CRUISER PORTUGAL

CRUISER OF PORTUGALPortuguese offensive was not a complete surprise for the German side. Part of the land to the South of the Ruvuma river on the German-Portuguese boundary in East Africa, the Germans captured in 1892, despite the Protocol of 1886, gave them Portugal. Since then, the Portuguese were looking for a convenient excuse to take back what is rightfully considered his. But, capturing approximately 45 hectares, the troops rested in the river, and the attack itself was a failure. In distant Africa came trench warfare.

 
May 20, 1916, the troops of Colonel Mendes attempted to cross the river and continue the attack. To support them, the Portuguese were able to identify those small forces at the disposal of the colonial administration of Mozambique: the cruiser “Adamastor” and the gunboat “Chaimite”. However, in fairness, it should be noted that they faced a serious enemy in the face of the naval guns of the cruiser “Konigsberg”.
 
21 may, precisely according to plan, the main gauge “Adamastor” was the alleged shelling of the German positions, and because they did not answer, two boats with cruisers, each armed with 37-mm gun, taking in tow the boats, armed with machine guns lean against a hostile shore. Responding to heavy machine-gun and rifle fire of the enemy, a landing party led by ensign Maya Rebelo immediately jumped on the shore. But, alas, not supported by the main forces, the paratroopers were forced to abandon the bridgehead.
 
Two days later, the sailors “Adamastor” attempted a new reconnaissance. But again, paratroopers, led by Midshipman Rodrigesa Janeiro, waited for failure. This time on the shore were the bodies of three dead sailors.
 
Anticipating a similar result in the future, the sailors insisted on carrying out joint operations with the infantry. Attack 27 may have tried to prepare more thoroughly. While 150-mm guns of the cruiser and 105-mm guns of coastal batteries was trying to create a likeness of the barrage, the Marines and sailors through onboard boats and improvised rafts could reach the opposite shore. And what happened next can only be described as a disaster. After letting the Portuguese closer, hidden in the jungle, the Germans opened fire and after a short but bloody battle the attackers dropped into the water.
 
The hero of the previous attacks, Rodrigues RJ, died a heroic death, trying to get my people out of the fire. Maya Rebelo wounded fell into the river, and his body, rendered in the sea, managed to catch the sailors “Adamastor”. Command of the Marines took the ensign Prestes Salgueiro, who, by incredible efforts, was able to evacuate the people entrusted to him. At this time he saw a badly wounded infantry Lieutenant Ferreira. Putting it on the shoulders, the brave ensign was able to cross the river and return to their.
 
This episode, which scale European war would be amiss to only some small tactical summary, introduced the Mozambican administration in the state of prostration. Meanwhile, the crew of “Adamastor” goodbye to the dead heroes. In total, the three operations he has missed four dead and five missing, Yes, eleven wounded — the largest loss of the Portuguese fleet in battle during the First world war!
 
A month later, the Portuguese repeated his attempt the crossing of the Ruvuma and even entrenched on its left Bank, but soon the Germans, unexpectedly crossed the border near lake Nyasa and flowing into the country, forced them to evacuate.
 
And again a significant role in the operation was played by the sailors “Adamastor” and “Simiti”: they ensured the landing, supported by his artillery fire, and when required, the Portuguese evacuated from the bridgehead.
 
It was 1916, and before the end of world war was still two long years. But, nevertheless, it was clear that the fate of the Triple Alliance is already a foregone conclusion. Therefore, the entry of Portugal in 1916 in the war was interpreted as an attempt to regain territory on the right Bank of the river Ruvuma.
 
For a politician of the late nineteenth century such a position Portugal looked more than strange. Before that for several centuries the Iberian Kingdom had the UK with the necessary assistance as resources and bases. For an explanation of the reasons for such a fundamental change in Portuguese policy, you must tell us how a quarter of a century before that in the Royal Navy appeared only in the history of the cruiser.
 
