“FRENCH ELECTRIC”

The idea behind the project was never built submarine “Ero” physicist Marie-Davy, to supply its electric motor, it seemed very attractive. Indeed, what could be better than a virtually silent motor which does not require any precious air and not enough fuel. However, as already mentioned, the Professor is too ahead of its time. The full rechargeable battery in the mid-nineteenth century was not, and the boat “on batteries” (battery cells) could be just the gas-guzzling toy. The possible range of such underwater “Electroapparat” was limited to a few kilometers, and to replenish the supply of energy in disposable elements was impossible.

Had to wait a… three decades. During this time there was relatively energy-intensive and acceptable weight acid batteries, and the situation at sea for homeland failed “ship” has changed. In 1870 France Napoleon III became involved in the war with Prussia and lost it completely. While on the sea the Imperial fleet greatly exceeded in number and power of its opponent (the real Navy in fact did not have), it is practically nothing useful to prevent the defeat did not. France was forced to pay multimillion indemnity and at the same time to restore the army, equipping it with modern weapons in the hope to take revenge. About big spending on naval forces had to temporarily forget the weakening of the country just couldn’t stand it. But to part with the role of the second world power at sea, competing with the powerful British, did not want to. Here the hour has come to remember about the underwater “secret weapon”, a kind of trump card is weak.
 
In the Naval Ministry reached out to engineers with projects. The greatest success fell to the lot of Claude, Guba. As we remember, he was associated with the company, supplied equipment for submarine Dzhevetsky. And in appearance, and his submarine is noticeable that, Guba learned a lot from his client. Besides, his brother was a draftsman in the firm who manufactured many components for the Russian boats. He quietly removed copies of drawings that direct the course came to his brother-constructor. What could be better! However, in such circumstances, Claude, Guba took a few years to bring in metal his first submarine, which was published only in 1885.
But it is wrong to imagine of Guba only a plagiarist: engineer, undoubtedly, contributed to the design of many fundamentally new. First of all, it refers to the body, entire cast of gunmetal – the material is strong and does not corrode. The building was like a huge “lemon” with a thick “skin” of 50 mm. In this embodiment, the crew did not have to worry about the “failure” at the depth of several meters: the case for sure would survive, the critical remained only the holes with their seals. And is primarily – shaft, having at the output of the hinge mechanism, allows you to rotate it left and right, replacing vertical rudder.
 
The layout of the submarine, Guba, 1st option. France, 1885
 
The layout of the submarine, Guba, 1st option. France, 1885
 
Built at the naval Arsenal in the city of Rochefort. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/underwater 1,5/1,8 t Dimensions: length – 5.5 m width – 1.7 m height with cabin – 1.78 m. body Material -gunmetal. Maximum depth is about 30 m. Engine: electric motor, speed surface/underwater -4,5/3 uz. Weapons: a pop-up charge with a weight of 102 kg, mounted on the bottom of the target. The crew – 2 people have been Tested in 1885 and 1886, adopted adopted not sold in Brazil
 
1 – scissors; 2 – floodlight; 3 – pin for the head-up orientation; 4 – batteries; 5 – zip camera; 6 – a tank of compressed air; 7 – differentia tank; 8 – ballast tank; 9 – a removable metal ballast; 10 – electric motor; 11 – pumps; 12 – propeller; 13 – a floating mine; 14 – lever paddles; 15 – oars

 
The same idea Drzewiecki, except that a little more carefully solved technically. But “innovation from Guba” look an obvious anachronism. He decided it was a good complement to the electric motor will be… ordinary paddles placed on the sides and driven from inside the boat by a system of levers. The French believed that they could save the submarine in the case of a complete discharge of the batteries or to serve a purpose when approaching the enemy ship because of the quiet operation of the engine. When driving under electric motor oars were laid along the sides, and the situation was essentially the only even budge with the oars, nearly two-ton boat proved too difficult. The more that paddling could only be one of two crew members sitting face to nose. His partner settled down with her back to him as Dzhevetsky. This kind of “halved” version of Russian submarines, with significantly less viable compared to “bike” – manual transmission.
 
