We left Russia and its underwater aspirations in a difficult moment for the country, alas, is only the first in suffering the twentieth century. Broke out in 1904, the Russo-Japanese war found Russia in a far-from-ready position. Moreover, these words can be attributed to the submarine fleet. Not just existed, there was even no development plans, no more or less suitable for “reproduction” prototype. However, the Naval Ministry had to sign an agreement with the former firm of Holland “electric boat”, for the construction at Nevsky shipyard in St. Petersburg a series of five more units in the fall of 1903. However, the chosen system (the hull was built in Russia, the equipment arrived from the US), quite reasonable for such a new business in peacetime, during the war, became a real brake. In the end, even the head “Pike” delivered to Vladivostok a few months after the fighting ended. Late to the boat from another American lake, also assembled in Russia under the scheme of peace. A similar fate befell an earlier project hollandskyi “Beluga”. The only submarine that arrived in the far East to the Tsushima defeat, became overbought at the lake’s “Protector”, aka “Sturgeon”. But he did not have time to act before the end of the war.

Not ready for war were also domestic developments. Perhaps the most interesting of them and the most promising in specific settings near the blockade of Port Arthur was truly a mysterious mini-submarine “Peter Cat”. Her fate is shrouded in mystery. It was created by two true descendant of the legendary mechanics Kulibina: inventor Lieutenant E. V. Kolbasiev and naval engineer N. N. Kuteinikov. First in the beginning of the XX century, developed the project, and the second in 1901 built a 15-metre boat in the workshops of the port of Kronstadt. The secrecy was kept full, so that the finished “product” allegedly even did not enter the fleet! Meanwhile, Kuteinikov introduced an extremely useful industrial innovation, which is so no one then and not know. (In the years of the world war, the Germans “invented” it again.) We are talking about the way housing Assembly of separate finished sections. “Peter Cat” there were nine of them, and the biggest weight was barely over half a ton. Sections fastened together by bolts in just six hours. In the end, the boat turned out very transportable: after dismantling all the compartments were placed on the same railway platform or in the standard freight car. In fact, Russia was able to gain extremely promising subversive weapon. Such a submarine could even bring on a merchant ship closer to the enemy base, collect in a special compartment in the night and gently lowered into the water to attack. (After all, the weight of the boat does not exceed 20 tons, one fifth of which was accounted for by the batteries.) No wonder the project was interested in the well-known innovator, and the “marine commando” in the Russian-Turkish war Admiral S. O. Makarov; perhaps he even took part in the development – due to the truly draconian secrecy any documents left.
Looked the boat is simple and rational: the long flat sides of the cylinder with a very small cutting and horizontal rudders at both ends. A highlight of the project was the means of movement. Kolbasiev decided to use a small low-noise motors (only six pieces), each of which rotates its own shaft and screw. The idea is that this design promised excellent maneuverability without any vertical control surfaces; it was enough to change the speed of the corresponding motor. But in fact, the submarine was “super maneuverable” is any random speed change (inevitable when powered by the then batteries) have led to the fact that “Peter the Cat” was off course. Oh, and most importantly: the range of stroke in a total inability to load your batteries in the campaign, it is not hard to figure out was no good.
However, for the waters of Port Arthur, this collapsible (and cheap) “saboteur” with two 380-mm torpedoes could be very useful. You might expect that she was sent to the far East, fortunately, it was the only car. According to most sources, it did so. But then the mystery becomes too dense: in one of the memories of the port Arthur seafarers ‘ says nothing about the mysterious boat. Historians usually point out that it flooded before the surrender of the fortress. Curious if, according to the testimony of a prominent scientist and shipbuilder A. N. Krylov, he personally saw “Cat” in 1907 in the remote Sevastopol. And before that, in 1902 in the capital. Rather, instead of the Far East mini-submarine was sent to the Black sea, where she then sunk into obscurity aura of its secrecy. In any case, the development Kolbasiev was very interesting, but it is possible and promising.
And yet our far East received their current mini-submarine. However, of foreign origin. Her “parent” was the Spanish engineer Raymondo Lorenzo d Aquila-Mangostin, whose name is often pronounced in the French style as d Equilio. Not surprising when you consider that he began his career as a Spanish grandee (he bore the title of Marquis) in France. And continued in Germany, where in 1902 and created the baby “Forelle”, built a year later, already then famous firm of Krupp. We will tell you more about it in the history of the German “U-boats”; meanwhile, it is important that the baby (a displacement of even a little less than “Peter the Cat”) has attracted the attention not only of Kaiser Wilhelm and his naval Minister Tirpitz, but also attracted the representatives of Russia, is feverishly seeking worldwide suitable underwater vessels for its fleet.