By the early 1890s all of Africa was divided between great Nations. Portugal since the Great discovery had the largest colonies in Angola and Mozambique. By the mid-1880s, an agreement was reached by which the Portuguese retreated adjacent to its African colonies of land between the Atlantic and the Indian coast of Africa, to create a single possession. Because of the limited military resources of the Kingdom of the Iberian colonization of territories has slowed in 1889 to 1990, the British themselves seized the land along the banks of the river Zambezi and lake Nyasa (present-day Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi).
 
This small colonial incident was buried angloportuguese the once-friendly relations: the British have always acted as a guarantor of Portuguese sovereignty! Immediately spoke and the other Iberian kingdoms Spain once again adjusted the cruising part of their shipbuilding programs. A Royal decree of
 
20 Mar 1890 in Portugal was taken ambitious shipbuilding program envisages the construction of four coastal defense battleships and ten cruisers with a displacement of from 3400 to 4500 tons and a speed of over 20 knots!
 
Two cruisers were intended for actions in the Azores, one in Angola, in the waters of South America, in East Africa and in the Pacific to care for Macau and Timor. The rest of the cruisers had to be in Lisbon, performing various tasks or making repairs before sailing overseas. The program included a significant number of small ships.
 
Portugal’s economy was undergoing a collapse: in January 1891, the government suppressed the rebellion in Porto, a year later, it officially declared bankruptcy of the banking system of Portugal and stopped paying interest on two thirds of the national debt.
 
To Finance the construction of new ships from the budget was impossible, and to raise funds hooked the public: eight years on a national subscription collected an amount equivalent to 538 thousand dollars. More than half of the funds invested in the construction of Italy cruiser of the future “Adamastor”.
 
New sea Minister of Portugal Costa de Cândido da Silva has managed to suppress the practice of “self-supporting” fleet and achieved public participation in shipbuilding programs. Tools had to save, the appetite subdued, focusing on a cruiser of the second rank. The colonial cruisers had to have sufficient weapons to counter the typical stationers great States, while remaining within the cost-effective displacement. Cruisers of the first rank left only those which were supposed to be hold in Lisbon.
 
Taking a sample build “Adamastor”, the Portuguese announced an international contest whose winner received an order for two cruisers in the transfer condition set of factory drawings to the organizers. It was supposed to copy the project to the state-owned shipyard, Lisbon, for which funds were allocated for its modernization. As a result, the Navy received two similar cruisers of the French construction — “San Rafael” and “San Gabriel.”
 
Ships on the French and Italian projects were similar tacticities characteristics. Shipbuilders used in the projects of the solution are well spent on cruisers for national and foreign customers.
 
Standard displacement of both types did not exceed 1800 t, and maximum speed was 17-18 knots. Armament — two 150-mm and four 120-mm quick-firing guns.. Except the national architecture, the ships ranged all the trimmings, right down to energy and housing design and details. French cruisers were a little more Italian, and therefore less speed, but they are more armed with long-barreled guns Cana, not short kroposki. Later the guns of the main caliber “Adamastor” replaced for consistency with the cannons on other ships.
Very handy for the Portuguese budget was the fact of lack of speed both French. Instead of 17.5 per contract host of them barely squeezed out the 15. Endless improvements and modernization of the mechanisms strongly pushed the readiness of cruisers. And soon began the strike of the painters of Le Havre made the firm-the Builder to pay over a million francs fine. French project, which combined a relatively strong armament at a moderate cost, and interested in Spain. Soon after a Portuguese couple in Le Havre laid the Foundation for another cruiser of this type — the future of the Spanish “Rio de La Plata”.

 
Meanwhile in Lisbon preparing for the laying of four cruisers of the “French” type. For adaptation of the project under the Portuguese requirements and technical assistance during construction in Portugal came French engineer Alfonso Krono.
 
Changing weapons and the power of the machines, limiting the speed to 16 knots, was quite a compact little ship with a displacement of 1300 so smoothly, However, happened only on paper: total displacement after all the modifications exceeded 1600 tons Armament of the cruiser was the same standard cruising 150-mm caliber guns Kane, with the increase in the number of guns to four. Main battery was complemented by a pair of 100-mm skorostrel.
 