However, innovations “from Guba” is not restricted to the main engine. Improvement of machined and differentone ballast tanks serviced by pump, also worked by the electric motor (due to a lack of confidence in electric motive power, they, of course, duplicated manual drive). The most significant improvement in looks, the device automatically save the horizontal position, representing a movement with a pendulum, which when trim and leaned back or forward, including a suitable pump, overtaking the water from the bow differentional tank in the stern or Vice versa. The system is ingenious, but the decisive effect is not ensured. Boat randomly fell into or protrude on the surface of the sea, the nose, the stern; the pumps couldn’t pump the needed amount of water. However, such a device is somewhat simplified the management of such a cranky craft, which were all submarines of the last century.
 
Moreover, swimming could be for a very long time, the supply of compressed air under the seats of the members of the crew allowed the boat to rise to the surface during the day. In a critical situation is reset disposable ballast – heavy detachable keel, for exemption from which was enough to loosen only one nut. Like a trifle, but he actually once saved the life of sailors, among whom was the inventor himself.
 
Submarine Guba, 2nd option (in the background of the 1st option)
 
Submarine Guba, 2nd option (in the background of the 1st version)
 
Initial design of the submarine Gimnote (
 
Initial design of the submarine Gimnote (“electric eel”)
 
Submarine Gymnote (over water - only cutting), 1888
 
Submarine Gymnote (over water – only cutting), 1888
 
As with all submarines-contemporaries, the weakest point of the boat, Guba were monitoring tools, and weapons. Latest designer borrowed from Drzewiecki almost unchanged: a 100-kg mine pop up under the bottom because of the same rubber bags filled with air through a flexible tube at the right time. This method could give a result unless with the connivance of the perfect stillness of the enemy, excellent visibility under water and obedient management. But, as usual, there were insurmountable problems. Usually the boat was moving in positional status when the water remains only a small cabin with portholes (again, almost an exact copy of the “underwater mine apparatus” Drzewiecki). But to attack Willy-nilly had to take. In cloudy weather, not to mention the twilight, visibility was minimal. Had to move literally to the touch; the only assistant to the commander remained an original combination of the “aiming pin” in the nose and compass. Took a course on goal, and should have noticed the angle that differed cursor position and a “sighting device” that is already under the water trying to save it and exit at the bottom. Very roughly and very unreliable.
 
It should be noted, Guba showed a lot of ingenuity in trifles, later on in one form or another actually used in other projects. For example, from the bow of the boat could move as many as three-meter (almost the length of the boat) rod with a pair of scissors on the end. They propose to cut the anti-submarine nets (which didn’t even exist!), minray, mooring ropes and other possible obstacles. Very original was the way of delivering information to the surface. For this was hermetically closed glass balls, inside which were placed dispatch. The ball was produced from a small mine with two hatches which could be opened simultaneously and thereby prevented the water under pressure to break into the case. Then this ancestor boat buoy floated due to the presence of positive buoyancy.
 
In General, it is easy to see the first boat Guba was a like a toy, but certainly with promising ideas. In principle, it fared well in tests conducted at first in the traditional “boat” place in Paris on the Seine, and then in the sea. If not for a fairly significant defects “autoreplaces” trim, the submarine could be considered quite successful. However, and so it made a lot more noise in naval circles, than the “source of inspiration” – Dzhevetsky, which at that time was already built in series. What a shame, even in Russia. To the inventor of the “hype” was only a plus. Shortly after testing the boat, Guba, and not adopted by the bought the distant Brazil. And the designer himself in 1886 received an order for the development of your child, signed by the marine Minister and the great enthusiast of submarines Admiral G. Obom.
However, despite this support, it took three years, until she went the second boat, Guba. It was a much enlarged prototype (the displacement has increased in 2,5 times); thus, the construction had to apply several other technologies. A single cast housing of this size – with a length of about 8 m – could not put any one plant, so I had to use three sections from the same gunmetal that are fastened together by bolts powerful, cleverly hidden inside the case, to prevent possible corrosion. The thickness of the structure, considered in the prototype too high, is somewhat reduced: the center section is left 25 mm, and the tip is less than 15 mm. However, the “French case” was very reliable, compared to used in other countries by covering leaves with numerous rivets and joints.
 