The submarine “Carp”, Russia, 1907
1 – vertical rudder; 2 – screw; 3 – a plug (placeholder); 4 – rudder; 5 – exhaust pipe; 6 – electric motors; 7 – kerosene engines; 8 – ventilation shaft; 9 – manhole; 10 – boat; 11 – cabin; 12 – periscope; 13 – illuminator; 14 – wheel; 15 – a designated place; 16 – Kubrick; 17 – storage for spare torpedoes; 18 – cover; 19 -; 20 – batteries; 21, 22 – ballast tanks; 23 – reset the keels; 24 – Central post 25, the motor was based on “Germaniawerft” (firm “Krupp”) in Kiel. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement overwater – 205 tons, underwater – 240 t Dimensions: length – 39.6 m, width – 3.1 m, draught – 2.8 m. the immersion Depth up to 30 m. Engines: 2 kerosene engine capacity of 400 HP plus 2 electric motor producing 360 HP Speed surface/submarine 10,5/8,5 ties. Armament: one 450-mm bow torpedo tubes and two 450 mm torpedo tubes Drzewiecki (established after the entry into operation) (3 torpedoes). Crew: 29 persons In 1907 built 3 units: “Karp”, “Karas” and “Kambala”. “Flounder” was killed in the accident in 1909, the other two are flooded in Sevastopol in April 1919, at the end of the Civil war raised and scrapped

Here, patrons d Aquila, the owners of the company Krupp, made “knight’s move”, promising to give a beautiful toy if the Russian sailors will make an order for the more serious of the submarine. I must say that Germany had just begun to create their own regular submarine fleet, just in time to start construction of its first officially commissioned submarine (of course, Krupp), as broke the far East fire. Russia believed then the German Empire, if not quite an ally, as well as favorably situated to her power. Concerns remain “against the insidious samurai” without your underwater weapons demanded quick action. But it took more than three months of approvals and negotiations, and only at the end of may 1904, Krupp had signed a contract for the supply of three submarines of the same project that their own firstborn, “U-1”. Please presented “Forelle”, our side was in a hurry so much that even did not provide penalties for failure to comply with the terms of the contract! But testing of the finished boat was to be held at the beginning of 1905. Then they were supposed to be disassembled and transported by rail to Russia, where the submarine was waiting for a new and latest build that was supposed to spend a few months. It was believed that the “fish” (the boat called fish “Carp”, “Flounder” and “Carp”) could even keep up on the war.
But as you know, practice often differs from theory, and military shipbuilding that gives a huge number of examples. Was no exception and the German order. The boat was ready only by August 1905, long after the Tsushima disaster. Therefore, our Marine Ministry refused to deliver them by rail and offered to drive to Libau by sea, having at the same time, so to speak, the final test in the working environment. However, to experience until there was nothing. Russian officials carefully watched the construction of the German prototype, which was not an example of faster, noticed useful innovations and began to insist on their implementation in the “export version”. Interestingly, this did not stop then to blame Krupp in that he used a “customized” Russian boats as prototypes and the results of tests made changes in the national project, although the situation was just the opposite.
The Germans, however, rested not in a hurry to make a pretty costly improvements to existing ships, citing a signed contract. So, the “carp” left the bow (he only) torpedo tube, the outer end is tilted down. This feature is characteristic of surface destroyers (torpedo smoothly entered the water, not flopping on its surface), was totally unnecessary for shooting under water, and the Germans for their submarines have been abandoned. But the design of the Russian boat did not make the corresponding change.
The parties ‘ struggle proceeded with variable success for nearly two years. In the end, our Committee under the leadership of captain 1st rank M. I. Beklemishev was able to insist on the fact that a considerable number (about 60) claims to be resolved in Russia, but by German companies. Compromise was not a complete victory, but to delay the process of building a boat then it does not make any sense: on the stocks as Germany and other powers already laid much more advanced units. In the end, the last building the tests took place only in the summer of 1907, and in early autumn, all three submarines proceeded to the Baltic to Libau, entering into the Training squad of scuba diving. The head of the Commission has received invaluable experience which enabled him later to become a designer of submarines.