Financial and political problems influenced the Portuguese shipbuilding. Into operation in the end included only one — “Rainha Dona Amelia”, becoming the first steel ship of the Portuguese buildings and the last in the history of the Kingdom cruiser.
 
The most famous cruiser in the history of the Portuguese Navy is the only cruiser of the first rank — “don Carlos I”. Initially, the Ministry wanted to see in the role of defender of the Lisbon latest “astronomski” type, had planned to build in Italy together with “Adamastor” 3600-ton ship with a speed of 22 knots. But Costa de Cândido da Silva insisted on ordering directly from Armstrong’s full ship-type Japanese “Yoshino”. And in January, 1897, with the firm already signed a contract for a 4200-ton ship. At a speed of 22 knots, the future of “don Carlos I” had to carry four 150-mm and eight 120-mm rapid-fire guns.
 
As already mentioned, these five cruisers left the first and last representatives of ships of this class in the history of the Navy of Portugal, the tradition in their name to emerge did not. So the first-born Portuguese createrestore got the name of the Greek giant — spirit of the sea Adamastos, in the Portuguese reading Adamastor the main hero of the famous poem “Lusiad” classics of Portuguese literature, Luis de Camoins. In the poem the discovery of the sea route to India appears to be against Vasco da Gama with nautical spirit. A pair of French cruisers were named after the most revered in Portugal Christian saints — the archangels Gabriel and Raphael. And finally, the last pair were named in honor of the representatives of the ruling Royal family — king don Carlos I and his wife Queen Dona Amelia.
 
12 Jul 1896 in Livorno at the company “Fratelli Orlando” solemnly launched the Portuguese first child. 2 Aug 1897 “Adamastor” solemnly raised the flag, and the next day he came from Italy to Lisbon. Events in Le Havre has evolved almost annual delay, where in one day may 5, 1898 launched the “San Gabriel” and “San Rafael”, and also in a single day on 10 September 1900 they raised the Portuguese flag. And on September 22 the same year, the twins both dropped anchor in Lisbon. On the same day as “gavre brothers”, may 5, 1898 in Newcastle launched the “don Carlos I”. 21 June of the following year on the ship “Peru de Alenquer” in Scotland arrived with its crew and 8 July, the ship raised the naval flag, shortly after retiring to Portugal. Completed a qualitative renewal of the Portuguese Navy “Rainha Dona Amelia”. 10 APR 1899 it was launched and on 23 may 1901 enrolled in the lists of the fleet.
 
• Of course, the newest cruisers in the first place was to have a representative role. Already in 1898, “Adamastor” made a long foreign journey, designed to raise the prestige of Portugal, visiting Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Angola and Guinea-Bissau. In January 1900, the Royal family chose “don Carlos I” as a yacht for your visit to Madeira. And on 9 April of that year, a ship sent to Brazil for the representation of Portugal in the festivities on the occasion of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of South America, where in Rio de Janeiro, the cruiser was visited by the President of Brazil.
 
Presentation of the pride of Portugal at the highest level has been very successful. Brazilian Newspapers were written about the symbol of a resurgent Portuguese power, despite the fact that in quantitative and qualitative terms, the fleet of the former colonies have long caught up and surpassed his former mother.
 
Perhaps the only nuisance during nearly a month of the visit to Brazil began eight deserters. In mid-June, the ship returned home. In August, the cruiser moored at Ferrol, where he was visited by the Spanish Royal family. And in October of the same year “don Carlos I” was taken in Porto at the opening ceremony of the monument to Henrique the Navigator of Portugal the Royal couple. Here was noted in the international fleet and the cruiser “San Rafael”.
 
In January 1901 the cruiser represented the country at Portsmouth, on the death of Queen Victoria. And in the summer they escorted the Royal family to Madeira and the Azores. The convoy of the yacht “Amelia” in addition to “don Carlos I” made by cruiser “San Gabriel” and “Rainha Dona Amelia”. In June 1902, “don Carlos I and doña Amelia Reina” participated in the naval parade on the occasion of the coronation of king Edward VII, bringing to Prince Luis Philippe, a cousin of the English monarch.
 