The rest of the second boat retains many of the features first. The same removable keel-ballast (weighing as much as half a ton), the same device for automatic regulation of the trim (alas, as inertial and unreliable), the same observation tower. Only now it was the only head – commander of the boat. Positional position he watched the situation through the portholes, and the submarine – with a primitive periscope with a length of 4 m. the Remaining two crew members “don’t see the light”. Aft was electrician in charge of the main engine. By the way, that was borrowed from… the tram, and also produced the firm’s main potential enemy – Germany. The share of specialist in electrical engineering and had an emergency release of ballast-keel. Duties of the third crew member was more varied, but not always pleasant. He was listed as a mechanic and operate pumps and other equipment, ballast and dif-francofonia tanks, and also served as a “mailer” (the boat were equipped with the same proprietary system to communicate with the outside world by means of glass balls). To unpleasant functions mechanics treated rowing, he, if necessary, had to move the oars, trying to move 5-ton submarine. Frankly, challenge from an assortment of gods and titans.
 
The main changes related to weapons. Instead of a completely failed system “a La early Drzewiecki” on the sides of the case in light grilles (a La the already Drzewiecki later) placed two torpedoes of the Whitehead with a diameter of 350 mm, the latest at the time of the weapon. The launch was carried out from the inside in position and a submerged position. In General, turned out quite decent ^ _ ^ although possessing all the characteristic of his own time disadvantages. These were first of all absolutely insufficient autonomy. Under the “tram” motor boat could go at least 20 miles to full discharge (return from attack on the oars in time of war can be seen as a deadly stunt). Another limiting factor was the supply of air, which is enough for 15 hours. However, continuous underwater journeys of that duration then you could only dream of. The record for a second boat, Guba was 8 hours, however, and this was perceived almost like flying over the pole. A lot of inconvenience brought tiny reserve of buoyancy (no more than 5% of the displacement), made the submarine and its crew held hostage to any small waves, accidentally splashed into the open hatch when driving on the surface. And, of course, remained persistent problems of observation and retention of the boat in a horizontal position. They both, moreover, were also closely associated with the use of weapons: torpedoes, released at the bottom or “in the air”, could not harm the enemy.
 
The boat, now almost fit for combat use in France adopted is still not accepted. Remained true to Guba Brazil; for her designer soon built several modified project another two units. Export option included the use of steel as a body material instead of an expensive gun bronze. Had to increase the thickness of the structure, which has contributed to the growth of tonnage nearly doubled, to 10 t In other parts of Brazil differed little from the prototype, except that the fastening system of lattice torpedo tubes which were located now on the original “wings” – another attempt to facilitate the stabilization of the submarine in a horizontal position.
 
