BET FOR VERSATILITY

EMPHASIS ON UNIVERSALITYThe mid 50-ies of XX century marked the beginning of the end of British naval power. Powerful, but not conformed to the new reality fighting ships of world war II were annually given up on scrapping dozens. The size of the fleet decreased with great speed: to build new frigates are only marginally influenced this sad for the pride of the nation process.

 
In the current economic and political situation on the construction of a large series of new ships of various classes had to forget. The Admiralty had no other way but to try to develop a project budget universal combat units, the construction of which would be affordable.
 
And the designers have started another attempt to reconcile the irreconcilable. The project was classified as a “sloop General purpose” type 81, thus giving to understand that there is a new branch, different from the frigates that had more specialized tasks, mainly on combat aircraft or submarines.
 
Original new patrol boat looked very attractive. Two twin tower 102-mm guns, plus a pair of 40 mm machine guns, mortars “limbo” and eight torpedo tubes for ASW torpedoes and a decent electronics including radar long-range air defense ERB-6S American production, — all this makes it a good escortscom and at least equivalent to the opponent for any surface ship of the same class.
 
But the transition from the drawings to the metal for which has already become a bad tradition has led to numerous changes that significantly worsened the initial characteristics. The composition of artillery “lowered the rank” to 76 mm caliber. In General a new twin machine guns on paper was certainly a powerful weapon, but, unfortunately, never managed to finish… Then as a contender appeared single 102-mm installation, a fully automated and had a greater rate of fire than the initial spark. However, the machine was too heavy and bulky, which is already on the stage of the project resulted in a noticeable increase in displacement, and hence the cost of the vehicle. The result was somewhat disappointing: instead of the new-fangled machines and old, but is quite versatile 102-mm artillery on the sloops established two 114-mm guns in the panel settings, a little different from the units of destroyers in wartime.
 
Trouble came with the equipment. The national pride of the British in those days were not allowed to use American equipment in its original version, in which army used the so-called “anglicized” samples, components and Assembly of which was carried out on the shores of Albion. The product sometimes bore little resemblance to the prototype. So it was with radar and long-range detection, which came out twice as harder than previously thought. Purely domestic fire control system also had to replace the American counterpart.
 
The only original innovation of the ships of the type “Tribal”, which received glorious for Royal Navy the names of the representatives of the “wild tribes” began the mechanical installation. It involved two turbine — steam, worked only from a steam boiler, and gas. Each of the engines could function independently and had their own pipe. In fact, this unit was a “mate” from the power plant missile destroyers of the type “County”, and the head of “Ashanti”, in fact, served as optovogo ship. As for weapons, try to place becoming fashionable helicopter was only partially successful. The tiny roof of the hangar also served as landing platform, and landing even a very light helicopter the pilot require virtuosic control of the aircraft, not to miss such a “handkerchief”.
 
However, the new “tribly” still liking sailors — primarily because of their seagoing qualities. However, in 1979, when the country was hit by another crisis, these ships were first going to scrap. Saved their war with Argentina. When landing on the Falkland Islands, the British desperately lacked fire support, and the “old men” decided to preserve as a possible means for shelling beach! But when the tension subsided, their fate was decided.
 
Failure with a new “sloop” (in the end, it is also related to the class of frigates) are forced to revisit the existing prototypes. As Whitby (see “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 3 of 2004), in principle, was a very good escortscom, and its further development resulted in the most numerous in the post-war Navy of England a series of major surface ships.
 
Externally, the “Linder” differed from their “ancestors”. An important addition is the helicopter, which now had a large Playground at the rear, occupying a little less than a third of the length of the housing. The designers managed to move as low as possible all heavy equipment, freeing up space in the cabin and top part of the case for larger electronics and improve the living conditions of the crew. Although the casing still had a sharp kink near the nose, the superstructure of conventional type has replaced the old awkward system from side to side, giving to the same a lot of spray in strong emotion. The overall appearance has become more balanced and refined, and the British still think “Leander contains” successful in all respects by the ships.
 
Inside the case there is more automation, especially in the engine rooms. Frigates acquired excellent manoeuvrability, so good that it allowed them to easily beat the much smaller Icelandic guard of the court in the dangerous game of “who rammed” during the “herring war” that erupted between Iceland and Britain in 1972.
 
