And Johnson, after the building of the vessel some fame, was very active among the former “friends” – Bonapartists. Napoleon was in exile on the island of St. Helena, in 7 with superfluous thousand kilometers from Europe. Nevertheless, hotheads left no ideas to rescue his idol from captivity. This could not please the British secret service, which decided to focus the efforts of the conspirators in the right direction to her. Here, Johnson became a key figure. He suggested the idea: to build for the rescue of the Emperor a large submarine in the image of “Admiralty”. A group of conspirators sailors must pass her under sail most of the way. When approaching a patrol line of British ships (and the British are not lazy to keep the island marine patrol) boat dive and go to the island rowing in a submerged position. There “capturing group” ashore, destroy the guards and take back Napoleon. Again poddernuv under the patrol, the submarine will meet in the open ocean with a normal sailboat, and the great Emperor will begin his next attempt to return to power.
Even a very non technical person can easily conclude how the plan was ridiculous. We saw how a little distance could go under water submarines of the time and practically not suited for surface campaign. Not to mention such “trifles” as the size of the planned boat, which had to fit a “flying squad”, plus the Emperor himself.
In General, one can only marvel at the naivety of Bonapartists who fell for the bait. For several years Johnson (in fact, the English secret service) collected funds for the project, obeskrovlivaya financial supporters of Napoleon and distracting them from the much more real plans.
However, Johnson still built the submarine, in order to be able to report to their threat “sponsors”. Built, of course, slowly, appealing to the inevitable difficulties. The story dragged on until the death of Napoleon, but did not end. A tireless adventurer decided that the good should not be lost and in November of 1821 attempted to kidnap your own “product” from the shipyard on the Thames. Most likely to try to sell it to some gullible buyers abroad. But the guards were on the alert: “stealing” is interrupted, and captured the submarine (or “semi-finished”, now set is not possible) is subsequently burned away from sin.
The project of submarine officer M. Custer float, France, 1827
Not built. Type of construction – single-hulled, with floats. Dimensions and other data is preserved
Submarine-chariot M. Custer
Thus ended this adventure in the best traditions of the secret services. What Johnson, at least, something built for the French (although with a clear end result). They themselves were limited to the projects. Although some of them clearly deserve to be mentioned, as an illustration of how the idea ahead of technology.
It is, in particular, the captain of the 2nd rank of the Royal Navy, Jacques-Philippe de Mongeri, created in 1823 by the project of “underwater pirates”. It primarily affects a big way: submarine, named “L Invisible” (i.e. “Invisible”), was to have a length of 29.3 m, width 8,2 m and to carry a steam engine, rotating the two side paddle wheels. Interest and housing design – a set of wooden, covered with iron sheets, the so-called composite option, hold on the fleets of different countries until the late nineteenth century. In General, a very progressive sail-steam Corvette, the mast of which could get out into special grooves in the deck, after which the ship was immersed, but not completely over the water remained the top carapace decks and commander tower with portholes. Steam machine in this case turned into a gas explosive action. It was supposed to undermine small portions of the powder to the formed gases could move the piston. The idea is not new (we already encountered it in other projects), but hardly feasible in practice. When failure of the machine (you can just say, planned) the case enters the main reserve of the propulsion force. The sailors had to spin a heavy wheel by hand (a real floating hard labor), fortunately, the team was supposed to be very numerous, under 100 people. Curiosity is aroused and weapons “Invisible”: on the surface the fire could lead to four large-barreled of columbiad. Plus, it was supposed … a flamethrower is a rare guest on the ship. Underwater Arsenal is striking in its scope. It included hundreds of missiles and the same number of towed mine! In General, Manjeri not too restrict themselves in fantasies. Possible reason: of course, an extraordinary man and inventor, he ended his life in a madhouse.
In his footsteps a few years later the Marquis went Fayad d Aubusson. His “polyommatini” also had a rather large size (length about 23 m), although the type of housing looked more like a barge than a warship. Interest is first of all the propulsion; the Marquis, not Jurassica physics and mathematics, found that the optimum option would be a jet. This meant two large pipe with rods driving the water towards the stern. As a “source of strength”, as you can guess, it was supposed all the same muscles of the crew. D Aubusson believed that they invented the engine will allow, especially without straining, develop a speed of over 3 knots for eight hours. Modern physics teacher would put the Marquis “poor” but in those days it seemed that the laws of nature, you can cheat by using a special “engine”, though not quite “eternal”, but very muscular and renewable.