Anyway, the career of the French “zaimstvovanij” (although a good engineer) was going to sunset. Brazil its a miracle weapon got (any use of his information). At the beginning of the XX century was followed by a more substantial attempt to “sell” submarine, Guba no more and no less, as the “mistress of the seas”. In Britain, their enthusiast were suddenly Admiral E. Fremantle, who believed that with some refinement, these boats can become a useful weapon of battleships and large cruisers. They were supposed to take on Board and apply in the right conditions, in the manner of the “secret” of mine boats. To implement the idea of the Admiral even founded the company “British Submarine boat”, which, however, the case has not started. Too quickly developed in those days underwater case: the Russo-Japanese war boats, Guba already thoroughly obsolete. However, it seemed not everyone. With the second submarine inventor, is not accepted by the Ministry of Marine and avoided sales overseas in Brazil, is interesting and dark story. It was sold to a private individual (without torpedo tubes), organized by the underwater skiing on lake Geneva for holders of substantial purses. Allegedly, in 1903 it drew his view of the Russian Maritime Ministry, while frantically narashivanie forces in the far East in anticipation of the almost inevitable collision with Japan. Then begins the legend: supposedly the boat was secretly bought up as secret brought on Board under construction in Toulon of the battleship “Tsarevich”, which she proceeded all the way to Port Arthur. This story is unsubstantiated, but it testifies to the interest to the works of Guba in Russia. So, in a Handbook of the navies of the world, published under the patronage of the Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich, they are given more than one page), and about the sad situation in our country with underwater case in those days.
 
In France, the progress of underwater electric quickly left the boat, Guba in the shadows. The reason was that their design and construction was done by real professionals, and people with big names and smart heads. The famous shipbuilder C. Dupuy de Scrap, the Creator of the first screw battleships and the first battleship in just a few years before his death, which followed in 1885, and came to the conclusion that the submarine will be almost perfect vehicle for coastal defense and that the best engine for it will be the motor. In fact he was convinced the experiments with airships (de Scrap doing them!), where the famous engineer pass all the way from the apparatus set in motion by muscular force, to quite civilized, and most importantly, a lightweight motor. Therefore its application in a submarine just suggests itself. Undoubtedly, de Scrap would he to design and build a good boat, death is interrupted these plans. But, to put it pompously, the torch from his hand took Gustave, Seda, a close friend and he is very well known engineer, and concurrently also the chief designer of the firm with the world name, “uh forges Chantiers de La Méditerranée”, where he built not only the French battleships and cruisers, but the ships for Russia. Having received the blessing (and order) from the same naval Minister Admiral About it for a year and a half (twice as fast, Goba) developed the working drawings and built his submarine – has had all the advantages of a boat-Builder-professional. And this despite the fact that his “Imnot” turned out to be several times larger than the creation of “plagiarist Drzewiecki”.
 
In November 1888, “electric eel” (as translated Gymnote) went to trial. The name of the submarine is fully justified: having almost the same diameter as the rather clumsy “lemon”, Gube, the creation of Seda was more than twice as long. When the length to width ratio approaching 10, it could be compared to a delicate acne. The construction of the hull consisted of a fair amount (every two feet) ring frames, fastened longitudinal beams-stringers, which are “stretched skin” – steel lining is not too thick (4-6 mm). This design is common to most subsequent “submarine” is undoubtedly inferior to cast bronze for strength, but was cheaper and more technologically advanced. The hull was divided into three compartments, of which the longest was the bow, and the most important average. It was the motor with quite decent characteristics – 55 HP – more than ten times more powerful tram motor at Guba. He spun the shaft with a single screw and fairly large diameter. The main problem, of course, was “food” for the motor. Batteries of that time were very massive, and the energy accumulated slightly. So the battery was already out of 564 items total weight of 9.5 tons (nearly a third of the displacement “Eel”), literally spread out through various locations in all three compartments. Moreover, the range, although superior at times to that of the “lemon”, Guba remained clearly insufficient. To surface the boat could go from 60 to 140 km, depending on speed (at max range it trailed by only 4 points), and under the water and less: to a complete stop of the motor due to battery drain, a little over 80 km in the course of just 3 knots. However, at that time, these values looked very impressive. The boat for the first time could “look beyond the horizon” to go back – in fact re-charge the batteries was only possible from the generator at the base. Rowing massive “electric eel” to move could not. With the advent of new “charging batteries” “Imnot” retool more capacious and less heavy elements, in the amount of just over 200 pieces and ground at a third less than the original. The range of underwater and surface speed has also increased by about a third. A good illustration of progress in electrical engineering of the late nineteenth century! It becomes clear why the pioneer qualities of the submarine so quickly become useless to convert them were often more expensive and troublesome than to build new.
 