But “Forelle” had already long been in the Russian fleet; moreover, her age was coming to an end. But it is ripe just “for lunch.” In June 1904 “mobile protective pontoon”, as for reasons of secrecy referred to German gift arrived by railway from Kiel to Libau. As the boat Kolbasiev, equilibra “German” could be transported on a single platform. In the comfortable carriage of the same train went experts “Krupp”, whose task was to teach “these Russian” submarine case.
Submarine “Trout”, Russia, 1904
1 – vertical rudder; 2 – servomotor; 3 – pump for ballast; 4 – wheel drive sunroof; 5 Luc; 6 – periscope; 7 – cockpit; 8 – battery; 9 – electric motor drive cover; 10 – a drive of a horizontal rudder; 11 – ballast tank; 12 – compressor; 13 – screw; 14, 18 – horizontal rudders; 15 – capacity of air; 16,17 – TA; 19 add – in; 20 – case sliding roof; 21 – drive vertical steering
It was built by the firm Krupp in Kiel as a German “Forelle”. Type of construction – single -. The displacement of surface -17T, scuba – 18 t Dimensions: length – 12,5 m, width – 1.65 m, draft – 1.1 m Depth – up to 30 m. Engines: 1 motor power 65 HP Speed overwater/underwater – really about 4,5/3,5 bonds. Armament: two 380-mm lattice torpedo tubes (2 torpedoes). Crew: 3-4 persons Immediately upon entry into operation is sent to Vladivostok. In 1910 sank in the accident, raised, scrapped

The boat even almost not been renamed: instead of “Forelle” they called it over in Russian-“the Trout”. Mastered the submarine very quickly, and in August of the same year, the boat has already sent to the far East. Unfortunately, not in Port Arthur, whose fate was considered solved and in Vladivostok, where it was at the end of September. And in next month’s “gift” has already sailed in the waters of the port. Great result, if you remember all the other attempts at the commissioning of submarines, steadily hopeless ending a delay to the end of the war and beyond – for years.
Of course, the military value of the Trout was from the start and then remained low. The only engine, as in “Peter the Cat”, the electric motor – could not deliver either high speed (not exceeding 3-4 knots), nor acceptable range (the boat could go 20 miles under that above the water). However, the psychological effect of its possible presence (something about “gift from the Krupp”, which can be easily transfer by rail, reached, apparently, Japan) was not zero. The Japanese sailors were very afraid of underwater threats, not allowing himself to stop for long for the bombardment of Vladivostok and hurriedly departed, quickly making his case. Some historians believe that the opportunity to get the torpedo out of the water saved the city from siege and fate of Port Arthur, but this is undoubtedly a very strong exaggeration. And after the end of hostilities purely experimental “Trout” was completely lost on the background of a much more perfect samples of submarines, with immeasurably increased performance and capabilities. Lost so much that disappeared and actually. Her final fate remains unknown; most likely, a small boat just quietly dismantled for the metal in a couple of years after the war.
What, to the “carp”, they are also likely to have been experimental, though the quality of German construction expected was high. Some innovations proved very successful, for example, 6 transverse bulkheads, dividing the hull on 7 insulated compartments, made of submarine for that time, literally unique in survivability. Looked promising in itself polutorakratnoe scheme; as well as “looked” kerosene engines Kerting – German “know-how” of the time. However, not all engineering solutions were successful. Ballast tanks were located almost equally as inside the pressure hull and outside it. While the latter was filled with water by gravity, and very slowly, which had a severe impact in case of a fast dive. Already in Russia they had to redo it. And internal, on the contrary, it was impossible to blow air under high pressure; they had to empty the pumps, respectively, also at a snail’s pace. Therefore, for the emergency ascent was intended as a throwback to the past century – 4 heavy drop keel in the lower part of the body. Only now their impact was extremely unfortunate that, as we shall see, affected subsequently. The list of “childhood diseases” can be continued on several pages: the cabin is isolated from the pressure hull and internal bulkheads are recent and have not been tested for leaks. To balance the boat in the horizontal plane provided the only bow differentone tank, so the steering had all the time diving under water to be active by its mechanisms, especially at the time of release of the torpedo. Another failed idea was the filling of free space between a light and strong body tube, which, in theory, was to provide full safety against buoyancy. But, again, trivial tube were swollen in water, its specific gravity greatly increased, and as a result the boat again acquired a negative buoyancy.