EMPHASIS ON UNIVERSALITY
 
62. Frigate “Broadsword” (type 22, series 1), England, 1979.
 
Built by the firm “yarrow”. The normal displacement of 4,000 tons, full 4600 m. the Length of the greatest 131,1 m, beam of 14.8 m, draft 6.1 m Capacity twin-shaft combined gas turbine unit 56 000+8500 HP, speed 30 knots. Armament: four PU ASM “Exocet”, two PU SAM “sea wolf” (12 missiles), two 40-mm machine gun, six 324-mm torpedo tubes, two helicopters. Just 1979-1982 built 4 units: “Broadsword”, “Battlax”, “Diamond” and “Breisach”. All sold in Brazil 1995-1997.
 
63. Frigate “Ashanti”, England, 1961
 
Built by “Jarrow”, belonged to the type “Tribal”. Displacement normal 2300, 2700, etc full Length the greatest 109,7 m, beam of 12.9 metres and draught of 4 m. Capacity single-shaft combined (turbine+gas turbine) installation of 20 000 HP, speed 27 knots. Armament: two 114-mm guns, two 40-mm machine gun, rocket-propelled mortars “limbo”, the helicopter. Only in 1961 — 1964 built 7 units: “Ashanti”, “Eskimo”, “Gurkha”, “Mohawk”, “Nubian”, “Tartarus” and “Zulu”. In 1984— 1985 “Gurkha”, “Tartarus” and “Zulu” transferred to Indonesia, and the rest excluded from the lists of the fleet.
 
64. The frigate “Leander”, England, 1963
 
Built by “Harland and wolf”. Displacement normal 2350, complete 2860 t Length overall of 113.4 m, width 12,5 m, draft 5,2 m. Capacity twin-shaft diesel installation 14 400 HP, the speed of 28.5 per node. Armament: two PU SAM “sea cat”, and twin 114-mm gun mount, two 40-mm machine gun, rocket-propelled mortars “limbo”, the helicopter. Just 1963-1973 was built 26 units. Part transferred to other countries: “Dido” and “Bacchant” — New Zealand in 1983, “Penelope” and “Danae” — Ecuador in 1991, Andromeda — India in 1995, “Achilles” and “Ariadna” — Chile 1990-1992, “Diomid” and “Apollo” — Pakistan in 1988, Remaining excluded from the lists in 1989 — 1995
 
65. The frigate “Amazon” (type 21), England, 1974
 
Built by “vosper’s thornycroft”. Displacement normal 3100, 3600 full t maximum Length of 117 m, width 12.7 m, draft 5,8 m. Capacity twin-shaft combined gas turbine unit 56 000+8500 HP, speed 30 knots. Armament: Quad PU SAM “sea cat”, one 114-mm universal gun, two 20-mm machine gun, six 324-mm torpedo tubes, a helicopter. Only 1974— 1978 built 8 units: “Amazon”, “Antelope”, “active”, “Embuscade”, “arrow”, “Alacrity”, “Ardent”, “Avenger”. On all but the first two units, installed four PU RCC “Exocet”. “Ardent” and “Antelope” sunk in may 1982 in the Falkland Islands, and the rest sold to Pakistan in 1994

 
The last 10 units received the body at 60 cm wider, which allowed to place the tanks more fuel to make the court much ustojchivee and more accessible for future upgrades.
 
Despite all the praise, the versatility of the “Leander contains” meant a certain weakness against each of the opponent: surface, underwater and air. Therefore, the development of weapons the Navy “potential enemy” there is a need to upgrade the ships, after which they become more specialized. By the middle of 1970-ies of the eight units has lost its 114-mm artillery systems, instead of which there was a launcher for the Australian anti-submarine recettore “Icarus”, somewhat resembling the dome of a small Observatory. Frigates also lost his obsolete radar long-range detection of air targets, but improved control system SURE air defense short-range, and the number of launchers, “sea cat” has increased to two.
 