Scheme is the wave of the boat
 
The scheme is the wave of the boat “Gustave Zede” (began to design and build the Gustave Zede, finished – Gaston Romazzotti)
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Gustave Zede”, France, 1892.
 
Built at the shipyard company “e forges Chantiers de La Méditerranée” in Toulon. Type of construction-single -. Displacement overwater/underwater – 266/272 t Dimensions: length – 48,50 m diameter was 3.31 m hull Material – bronze. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: 2 electric motors, power 720 HP Speed surface/submarine project – 15/12 bonds, real 9,2/6,5 ties. Armament: 450 mm bow torpedo tubes with 3 torpedoes. The crew – 9 persons Joined the Navy after 5 years of trials in 1898, scrapped in 1909

 
However, he “Imnot” has been in service long enough. In principle, the submarine “Side” had all the necessary fighting qualities of weapons, which consisted of two 350-mm lattice torpedoes in the torpedo tubes outside of the case, and quite advanced equipment. The latter consisted of two compasses, one of which is traditional, magnetic, and the second gyroscopic, first used on a submarine. However, it is difficult to say which of them was in the campaign a large “fiction”: literally “go crazy” in a steel shell magnet or capricious and constantly come down gyro. Well, these are the realities of time. At least the designer has done everything possible for navigation and surveillance, which was carried out in two periscope, also competing types, mirrored and prismatic. Looked pretty well and the controls, represented by a pair of vertical rudders located in the stern in the manner of a fish’s fins, and a pair of horizontal, located in the same place, nearby. They allow you to make dynamic immersion with a small residual positive buoyancy when the boat was underway. Of course, there were ballast, and differentone tank zapolnyatsya by gravity and drained with pumps. In short, “all as at people”, that is, as in most subsequent submarines.
 
Unsuccessful can be called unless the wheelhouse and superstructure. The first one was too low and small, just two feet in diameter, and the second low and narrow. About the living conditions of the crew can not speak, it is very small diameter, at the widest middle part hardly above human growth, and to limit noise battery compartments were filled with more and poisonous fumes of the acid. Five members of the crew in each of the outputs had a very hard time. No wonder in the beginning “Gymnote” came out only Sega Gustave and his faithful companions-the engineers, one of which was Ramazotti, later he became a famous designer of submarines, as well as another friend of the late de Scrap, the pilot and Creator of the airships Krebs. Gradually, however, this group of professionals has been replaced by the Navy, not just replaced during 18 years of service on the Mediterranean sea. “Imnot” has made almost 2 thousand dives and would have served longer if not for the accident that happened to him in Toulon in 1907. The boat went to the bottom; although it is relatively quickly raised (thanks, in main base lacked special means), to restore damaged water equipment did not. A year later, “Eel” handed over for scrapping. So ended up, of course, an outstanding submarine, created by the talented designer.
 
Immediately after the completion of the “Innotop” engineer designed another submarine, increased in 9(!) time. He even managed to lay it at the end of 1889, but did not wait for the launching. After about a year inventor was killed during the test propellant rocket engine, and the submarine was finished already Gaston Romazzotti. The student has made to the boat named on the stocks “Siren” was renamed in honor of its creators.
 
Submarine “Gustave Zede” is distinguished from “Gymnote” first of all, the size, and the next jump was very impressive. Submerged displacement approached three hundred tons, length – to fifty meters, and the diameter of the body had allowed the crew members to stand upright and not only in the diametrical plane. Changed the material of plating: steel designers instead turned her gaze to the durable, non-corrosive and not magnetic bronze. However, not cast, which did not allow the dimensions of the housing, and in the form of sheets, superimposed on the frame of the 76 frames and a dozen stringers.
 