However, it is easy to remember that disadvantages of various kinds had the major competitors – submarine “from Holland”. And the Russian Navy turned out to be quite useful to have the opportunity to practice “feel” the products of various schools of underwater shipbuilding.
However, these “samples” were unsafe and not without casualties. (As, indeed, most other navies of the major powers. It is enough to remember England.) “Carp” has been in service for only a month, got into a big accident, during which “shot all the guns” – is clearly evident the vast majority of structural deficiencies in the German submarines. It all started with the efforts to remove the trim, suddenly formed when filling the ballast tanks when submerged. The team tried to eliminate the roll to the stern, giving a full stroke and vigorously operating the horizontal rudders. The effect was zero. Then the order was given to take water in differently the tank, which, as already mentioned, was located in the nose of the hull. It would seem that all went well. But the boat just lost the balance of buoyancy and stone went down. This “campaign” continued until a depth of 30 m Seems to be also well: as times the maximum depth of the dive, even with a large structural inventory. “Karas” relatively smoothly and safely lay on the bottom.
But then problems started. Ballast tanks inside the hull were not designed for a blower. As for blowing the outside air instead of expelling water went inside the boat through the relief valve. Then put to use pumps for pumping water from the internal tank, but then it turned out that at that depth they cannot work. The situation is incredibly stupid, but creepy: in principle, practically serviceable boat lies on the bottom and can not “move”.
It went the motor, but poured water “under the neck” boat only slowly crawled along the bottom. Was the last measure: to relieve heavy cast iron ballast keels. And, horror of horrors, it did not help – after much anguish managed to get rid of only one of the fins. (Think of the failed mechanisms of the impact of this “last hope”.) Fortunately, the commander remembered-fashioned method of lifting off the rocks, and ordered the crew to rock the submarine, running on command from one side to the other. “Darting” is a very strong word, rather, exchanging body in a circular enclosure with a maximum diameter of about three meters, filled with lots of mechanisms, pipelines and other extremely inconvenient for such “charging” items. And, oddly enough, it helped: the boat moved, a couple of keels have finally left their nests and “Fish” surfaced. In a rather pinched condition: both screws were broken or bent, part of the battery “went” and gave a cracked, damaged and light case. The reason was simple: the excess water got into the motors through the open valve. Unpleasant accident, but, at least, all the people survived.
The submarine “Post”, Russia, 1908
Built at a Metal factory in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The surface displacement – 134 MT, scuba – 150 T. Dimensions: length is 36.0 m, beam 3.0 m, draft 2,73 m. the immersion Depth up to 30 m Engines: 2 diesel engine capacity of 260 HP (the water worked one motor in the air motor with a power of 90 HP). The speed of surface/submarine project 11/8,5 knots really 11,5/6 ties. Armament: 2 450-mm bow torpedo tubes (2 torpedoes). Crew: 22 people Excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1913, and in 1915 removed the equipment. Finally dismantled in 1924

Much less fortunate team “Flounder”. In early 1908 it was moved by rail to Sevastopol, where he put in order, and again entered the Training squad of scuba diving, but this time the black sea fleet. Boat quite successfully took part in the General maneuvers of the fleet to work on including brand-new tasks: torpedo attack at night. That’s just one such academic attack in 1909, and trouble came. Shortly before midnight, “Flounder”, was released to the squadron of battleships, which were without a single fire in the port of Sevastopol. Successfully “attacking” flagship “Panteleimon” (formerly “Potemkin”) with extremely small distances and as safely cowered away from his “goal”, the boat suddenly shifted the rudder hard to starboard and came under the battering RAM of the following -“Rostislav”. A powerful blow prow of the battleship, the submarine broke in two. She instantly went to the bottom together with the whole team and the former on Board as the head of the Squad of scuba diving, captain 2nd rank-Belkin. Out of the water only caught the commander of Lieutenant Aquilonia, who ran his boat while on the bridge. Salvation, however, was not too happy. The Lieutenant put on trial, where he received a guilty verdict: half a year of imprisonment in a fortress. The judge found that he was confused, confused “right” and “left”, giving the command, and puts himself under the stem “Rostislav”.
Two “Flounder” lying on the seabed at a depth of about 60 m, quickly found and tried to lift. But apparently, the sea has not taken to himself all the victims: one of the divers, zavodovski slings on the body, hurry up while climbing and died from the bends. The case was terminated before the arrival of trained professionals from the Kronstadt diving school. Finally managed to extract from the bottom of the bow of the hull. Aft part remained forever a victim of the sea.
