successful time on the submarine, a kind of benchmark. The firm has received an order for four units of the same type with minimal modifications, including the radio as “regular” means. Plus consent to the development of improved and enlarged variant, which was to be developed with the wishes of the sailors. I must say, the wishes turned out to be quite the business. For greater flexibility in the use of weapons, the number of torpedo tubes doubled, but spare the “fish” was not provided: submarine remained too small. For the first time in the American submarine fleet a division into compartments, which, however, is not surprising: the lengthening of the case was hardly able to maintain strength without internal “backups” in the face of strong transverse bulkheads. And they, in turn, created problems of communication of the commander with the whole crew. If before he could give orders to his voice and heard the whole team being in different parts of the steel “barrels”, now had to think, for example, about how to consistently produce a torpedo shot at the right time. After all, the goal of the periscope had only seen the commander, who was in the Central compartment. By the way, he has now become the “owner” of two periscopes, the first time stipulated at the stage of design. Solved the problem of installing an electric bell, signals about the time of the shooting. As an additional means of monitoring subordinates in the internal bulkheads were… Windows. Not a good idea: in conditions of scarce lighting to consider them through the details of what is happening in the next compartment was a difficult task. But in the best case, the visibility only for the inhabitants of the command compartment. Located in fore and aft areas remained completely isolated from each other. Left much to be desired and habitability, not much changed since kolendowski prototypes.
 
Submarine type
 
Submarine type “E” “Skipjack” (SS-24), United States, 1911
 
It was built by the firm “Fore river”. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/ surface 287/342 T. Dimensions: length 41,22 m, diameter 4.4 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 60 m. Engine: 2 diesel 700 HP + 2 electric motor power 600 HP, speed, surface/underwater design – 13,5/11,5 knots on tests of 13.2/12.5 kN. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). Crew: 20 persons In 1911 built 2 units: “Skipjack” (“E-1”) and “Stargen” (“E-2”), Both excluded from the lists in 1922

 
Submarine type
 
Submarine type “F”, Barracuda (SS-21), USA, 1912
 
It was built by the company “Union Iron Works”. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 330/400 T. Dimensions: length 43,51 m, case diameter of 4.72 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 60 m. Engine: 2 diesel engine capacity of 800 HP + 2 electric motor producing 620 HP, speed, surface/underwater design – 13,5/11,5 KTS, on tests is 13.5/12.2 uz. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). Crew: 22 people. In 1911 – 1912 built 4 units: “Karp” (“F-1”), “Barracuda” (“F-2”), “Pickerel” (“F-3”) and “Skate” (“F-4”), “Carp” was killed in a collision in December 1917. “Skate” – in the accident in March 1915, the Other two excluded from the lists in 1922

 
However, the type “D”, of course, was another step forward to a real boat. All four torpedoes could be released in just 1 minute, including the possibility of pair of volleys from two pipes (type “C” such opportunities were not available.) Interesting changes were made and appearance. The cabin now presented a rather narrow and tall hat, which was hiding the periscope, and behind it there was a light bridge, inhabited only by full emersion. Not over innovations, and the “propulsion” part. On the head “Salmone” mounted electric motors, with a power of 130 HP could for one hour to develop twice the power. Coupled with new resistors, they are just beyond the hour allowed to “swallow” the whole battery charge. But the submarine developed to test huge for its time underwater speed of nearly 12 knots, about the same. how much on the surface.
 
Type “D” was the last American submarine fleet, which had gasoline engines. They brought a fair amount of hassle, and with US entry into the 1st World war, decided to replace them with modern diesels. Yes, oddly enough, but the acute shortage of submarines was forced to upgrade and those “ladies”. However, the work was concluded after the occurrence of the world. And there were close to “universal naval disarmament” of the 1920-ies.
 