Equipment and devices in General, repeating existing “Gymnote”, except that with regard to the “renewed three times” size. Some units had a truly frightening dimensions; in particular, the electric motors (which became two, with a capacity of 360 HP) weighed 7 tons! Under a “horses” were “food” for them: rechargeable battery included 720 separate items and weighed almost as much as the engines. She was a real “Achilles heel” of the boat: very capricious and difficult to maintain, emitting noxious acid vapours and also possessing a spontaneous self-discharge. It was allocated a fair amount of heat, sometimes causing not only discomfort, but and tear of the elements and fires. One of them boat has suffered badly, and then had to make a willful decision to reduce the number of batteries by half.
Such strong fires no longer occurred, but have “dipped” the performance of the submarine. Instead of 12 knots under water “Gustave “, Sade” developed not more than 6.5; surface course was slightly better, but still far from the design data (9.5 per node instead of 15). Has been more than halved and the range was calculated at an impressive 175 miles (on the surface), and received a total of 85. Interestingly, this is just enough for the trip from Toulon to Marseille and back: the boat really could cover both the main port of the southern coast of France, that is, for the first time was a serious combat tool. She demonstrated it on a Navy test in 1898, after the torpedo attack, not only stationary targets, but going 9-node speed of the battleship. And after three years in the course of manoeuvres “Gustave Zede” has absolutely unexpectedly for the “enemy” that nobody warned penetrated into his Parking space at the base of Ajaccio in Corsica and quietly released a training torpedo in the side of the battleship “Charles Martel”. Noise this attack has done a lot: in all the countries realized that the most powerful ships were really dangerous opponent, which can not be ignored.
 
However, and to overestimate “Gustave, Side” not worth it. After commissioning the boat “brought” for four long years, only then it really started naval service. About it is far from the design parameters we have already said, and the disadvantages of not exhausted. The submarine, like all its predecessors, is very poorly kept deep, moving not horizontally, and “sine”. Moreover, the amplitude of this “sine wave” reached half of the maximum depth of a dive! Partially managed to overcome the unpleasant phenomenon through the installation of three pairs of horizontal rudders instead of the original one. Pretty balky and delicate navigation and surveillance equipment. “Gustave, Seda” as “Imnot”, and had the magnetic and gyroscopic compasses, however, despite the seemingly non-magnetic bronze body, periodically refused both. The reason of such behavior of a magnetic “tool” is clear: to completely remove all iron and steel elements of a construction was not possible. And the gyros were still experiencing the “nursery period”, although the device on the boat even connected to mechanical tablet for automated plotting.
 
I did not quite meet expectations and periscope: despite a fair size (36 cm in diameter), the mirror gave a dim and distorted image, so the boat had to surface periodically even when attacking. This is the picture you were watching the British attache in educational output “Gustave Zede” battleship “Magenta”, when the submarine was twice podplyvaet after the initial discovery. It is clear that in combat she would hardly be able to bring the case to the end. Not match the capabilities of submarines and the formidable statement of her commander that she would be able to stop a whole enemy fleet. The boat had only one torpedo, although quite modern, built-in shell in the nose, replacing the previously used outer designs “a La Drzewiecki”. Spare torpedoes were available, but recharging apparatus at turtle underwater speed is unlikely to consistently attack at least two targets, if they moved even a small move. What to say about such things as inconvenience to the members of the team in the “outputs at will” on the surface. The boat still had only a narrow low add-on and slightly grown in height (1.5 m), but still a tiny cabin. Had to sit on a specially designed rack with shelves, about how the hens on the roost.
 