The most successfully was the fate of the head “Carp”. It is also transported to the Black sea, slowly collected and put in order to the end of 1908. Subsequently, this “fish” mindful of the accident “carp”, remade one of the ballast tanks inside the pressure hull so that it was possible to blow high-pressure air. (The hero of the restructuring undergone the same upgrades.) In addition, both in addition, we installed a pair of external torpedo tubes of Drzewiecki design.
Both met for the First world war in the ranks, but the military value of the “Germans” at that time remained very low. “Carp” and “Carp” was excluded from the lists in December 1916 and put into storage. But exactly one year later the submarine again entered the fleet, this time black sea red. Briefly: after the capture of the Crimea first by the German army and then by the allies came their last hour. Ignominiously leaving Sevastopol, the former “friends” have flooded the vast majority of Russian ships, including the oldest one. Under the distribution fell and completely unfit for combat boats.
However, even in the difficult years of the Russo-Japanese war, the Naval Ministry was not only grasping at foreign projects or design “Amateur artists”. The embodiment of the metal saw and a very interesting future developments. These include original submarine design Drzewiecki with the least original name “Post”. Already very elderly at the time the inventor did not lose heart after the Navy rejected his “vodorodny the destroyer” and dramatically changed the direction of my technical ideas. Before the war, in 1903, he offered to build a submarine with a single engine, fortunately, the project already has passed review at the Ministry. As a single engine for submarine and surface progress proposed gasoline engine. On the surface on a single shaft were two petrol engine to provide a speed of about 12 knots – overall, not bad for 1903. After immersion in action there was only one engine which was turned into the pneumatic motor. It worked now from compressed air stock of which there were many in steel cylinders under a pressure of 200 atmospheres. To improve the efficiency of the air was heated with exhaust gases, and after performing useful work received in the housing to enable breathing of the crew. In this manner the boat project could go 30 miles with a speed of 6 knots, in General, are on par with the capabilities of the then electric motors and batteries. Due to the failure from the last design came out fairly easy – about 134 tons on the surface.
We can say that the project looked quite promising. It is therefore not surprising that at the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war he became interested in “Special Committee to strengthen the Navy on voluntary donations”. And in 1905 a Metal plant in Saint Petersburg received the order, and the following year began to implement it. Dzhevetsky has received probably the most unusual for the Russian Imperial Navy name – “Mail”. And the origin of this name is not known. “Conspiracy theory” claims that this was done for security reasons. But it is more likely that this method just thanked the numerous donators (the boat was built on the raised “public line” means), among whom were many of the postal workers.
All the main features and characteristics of the project Drzewiecki plant could realize virtually unchanged, including the “highlights” as the use of add-ons in the role of a kind of “muffler”: it received exhaust gases and expanded there. As we know, is the gaseous products in large quantity has become a real scourge for all boats with a single heat engine. The track bubbles gave the location of the boat in exactly the same way as a similar trail from a torpedo. Otherwise to be and could not; could only try to minimize the visibility of the track. On the “Mail” gases from the wheelhouse of the dashpot received in two long tubes, held on the upper deck to the stern. “Sabotage” gases escaped into the wild via a number of small holes. The idea is that they practically had to give place to the boat, managing to dissolve in water. However, in practice, the stealth is much less successful. On the tests indeed revealed that on the easy excitement of the exhaust gas is less visible than the breaker from the periscope. But the boat gave oily residue, which ran over her 2 – 3 cable lengths and is clearly visible at a distance of half a mile. In addition, despite the huge “muffler”, the sound of the engine when the motion of the water quite clearly differ on the surface – unless, of course, good to listen to.
Pretty original look and the system the ballast tanks to dive. In particular, the annular tank with a capacity of 1 t of water around the conning tower. It is possible quite accurately to adjust the buoyancy and, if necessary, located directly “on the heel”, without the assistance of the horizontal rudders. “Mail” as “Germans”, there were as a bilge tank, and side, but blowing them with compressed air, everything was as expected: it can be done at a depth of 30 m.
But the main highlight of steel mechanisms was a internal combustion engines running on gasoline. In addition to the two main motors driving the boat, there were also a couple of auxiliary. One of them rotates the Dynamo to generate electricity for a lamp, and the second was used for the rotation of the main wheel.