CRUISER OF PORTUGAL
 
148. The cruiser of 2nd rank “Adamastor” (Portugal, 1896)
 
Displacement 1729 T. Length 74 m, width 10.7 m, draught 4,65 m, two-shaft power plant with a capacity of 4000 HP, maximum speed of 18 knots, cruising range of 7,200 miles, the coal reserves of 420 T. Booking: deck 30 mm, 70 mm. cutting equipment: two 150-mm, four 105-mm, four 76-mm and two small-calibre guns, three torpedo tubes. The crew of 237 people.
 
149. The cruiser of 2nd rank “San Gabriel” {Portugal, 1898)
 
Displacement 1771 T. Length 73,8 m, beam 10.8 m, draft 4,34 m, two-shaft power plant with a capacity of 4000 HP., speed 17.5 per node, the cruising range of 4500 miles, the coal reserves of 300 t Booking: deck 19 — 25 mm, 64 mm. cutting equipment: two 150-mm, four 120-mm and ten small-caliber guns, one torpedo tube. The crew of the 242 people. Just built two: “San Gabriel” and “San Rafael”.
 
150. The cruiser of 2nd rank “Rainha Dona Amelia” (Portugal, 1899)
 
The displacement of 1630 tons Length 75 m, width 11,8 m, draft 4,45 m. two-shaft power plant with a capacity of 5000 HP, speed 20 knots, cruising range of 4200 miles, the coal reserves of 322 T. Booking: deck 30— 37 mm, cutting 51 mm. Armament: four 150-mm, two 100 mm, and four small-caliber guns, two torpedo tubes. The crew of 273.

 
“Don Carlos I” chose to conduct the first experiments with radio. In this, the Portuguese was ahead by two years, nearby Spain, began experiments in 1902, three years after similar experiments in England and France. This cruiser spent the first Portuguese long-distance calls from Argentina at the beginning of 1910, in 1911, renamed by this time in the “Almirante Reis”. His first in Portugal, equipped with the latest optical range finders.
 
Interesting and ships, in modern language, in humanitarian missions. In this field the distinguished “don Carlos I”, as the other cruiser pulled hard strap colonial service. The most famous such mission was the quarantine service at the end of 1905, in connection with the epidemic in Madeira. During the execution of the task on the cruiser was the family Director of the bacteriological laboratory, antónio Reg. In January 1906, his wife gave birth to a son, named in honor of the cruiser Carlos, and later of captain Carlos Figueira Reg.
 
In the early 1900s Portugal began large-scale campaign against the slave trade that flourished in Africa. In 1902, with the active participation of the Indian marine division began building the rule of law in Mozambique. During the campaign in Barue distinguished “San Gabriel”, and Naburi and Simuku — “San Rafael”. Two years later, a similar operation was carried out in Angola, involving the forces of Division in the South Atlantic. And again in the campaign Clamato “mark”, “San Gabriel” and “Rainha Dona Amelia”.
 
In 1903 the “Rainha Dona Amelia” participated in the suppression of a strike in the Douro. But in this case, the cruisers were on different sides of the barricades. In April 1906 the uprising on the battleship “Vasco da Gama” support crew “of don Carlos I”. After statements of the authorities that the violence they are willing to respond with violence, the rebels surrendered.
 
Meanwhile, the intense exploitation and lack of qualified repair led to a marked deterioration of the technical condition of the cruisers. In 1905, it became the joke “Rainha Dona Amelia”. And behind her, disarmed “don Carlos I” and sent to the plant-Builder for a major overhaul.
 
In September 1907, the updated cruiser with all the most valuable units of the Portuguese Navy (“don Carlos I”, “San Rafael”, the battleship “Vasco da Gama” and the destroyer “Tejo”) formed Practical division of the Portuguese fleet.
 