But let us return to the pre-war years. Speer did not think to stop making one after another neat little steps. Already the last of the “D”, “salmon”, carried the features of the following type “E”. It should be noted that here the development has gone towards increasing the size; on the contrary, the new type has become even slightly smaller in displacement. Moreover, one of the most significant features was some setback. The number of bulkheads was reduced to three, which was motivated by the more convenient location of equipment and people. But the boat was lost the main advantage -the division into compartments. If the first “D” could withstand total submergence of one of the compartments, the “salmon” followed by “E” in this case, it was sinking.
 
If the boats from the “electric boat” was threatened only in that scene and nature of the case, the company had to repel the attacks of human origin. It’s time to think about the main competitor to Holland and his “the heirs” – Simon lake. This specialist not only in underwater shipbuilding, but also for self promotion is not inferior to hardened traffickers and financiers. In 1907, he went for broke, calling on all his connections and brought forward a direct charge against the leaders of the “electric boat” in corruption. They say they managed to achieve, in fact, a monopoly on government orders at the expense of treaties and tributes, and not by the outstanding quality of its products. The scandal has turned out loud, and the Minister of marine, Victor Metcalf chose not to contact such an active candidate for the Navy’s money. But the Minister managed to find a very good way. Lake received permission to build a large submarine, tasty and most promising “Kus”, but solely on the principles of “free competition” of which he so persistently told. If the boat will be good, literally, “equal or better in quality than any other in the service or under construction at March 1907” (this definition came just Spirovska “octopus”), the government will buy it. If not-goodbye, Navy “second sort” is not needed. In the meantime, before the comparative test, no money.
 
Lake was in a difficult position. Large submarine required large expenditures, almost half a million dollars. I had to strain the financial ability of the company and even get into debt. And at the same time, if not promise mountains of gold, it is very decent performance. The Creator of “chariots” reported that his ship will give 14.5 per node on the surface, the site is larger than that of a competitor, with equal speed underwater (at 9.5 KTS.). The designer now had a lot to smash his head over how to perform your own application. As a result, the tab G-1 had to be postponed until the end of 1908, and in order it came only in 2.5 years time, sufficient to build, for example, dreadnought.
 
But the time is not enough to complete processing pretty successful “Caiman”. “Strength” (that is the proper name got G-1) have kept these “rudiments”, as wheels for crawling on the bottom of the tank for fuel in a waterproof superstructure over a solid body, turns into the ballast as the exhaustion of gasoline. With the ballast tanks generally, there was a significant problem, because even Holland has patented their U-shaped, slightly resembling the shape of a double bottom and sides for surface ships. In this embodiment, water filled compartments as the casing bottom and on the sides, leaving the Central part for all sorts of “Goodies”. Lake could not apply it is definitely a good solution – interfere with the patent right, passed to the owners of the “electric boat” and sacredly guarded by their lawyers. He had to apply much less profitable option of the bottom of the tank with a flat top “ate” almost half section of the housing. So, the US Navy could get obviously not the best submarine, but respected the saints for the rights of patent holders.
In the end, the “Forces” sank almost two times slower than its competitor. Of course, it had its advantages, in particular more volume aft, not so eager to go under water as hollandska-Spirovska boats. However, seaworthiness has left much to be desired: effect a small total buoyancy. Messed designer and with weapons. In addition to a pair of torpedo tubes in the nose in a rugged case I had another pair of turn tubes in the middle part. Them especially widely arranged between themselves that in the center there is a place to hatch underwater camera: lake stubbornly held on to the possibility of “handmade,” though the era for combat divers, on the one hand, already ended and its return at the new level there were still decades. In the end, from a pair of “turn signals” in the end, I had to get rid of, and G-1 were only two devices in the nose.
 