In principle, all this complicated system worked pretty well already in trials, but the mechanisms of noise much more than on submarines of other types. Did not Shine, the submarine and sea qualities: it was possible to achieve underwater speed of only about 6 knots and the surface is just over 10. Particularly depressed during the dive, approaching a quarter of an hour: the result, even in the distant 1906. “Mail” was sent back for revision, then to the test; the process dragged on for two years. After the alterations had managed to squeeze half a knot under and above water, and the sinking velocity was doubled. And in the fall of 1908 the submarine Dzhevetsky finally received into the Treasury and introduced into the fleet.
For heavier daily use I got out all the “childhood diseases”. The most unpleasant of them were real small immersion depth. She was not more than ten meters due to the fact that further dive compressor that removes overboard combustion products, simply could not cope with its task, and the boat became helpless. In addition, as already noted, the gasoline engine when working under water very noisy, what with the trail of exhaust bubbles served as a good landmark for the enemy. Moreover, it became clear that these defects are nothing significant to do not succeed. For service in “the Post” had to specifically pick people with very stable upper airway and eardrums: others simply could not withstand the pressure when the compressor and the constant noise of the engines. And indeed the living conditions were extremely difficult: for the whole team there were only four beds, and then in a makeshift option. But, moreover, from the people they had high qualifications in all. So, even the trivial, like filling cylinders with compressed air, stretched to two to three days due to a malfunction of the compressors, and obtained with so much difficulty stock enough only 3 hours of underwater travel. It is clear that the combat value of this boat was close to zero.
The result was followed by “punitive sanctions”. Originally intended the tab of the second unit was canceled, and the Mail was transferred from the existing fleet in the Training squad of scuba diving. There he remained all subsequent years, despite the fact that Russia’s leading shipbuilder General A. N. Krylov considered that the submarine Dzhevetsky is a boat in the near future and that in 5-10 years most of the underwater vessels will have a single engine. Unfortunately, he was wrong: actually those were the only atomic submarines more than 40 years later.
And the “Post”, far ahead of his time on the ideas, not promoted the year before the First world war. In 1913 it was taken in reserve and used for experiments for determining effect of underwater explosion. By boat from hydraulic shock broke all the glass and light bulbs, and then for the Martyr remained one road to a breaker. However, the war and the ensuing revolution “postponed” until 1924.
I must say that the Drzewiecki well represented all the weaknesses his submarine. 60-year-old designer demonstrated a truly youthful tenacity. In 1909, when the “Post” just finished the test, he presented the project of a new underwater ship, this time with a kind of “bastard” engine. Place petrol motors took the engines, they were used for underwater travel at shallow depths. And to at great depths do not have problems with the removal of exhaust gases from the high pressure sea water, the boat had to go on an electrical course made with low-power electric motor working from accumulators. It is clear that such vague and a little reliable option without hesitation put on the shelf. Although the test is “Mail” confirmed possibility of swimming under water for internal combustion engines, experiments of this kind were not repeated. The development of submarines has gone the other way.
Submarine “Lamprey”, Russia, 1909
Built at the Baltic shipyard in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The surface displacement – 120 tons, underwater – 140 tons Dimensions: length – 32.6 m, width – 2.8 m, draught – 2.7 m. the immersion Depth up to 30 m Engines: 2 diesel engine capacity of 240 HP and 1 electric motor producing 70 HP Speed surface/submarine project 11/8,5 knots actually 11/5,5 ties. Armament: 2 450-mm bow torpedo tubes (2 torpedoes). Crew: 22 people Crashed and sank in 1913 Raised and again put into operation. In 1918 transferred to the Caspian sea. At the conclusion of the Civil war in reserve. Excluded from the list in 1925

Including in Russia. Marine Department after the Russo-Japanese war finally shifted to domestic projects. Moreover, the designers had to rely on: the construction of American “Hollands” and the German “U-boats” was already in full pace. “Trendsetter”, the Main Navy staff expressed a perfectly reasonable opinion that it is better to have submarines of two types – small (100 – 150 tons) coastal and “cruising” for action in the open sea. The latter was assumed at the level of 350 – 400 tons, which is about the same as foreign samples.
The head design became the I. G. Bubnov; the works brought together a number of experienced engineers. (How can we talk about the experience in this completely new thing.) So in 1905 there were two project submarines with a displacement of 120 tons and 400 tons respectively. They were considered experienced, but the main outcome of the construction was to be all the same notorious experience and the choice of a suitable type.