Meanwhile, the situation in the country deteriorated dramatically. 28 Jan 1908 were assassinated king Carlos and crown Prince Luis Filipe. From October 1909 began a revolt in the Navy and in the army. These events led to the October revolution of 1910, in which the Navy was to have no role, although the “Rainha Dona Amelia” sailed to the far East, and the “San Gabriel” at the Pacific coast of America. By October of 1910 in Lisbon remained “San Rafael”, “don Carlos I” and “Adamastor”.
 
On the night of October 2, 1910, the Republicans decided on armed intervention at dawn on October 4. Arrested their officers, and the rebels joined the crew of “Adamastor” and “San Rafael”. The crew was headed by first Lieutenant Jose Mendes Cabecadas, and the second Lieutenant Tito de Morais.
 
The signal to start the revolt was three shots from the cruiser “Adamastor”, produced by the Royal Palace on the morning of 4 October. The rebels under the leadership of warrant officer Machado Santos attacked the barracks of the 16th infantry regiment. In a city shooting began. Despite the fact that the 16th regiment, and “Adamastor”, “San Rafael” joined the revolt, the crew of the “don Carlos I” took a wait and see position.
 
Revolutionaries took control of key positions in the city, turned his attention to the rebellious cruiser. In the evening aboard the ship entered the emissaries of the revolutionary Committee, headed by Lieutenant josé Carlos da Maia. As a result of their actions the commander of the cruiser and three officers were killed, and the blue-white monarchic flag over the “Don Carlos I” pulled. The next day the crew was allocated 70 sailors in the consolidated marine detachment. On the morning of 11 October, breaking the resistance of the last true monarch of parts, was proclaimed the Portuguese Republic.
 
Revolution cost Portugal to 76 dead and about 300 wounded. Of the 800 officers who was in service at the time of the revolution, only 16 had resigned. One of the first decrees of the new government was to rename ships with a monarchical name. In December of 1910, “don Carlos I” got the name of the deceased leader of the revolution, Admiral Cândido DOS Reis, “Rainey doña Amelia” was renamed “Repubblica”.
Since several countries were slow in recognizing the new regime, several ships sent to foreign navigation. First in October, 1910, went to the coast of South America “Adamastor” to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay have accelerated the establishment of diplomatic relations with the new government.

 
The crew of the “San Gabriel”, which in the autumn of 1910 was in Cavite (Philippines), supported the political changes in the country and paid visits to Asia, eventually, the ship made a circumnavigation. Its arrival on Timor affected the subordinate local administration of the Republican government.
 
Meanwhile, the political situation in the metropolis was developed far better. Contemporary Portuguese historians relate the events of 1911-1914 to the machinations of the royalists that led to the civil war. Followed by the decision on the return of all cruisers in the metropolis, where they were actively involved in combat operations. For the two of them ended sadly.
 
On the morning of 21 October 1911 because of poor visibility, “San Rafael” struck an underwater rock near the mouth of the river Ave at Vila do Conde. The hole was fatal and the cruiser sank. A military Tribunal after a nearly seven-year investigation in the end acquitted the captain and senior officers.
 
The following year, right on the traditional Day of Navy, July 8, the city of Esposende ran aground “Almirante Reis”. When it became clear that on their own, he removed, caused the gunboat “Limpopo”. Four hours later, surrendering to the gunboat of the cargo and using the tide, the cruiser pulled into the deep water.
 
With the beginning of World war Portugal, fearing for their colonies, has strengthened its presence there. “Adamastor”, “San Gabriel” and “Almirante Reis” the rest of 1914 and all of 1915, followed in Angola and Mozambique transports with the troops.
 
Remaining in the metropolis “Republica” became part of the Practical marine division defense, which carried the observation of the regime of neutrality, which ultimately turned into a tragedy. August 3, 1915, the ship went to sea and 6 th ran aground South of Peniche. Six hours later, to the place of tragedy came the tug “Berrio” the lifeguard “Valkyrian”, but their attempts to rescue the ship were not successful. But soon the outbreak of the storm made their work meaningless: the waves struck the ship’s fatal injuries. August 20, “Repubblica” was excluded from the lists of the fleet. The military Council at its meeting, having considered the circumstances of the case, after two and a half months after the disaster, acquitted the commander of the cruiser in all respects.
 