Another “puncture” went out with engines. Hoping to achieve the stated high-speed designer decided to double the number of “gasoline”. However, they still had to rotate just two shafts, hence came the need for couplings, in those days still very unreliable. “Power” still managed to squeeze in tests ten knots under water and more than 14 on the surface and get into the Navy. The naval Ministry USA “revenge” this product lakowski suffering a curious way. “Forces” was the only submarine to have received completely unique decimal number – “SS-19 1/2”. Full integer marking the troubled boat was given only after her death in 1917! In the service of twin motors are pretty balky, and ended the same way as with an ornate swivel torpedo tubes. Torment for several years, in 1916 the front of the engine had to be removed, depriving the sub half power. In the end, its performance significantly declined, and in 1918, the naval Board considered the “brainchild” of South lake uneconomical and too slow sinking for active service, though he noted quite decent performance overall.
 
Meanwhile, as the entry into operation of the “products of competing firms” the Navy and the Naval Ministry began to think: where are all the same they need to apply? Every schoolboy knows that the United States was separated, separated and will be separated from their most serious rivals on the ocean on each side. It is clear that for the first submarine distances of thousands of miles, but still the excitement was absolutely overwhelming. As a possible task for them was only to protect its own ports. But the possibility of attacks of English or French bases if suddenly these representatives of the Old world set out to compete with the most economically powerful nation in the world the accounts are not reset. Besides, there were still mysterious Japan, which after the victory over Russia came out in the first possible opponents in the future.
 
Accordingly, to the sailors and shipbuilders had two objectives: the first considered that small submarines will be very useful in the defense of the Philippines and Hawaii from “yellow-skinned devils”, with the addition of thereby ready the submarine. (Immediately it has been calculated that to protect their bases on the coast and in the overseas possessions will need at least 28 units and a few mother ships to service them.) The second was to develop projects of underwater ships can cross the ocean.
 
Submarine type
 
Submarine type “G” “Forces” (SS-19 1/2) (USA, 1911)
 
It was built by “Newport news”. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 400/515 T. Dimensions: length 49.1 m, width – 4,0 m, height of 3.81 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 45 m. Engine: 4 gasolinevin engine capacity of 1200 HP + 2 electric motor power 520 HP speed surface/submarine project – 14/10 bonds tests – 12,5/9,5 bonds. Armament: six 450mm torpedo tubes (6 torpedoes). Crew: 24 persons In 1911 built 1 unit, “Forces,” “G-1”. Front motors are dismantled in the years of the 1st World war. Died in 1921 in the accident.

 
Submarine type
 
Submarine type “G” “Thresher” (SS-26), USA, 1912
 
It was built by the firm “crump”. Design type -double-hulled. Displacement underwater/ surface 360 of 460 tons Dimensions: length 49.1 m, width – 4,0 m, height of 3.81 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 60 m. Engine: 4 gasolinevin motor 1000 HP + 2 electric motor producing 400 HP, the speed of surface/submarine project – 14/9,5 km, test – 10,5/8,5 ties. Armament: six 450 mm torpedo tubes (4 in the bow and 2 at stern) (6 torpedoes). Crew: 24 persons In 1912, built 1 unit, “Thresher” (“G-4”), scrapped in 1920

 
The task, however difficult, and equally profitable. Understandably, she immediately clutched going to the bottom of the financial sea lake. He suggested that the Ministry of the Navy two promising (from his point of view) options: one modest, with a length of 41 m, and the second, much more ambitious. His “big boat” was supposed to have a length of 50 m and a displacement at the surface to 400 tons and under water – about 530 so Equip it expected as many as six torpedo tubes, but only two of them were located in rugged nose, and two more paired – wheel units, sample G-1. (Remember their sad fate.) Very well for that time looked like a propulsion system consisting of four engines with a capacity of 300 HP, which at critical moments for a few minutes it would be possible to boost in the half. Bold and understands a lot about advertising, lake talked about the fact that his super-submarine can dive to a depth of 70 m and will be cleaned from the surface of the water in just 15 seconds. Great data, but does not really reasonable.
 
However, the US government does not hurry to plunge into the abyss lakowski promises. And then was in a very difficult financial position of the designer and the businessman went on a desperate step: he proposed to build “luxury” underwater vehicle at the price of “budget” option. It is clear that this was the same offer which is hard to refuse. And the Naval Ministry agreed on a 41-meter option.
 