Work at first was quite fast, especially on a little “Lamprey”, the Foundation of which was held in the fall of 1906. But then the pace slowed markedly, mainly due to the fact that could not deal with it providers mechanisms. “Baby” had to carry the newfangled diesels, which, as we recall, are unable to adequately master even the leading French factories. The same happened with the Nobel, volunteered to put the two not particularly powerful 120-strong motor. (They were the only two to rotate the shaft.) To the Assembly the diesels came only two years after the laying of the submarine. Almost the same “Provencale” with the manufacture of electric plant Volt revel. A little earlier, came from France battery, but then it was destroyed by a fire. In the end, “Lamprey” literally pushed from the factory only the beginning of the winter of 1908, and the first trial dive at the quay wall had to produce in the bitter cold!
In addition to weather difficulties, it was found that… the boat does not want to take. Had to order additional lead keel, since all the volume inside such a tiny body was completely clogged and additional ballast to take it up. Some work samples and a year passed, and only on the last day of October 1909 the submarine adopted in the fleet.
The first years of service went fairly smoothly, because the service itself is hardly tense. Sailors only “tried on” to a new ship. In the fall of 1912 took command of Lieutenant A. N. Garaev, previously known as “master and God” “Mail”. He dragged with him almost the entire staff retired creations Drzewiecki as the coach of a soccer club – of their favorite players. And it played with the commander of a cruel joke. After Moody submarines with a single engine and a “normal” boat crew seemed simple, straightforward and even safe. Diseased “star disease” the team is more rested than studied the new ship, entirely relying on his experience scuba diving. It ended very sad. One of the outputs in March 1913, it immediately went wrong. Already at the departure from the dock in reverse “Lamprey” was about to crash into a barge and lost the stern decoration – gilt two-headed eagle. Frustrated, the commander had already anticipated much of the “sticking” of the command, so did not pay attention to what the boatswain, passing on the signal of the dip accompanying the ship, carelessly shoved the box under the flooring of the bridge cabin. Once in the ballast tanks of water flowed (they were filled by gravity), it flows poured into the engine room. The sailors could not understand, and no wonder. The ill-fated boxes hit the valve, closing the air ducts, which have rendered such bad service.
“Lamprey” went to the bottom, which, fortunately, turned out to be valid, even if the maximum depth is 30 meters. Garaeva lucky accompanied the ship noticed urgently given to a lifebuoy. Approached by boat, the carelessness which differed little from that of the “experienced crew” of the submarine. There’s just no one knew how to use the telephone to communicate with the boat. Had to read the instructions! And only after a couple of hours in the port realized that something was wrong.
At this time the “Lamprey” team have not relied on your experience and desperately fought for life. The ill-fated ventilation pipe cut with an ax and tried to cover her clothes. The commander donated your jacket, many sailors stripped almost naked, but completely to stop the leak failed. One of the batteries broke the flow of toxic chlorine, poisoning people. (Here, oddly enough, helped by strong trim on the nose, formed after the purge feed tank. Water from the engine room flooded the batteries, and flooded them. Batteries died, but evolved chlorine is absorbed by water.) In General, the hapless “seasoned sailors” was only saved by the proximity of his home port. From there, quickly drove the floating crane and diving boat. The last member of the crew, the boatswain, locked in the cockpit, managed to save only almost through the night. He escaped prison, and the second commander is pleased by the court.
Very “Lamprey” was raised and repaired in time for the start of world war II. “Baby” is quite actively participated in the fighting, even went out several times to attack the enemy, but without success. She lived through both revolutions of 1917, but early next year it was put into storage. However, the small size made the submarine very popular. She was a good fit for transportation by rail, which came from Petrograd to Saratov. From there it was carried along the Volga down to Astrakhan, where she once again stood in line. This time as a “fighter” red Azov and the Caspian flotilla. In may 1919, the boat even participated in the fighting in the Caspian sea, straining his command of the white one its very existence. Only in 1925 the long-suffering worker (though not caused any material damage to enemies) was dismantled for the metal.
Much more successful from the point of view of the prospects were “elder sister” “Lamprey”, which received the formidable name “Akula”. It became the prototype for future units of domestic submarine fleet. And time coastal “babies” and experiments with them came up, no not the end, but took a very long pause.

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