Meanwhile, after many doubts and fluctuations in Portugal is still entered into World war. Since the only common border with Germany ran through the territory of Mozambique, in may 1916, there was organized the above-described operations, in which distinguished “Adamastor”. After the war, a special decree of the government the ship was awarded the Military Order “the Sword and the Tower,” and his battle flag was passed in the Lisbon naval Museum where it is exhibited today.
 
By the end of 1916 “Adamastor” was the only combat-ready cruiser. Therefore, during the German offensive in Northern Mozambique on Board brought the gold reserves of the colony, and the cruiser was ready to put to sea on the first order.
 
“San Gabriel” greeted the war in Angola. By this time the German colony on the territory of modern Namibia fell, and his stay there was not crowned with much laurels. In April 1918, he replaced the departed for repairs in the metropolis “Adamastor” in Mozambique. Technical condition of the old cruiser left much to be desired and after returning to metropolis, in February 1922, it was disarmed, and on January 22, 1925 excluded from the lists of the fleet.***
 
Even shorter was the career of the “Almirante Reis”. In 1915 instead of the lost “respect” him formally included in the Practical division of naval defence. In January 1916, having made the last out to sea with the battleship “Vasco da Gama”, “Almirante Reis” was a joke. The load in time of war and the lack of quality of repair adversely affected the condition of the ship. Hope that after replacing the most worn-out boiler tubes the ship will be reborn, is not justified. In 1918 he was disarmed and in the month of April he turned into a floating barracks. In January 1925 he was expelled from the lists of the fleet, and a month later sold to a private firm, oboxious it in the Netherlands.
 
But the fate of the ship is not entirely clear. After short negotiations, the former Portuguese cruiser was sent to the fleet of the Netherlands, and in the end he found his death under the German bombs during the Second world war. Dutch historians do not confirm and do not refute.
 
The last cruiser of Portugal was her first-born “Adamastor”. After the war he returned to the duties of each. In June 1926, “Adamastor” represented Portugal at the world exhibition in Philadelphia. The old ship took part in another war. During the intervention of Japan in China, he landed in Shanghai troops to protect the local Portuguese colony.
 
In the 1930s, already rather outdated and worn-out ship almost forever stood on the roads in Macau. The decree of 18 June
 
1932 G. reduced his grade by two notches to the memo of the second rank. It was a formal decision as by this time the ship did not represent military values.
 
Probably their extremely long biography of the ship was obliged to the government, just not knowing what to do with it. In the end, the naval Ministry decided to risk it — and the old cruiser went on his last journey.
 
Unprecedented transition began on 8 March
 
1933 G. Ferry, the team led by captain of 2 rank Medeiros all three months was in psychological stress and waged continuous struggle for survival. Even under all the boilers, he did not develop the course more than 4 knots! July 1, 1933 “Adamastor” moored in Lisbon. 16 Oct 1933 heroic cruiser was excluded from the lists of the Navy and in April of the following year sold at auction for scrapping.
 
The result of untold Portugal was able in the late nineteenth century to build five cruisers. This group of five was the only one in the history of the Portugal real cruisers. Two of the five ships of this class were killed. But, despite the loss in time of war, all these losses only partially relate to combat.
 
Of course, “don Carlos I” stands out from all five. It became the strongest and most advanced ship of its class. For example, at the time of its construction it had the most powerful water-tube boilers in the world! However, the cruiser did not perform one of its tasks for which it was created. He was taken from the Navy at precisely the moment when the need for it finally arose!
 
And, conversely, mediocre and unremarkable in technical terms, the cruiser of the second rank are proven to be best. So, having started the postwar reorganization of the fleet, the Portuguese almost repeated technical specification for the colonial unit! Of course, during this time, world shipbuilding has made a significant step forward, and new ships classed as a memo of the first rank.
 
A. ANKA, N. MITYUKOV

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