Lake tried to save wherever possible. So, as a prototype of the case was taken to the drawing Board “Power”, and the location was essentially a repetition of not very successful predecessor. All the sailors demanded to abandon vestigial wheels, and a diving camera, and questionable turning vehicles. As did the G-2 is more simple in construction, the constructor without much debate agreed. “Tune,” as he called the boat received four torpedo tubes, including one in the stern is the location first used on the American submarine. As in the case of G-1, the construction was delayed considerably, and ended quite badly. After two years spent on the slipway and in the completion of the wall, the boat was ready for testing when in November 1913 lake declared bankruptcy of the firm. The submarine was accepted for service, but within two years she was standing at the pier without any attempts to go to sea at least for the audition. In November 1915 the “Tune” returned for revision… all the same Lake. Somehow survived the bankruptcy, it continued its activities under a new guise. It is clear that since order long 6 years the boat was not on the gram later.
But G-2 was not the only victim. In 1910, the “offended” lake managed to grab another order for the “improved version” and laid the “G-W” at the new yard in Bridgeport. The main improvement was the replacement of the engine type. On the G-2 is still installed capricious and quite dangerous gasoline motors (again in pairs with the motors on each of two shafts, with the same problems as the progenitor of the G-1). But on the “Turbot” (or “Turbot”, if you follow the American version of the name familiar to us as “Halibut”) was more reliable diesels. In addition, the increased number of torpedo tubes, reaching six (four in the nose and two in the stern, but not inside the enclosure, and embedded in the superstructure and the swivel.) With the third “haskoy” happened exactly the same thing with the second two many years in the sludge with the subsequent transfer of the “old” Builder for some work. Improvement was not too successful: overloaded torpedoes and fuel the submarine lacked the proper reserve buoyancy, and it had to be equipped with additional modelkami-Boule – modern British invention, allows to increase the load and stability of ready-made ships (up to battleships).
 
In the end, the entire series of three “G” created by the Lake, were unsuccessful, in part because most of these attendant circumstances, partly because inherent in the original organization shortcomings, which the designer engaged money matters more than design, to eliminate failed.
 
It is curious that this letter was unfortunate not only for American engineer Lake. Was built one boat under the same letter, G-4. It was created by “imported” specialist is quite rare for the United States, already considered themselves higher than other countries in the field of technology and industry. We are talking about the Italian Laurent, moved to the U.S., for richer fields. At home (and generally in Europe) he gained a very good reputation (at the time, we will tell you about its projects implemented in the countries of the Old world.) But the ocean was waiting for him almost a complete fiasco. One of the problems was the company-Builder. If the lake and especially Speer had “their” shipyards are already familiar with the technology to build underwater vessels, the “performer” had to resort to plants Kramp sons. Family, of course, in the shipbuilding world, the venerable (that crump built for Russia a very good battleship “Retvizan” and the cruiser “Varyag” – the fastest ship in its class at the time of testing), but experience in building submarines, the engineers of its enterprises is clearly not enough, but because the construction of the “Thresher,” as he called G-4, took nearly three years. In the end, at the time of acceptance, the submarine came already obsolete. In addition, she had a lot of design flaws. That time traditional problem with the engine forced to use the already retreating into the past gasoline motors as lighter: because Laurent was going to achieve a huge surface speed of 14 knots. Turned out it had completely failed. Power one motor on two shafts to obtain such an outstanding result is clearly not enough. I had to resort to tandem “gasoline” with electromotor like a lake. However, unlike the American, the Italian designer decided not to use the coupling between the “horse and quivering DOE”, and “harnessed them to a cart”, fearing heavier mechanisms and increase the cost. In the end, “mechanics” turned out to be too light and unreliable. But the stated rate to reach close failed: limit steel 10.5 per node on the surface, without problems achieved by the boats from the “electric boat”. And this despite the fact that the design of the Laurent put ideas Labefa: “Thresher” had become just “diving” submarine, designed primarily for the movement on the surface. The boat then came a very shaky; swimming to sea in it gave the crew a great deal of misery. Miscalculated Italian designer and square helm, proved insufficient to provide decent maneuverability. Had to compensate for the lack of installation of the second booster, at the top of the case – a unique feature typical only for the G-4.
 