The other eight have turned to these ships for surface combat. The 114-mm turret replaced with four launchers of anti-ship missiles “Exocet”. The hangar was enlarged, and he could now take a better helicopter “Linke”, is also capable of attacking enemy ships. Same as anti-submarine sistership, increased the number of launchers “sea cat”, but more radically — to three. On the deck there were two three-pipe 320 mm torpedo tubes for ASW torpedoes. Interestingly, as a result of modernization has considerably increased the displacement (unsurprisingly), but the crew was reduced to 30 people.
 
Better “broadened” the “Leander contains” going to convert at anti-ship scheme, but the missiles “Exocet” had only to “Andromeda”. However, they had a noticeable advantage over their counterparts because they have installed quite advanced anti-aircraft missiles short-range “sea wolf”, able to fight not only the aircraft but also cruise missiles, that was not good enough as the original, but the archaic “si Katy” visually induced operator.
 
Meanwhile, the struggle of the Admiralty for the cheapness continued. I must say, all with the same success — zero. Private shipyard proposed to build a new variant of the escort ship that cost 30% less “Linder”. Representatives of the Navy literally pounced on the offer, putting only one, but it is a devastating condition to meet all their requirements. From the history of the domestic fleet of a hundred years ago it is known that such conditions lead to a terrible increase in the cost of the project, which still goes in something bad. The same happened with the British. Started another endless British alphabet “Amazon”, a head frigate of 21, was almost three times (!) more “Linder”, had 600 tons greater displacement and no opportunities for further modernization. Some consolation for the British, but not for Australians, is the fact that a third of the price paid last, hoping to build a series of supposedly promising ships.
 
The appearance of a new miracle of technology has completely changed. Again there was a huge superstructure from side to side, occupies almost half the length of the housing. It is a very good officers quarters, but the living conditions of the sailors were worse than other ships in the fleet. The frigates had the same armament, and anti-ship “Leander contains”, except that they reappeared artillery — 114-mm automatic gun on paper is the equivalent of the old spark.
 
“Blagotvorenie” officers and operators of electronics required additional volume of the interior, which in turn has led to the extensive use of lightweight aluminum alloys were manufacturing all structures above the upper deck. The first alarm bell rang in 1977, when the “Amazon” was on fire. But a particularly strong blow the frigates of the 21 were in the battle for the Falklands, where two units were sent to the bottom of the antediluvian weapons: “Ardent” — unguided rockets, and “Antelope” bombs during the Second world war.
 
Having failed with a “cheap” project, the Admiralty had hoped to recoup in the next type 22, intended as a direct development of the “Leander” taking into account the possibilities of modernization and new technologies.
 
In fact it turned out quite the other ship, with very good seakeeping developed add-ins, a large hangar for two helicopters and… displacement of one-third more. “Broadsword”, exceeding the size of a modern destroyer does not have artillery, its weapons included only anti-ship and anti-aircraft missiles. 22-m belonged the honour to update the missile “sea wolf” in the fighting at Port Stanley, where on may 12, 1982 they had downed the first two “Skyhawk” air force of Argentina.
 
After the construction of the first four units of the type “Broadsword” British designers have taken the next “extension”. However, if in case “Leander contains” actually increased width, the engineers are now safely embedded in the body of a 15-meter section that allowed you to equip a second series of the new towed sonar, and extensive information military post. In General the 22nd type no luck: instead of the planned 12 were able to build only a dozen. In those battles near the Falklands revealed a significant drawback: the new frigates had not a single gun that could be used to support their troops. So when it came time to make up for losses in the war with Argentina, the choice fell on an improved version of the frigate, in the armament which came back 114-mm automatic gun. By half (from four to eight) increase in the number of anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”. In addition to anti-aircraft missiles “sea wolf” now individual anti-aircraft defense was provided by the latest semicolony 30-mm gun “the shot” with a fully automated control system. If we consider also a noticeable improvement in electronics, it was virtually a new type, which was reflected in the names: the letter “b” changed to “With”.
 
The naked eye can see the shift in modern British frigates in the direction of their anti-ship (at the same time “protivogaznyh”) qualities. Even later, but the British realized that in the changing modern world, their fleet still may have to fight with the now mythical “Soviet threat,” and with a very real enemy, albeit not “caliber”.
 
V. KOFMAN

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