Submarine
 
The submarine “Walrus” Gus yuna Ramazzotti
 
Cherbourg. Submarine
 
Cherbourg. Submarine “Algerian”, Ramazzotti
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Corrigan” engineer Moga, France, 1902
 
Anyway, “Gustave, Seda” served a total of 15 years, of which 2/3 of the time – the fleet, having made nearly two and a half thousand dives. A solid result, with no significant accidents (with the exception of the great fire of batteries). It is clear that the continued development of the project here was just asking for it. Nowadays, the process is not delayed: when the design is created in compliance with the covenants of his older companion was still on the stocks, he proposed the project several more moderate than the future “Gustave Zede”. However, the Naval Ministry was willing to wait for the results of tests of a large boat. Since the latter is considerably delayed, Ramazzotti had to wait six long years, from 1891 to 1897, to begin implementation of the project. Of course, this “exposure” does not add positive qualities to his submarine, dubbed “Le Morse”. (Le Morse means “Walrus”), According to the spirit and design of the submarine Ramazzotti almost completely repeated “Gustave Zede”, although he was a half times less. Came into operation it’s already in the XX century, and left the Navy almost simultaneously with his “senior companion”. By the time the design of it is already somewhat outdated and not like it seemed promising, but held in the end of 1896 Fastsky famous incident when two future main ally in the Entente, France and Britain nearly went to war with each other, returned to actuality the creation of Ramazzotti. The French urgently began to raise money by popular subscription, but you need half a million francs and odd managed to get not so fast. Only in 1901, when the threat of war seems to have passed, laid a couple of pieces, this time closer to the “arrogant England”, in Cherbourg. On the bronze trim was not enough money, and its use as anti-magnetic measures are not justified, so the “français” and “Algerien” (quite presciently named after the main inhabitants of France a century later) made of steel. Saved and torpedo tube in the hull, setting the lighter, but less convenient external devices Drzewiecki system, but in the amount of four pieces. Both boats served until the outbreak of the First world war, for which they are already outdated.
 
In addition to “emergency”, “French” and “Algerian”, at the same time was built and a “regular” naval variant, generally similar to “Les Morse”. Designed it is not a “southerner” Ramazzotti, a naval engineer Moga. We cannot say that much has improved: although “Dwarf”, “Farhada”, “Corrigan” and “Lutin” (nicknames of all small home fabulous animals, from a dwarf to a house) was finally refined and more or less workable periscope and drop the keel completely monstrous weight, more than one third of displacement! This “rehypothecation”, among other things, did not help, but made matters worse: half of these boats are at the bottom, as the team did not have time to “give the keel.” “Farhada” and Lutan” raised, the first even, just in case, renamed “fall,” but the trust, tend to “suicide” submarines and could not be found. Write them off for scrap even earlier ancestors. Not the last role is played absolutely disastrous performance: “gnomes” could not develop under water for more than 4.5 knots instead of the planned eight. Hardly better was the case with the surface course, which amounted to 8 knots. And this at a time when any warship without problems speeds at least twice as large.
 
However, Moga has made another attempt, already creating a more “their” boat with a strange name “Z”. She had a single motor, and the main feature was the speed of immersion, which formed just a few seconds – a great result today. But paid for this quality the price was fatal: on the surface “the last letter of the alphabet” had a tiny reserve of buoyancy, only 3% of the displacement. Hence it is clear that immersion was able to quickly compensate for a small amount of water. However, this trick looked almost fatal, it was enough to take in ballast tank a little bit more water than necessary, and the boat is literally a stone off the bottom. More than was modest and performance. So speed was just over 8 knots and 4.5 knots on the surface and under water, respectively. So, in General, a good thing – electric submarine – was completely Compromis-based, mainly because of its unreliable and heavy “electricians”. And “Z” was indeed the last French boat with a single engine in the face of the motor. More such submarines in “beautiful France” is not built and is not designed, and the “last letter” was sent into retirement just five years after the entry into operation, and the entire five-year period took various experiments, in particular, the comparison with the new submarines with a combined power plant. For the latter, no doubt, remained the future, but the “electric Frenchmen” to become just another step in history.

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