What is Laurent managed to surpass their American counterparts, so it is in the separation of the body on the bulkhead, and habitability. The Central compartment was given to the commander who could not only manage your ship in a rather comfortable environment, but not jumped from his post in the wheelhouse and back when leaving from the surface, or surfacing, as the vast majority of submarines of that time. It was noted that sailors could stand tall in any place of the engine room (a good characteristic in comparison with those boats in which to go, something not always.) It seems to be well-located bulkheads allowed to dive faster: it is well insulated compartment with engine allowed to start taking water ballast before the motors will be cooled. But in practice everything turned out exactly the opposite: “sealed” compartment was necessary first intensely to ventilate for several minutes to minders didn’t have to go to the hospital or, worse, directly to the morgue. In the end, sank the “Thresher” painfully slow, about 6 minutes. Initially to assist him in so arduous a matter it was assumed by the two vertically mounted screws, as on submarines of the mid-and late nineteenth century, but this idea had to be abandoned at the stage of construction.
 
Like it goes against the “products” of Laurent, but, nevertheless, he was adopted. So great was the demand from the Navy after the outbreak of World war I in Europe, to enter the United States wanted fully prepared in all areas. Crew members liked decent habitat, but for buyer “Thresher” was a real nightmare for the boat, created in a single number, and even on a very unusual project proved to be very difficult to find spare parts even in a proud technical capabilities of the United States.
 
But let us return to SPIRA and its products. Unlike the lake, the chief technical Evangelist “electric boat” do not set ourselves impossible tasks. After quite successful, but is small (only 2 units) “E” he smoothly moved on to the next series, the “F”.
 
Here the step was another increase in the sizes: Spirovska boats without any problems almost caught up on this option lakowski. But there were difficulties with the diesels. A new type of engines took root with difficulty: “electric boat” had to agree to the request of the Naval Ministry to replace them for free if they “will not be as satisfactory as gasoline motors”. Saved the firm only that the validity of this requirement was limited to 6-months. And just after six months, the engines demanded a full bulkhead! Although, in theory, they are in almost all respects, especially on fuel consumption, surpassed its quite dangerous “gasolinevin” predecessors, in practice the problems with them are also missing. So much so that in 1915, when the war in Europe was already in full swing, the whole series was sent for major repairs to replace engines. By the time the diesels finally was able to bring a relatively acceptable reliability.
 
Another unpleasant “little thing” became a bad battery covers. Acid was spilling through them in the roll and swaying, happily for themselves, but not for a boat, flowing down to the floor of the battery compartment, and then directly to the lower part of the body. In the absence of proper experience in this interesting process was not supervised, and steel has been gradually corroded. The result was sad: “F-4” under the name “Carp” thing went so far that the submarine at one point, ran down and sank. Picked it up, but apparently, this “peaceful fish” turned out to be bad karma: in December 1917, the boat went the same to the bottom as a result of collision with its “sister” “Pickerel” in the course of manoeuvres (affected by weather conditions: very heavy fog, which reduced visibility to zero.) In the accident two years earlier, I lost one unit, “Skate”. Total without any intervention of the enemy went to the bottom of exactly half of the series. Such was the price of a more active and challenging voyages.
 
However, type “F”, the rest is almost repeating the “E” has been quite successful. First, the American boat came off from the shore. Secondly, it has become quite reliable for continuous swimming, including underwater, and even tried to perform tasks similar to real combat. Had to make another half-step to the next, “N”, which became another important milestone in the development of “the lines of Holland” and glorified their “grandfather”, which is even now certainly not had to draft any relationship.

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