Submarine sculptor K. Deschamps, France, 1856:
1 – tanks of compressed air; 2 – ballast tanks; 3 – lead ballast; 4 – cork shock absorber; 5 – the lever of a drive of the propeller; 6 – thrust vertical rudder; 7 – propeller; 8 – wheel
Type of construction – single -. Dimensions: length of 2.65 m, width 0.75 m, height with cabin 1.25 m hull Material: iron. Immersion depth – position. Motor: muscle strength, propulsion – propeller. Armament: was installed, the diver could pin the charge on the hull of the enemy. Crew: 1 person In 1855-1856 he was consistently tested on two boats of similar design. Both sank during tests
Submarine No. 2 K. Deschamps:
1 – door; 2 – the attachment of the sleeves; 3 – reservoirs of compressed air; 4 – ballast; 5 – lead ballast; 6 – pump; 7 – fur for pumping air; 8 – drive propeller; 9 – removable cargo; 10 – rubber shock absorber
As you can guess, these large-scale projects have remained on paper. Willing to risk money (quite significant) was not represented by the state, or among individuals.
However, even a much more modest and potentially feasible options in poslediplomnogo France were not well received. So proposed about 1827 Michel Custer little submarine was kept reasonable for that time technical solutions. One of them was a large float that was on the surface of the water and holds the boat. He was allowed to renew the air through a flexible hose to an underwater housing, as well as accurately and safely control the depth of immersion, just pulling or releasing cables”suspension”. This is from the point of view of the inventor appeared to be very important. Modest official has not dreamed of the salvation of the Emperor or the conquest of the ocean, indicating that his “product” can be useful not only for military purposes but also for carrying out various underwater works. For this purpose, in case there were lower portholes, which allowed to consider the bottom, and two pair of leather sleeves ending in gloves. In conjunction with the mover – flat blades, rowing in the manner of frogs ‘ legs, they did the boat Custer like some kind of amphibian, most likely for Triton. However, the internal structure of “protologue” was well thought out, including the division into compartments and the presence of a lock chamber for diver. In General, it is feasible and good for its time option explicitly are relatively inexpensive. But even he understanding of “the summit” is not met. Custer suggested a rather original design, kind of a cross between a submarine and a “battle chariot”. This submarine could move along the bottom of the big wheels, allowing not worrying too much about balancing at a given depth, which was then a huge problem. (Remember how many boats and the unfortunate crews fell victim to the too sudden withdrawal under water.) However, the expression “might” clearly indicates the fate of the second draft of Custer, who suffered the same fate as the first.
Then we will talk about a young French physician Jean-Baptiste Petit, whichrussia in 1834 alone – in the absence of any engineering training to build a tiny metal submarine with a length of only 3.5 meters. This design is driven by the inventor by using a pair of oars, quite famously floated on the surface of the water, collecting in the small port of Saint-Valery at the mouth of the Somme, a huge crowd of people, more than a thousand people – almost the entire population. The doctor brought home from the butcher shop a few weights so he could plunge his creation. Bold lover said goodbye to the audience and disappeared under the water. The audience waited for half an hour, and then began to worry. But to help the unfortunate, no one could: in the seaside town was not even a diver. The next morning at low tide opened the creation of the PTI, inside of which were the killed doctor. The reason common to almost all of the first “Amateur” submarines: incorrect calculation of buoyancy, the lack of capacity of pump for pumping water, lack of air, causing eventually death from suffocation.
Trouble with small submarines, constructed by Amateurs, do not particularly affect the activity of enthusiastic divers. 20 years later an attempt of the unfortunate doctor decided to repeat… sculptor. However, you can marvel at the engineering skills of the representative of the art world. Casimir Deschamps has shown remarkable abilities, creating in 1855, already a very small boat, with a total length of 2.65 m, width 0.75 m and height of 1.25 m (together with a glass dome that has always been above the water). The boat the author wisely had planned from the beginning polupodpolno. As the material for the body sculptor chose his usual, though expensive material is copper. “The mechanical part” of the structure were all of the same muscles the only member of the crew. But loaded “gymnastics” it was the eyeballs. Hands “the commander, the sailor” was turning some semblance of a Cycling drive transmitting the rotation on the screw. Feet he flew the rudders through the respective hinge rod. However, hands were needed for more important things. On the sides of the hull were 2 pairs of rubber gloves with long sleeves. When approaching the target (military use although not declared, but implied) the submariner-universal turned into a fighter. He had to stick his hands into the sleeves and gloves (with the right side -both) and try to set the charge or, if the peaceful applications, to collect from the bottom of the treasure, or at least to attach a cable to lift the load. Of course, the sculptor not bothered by such petty problems as the method of mounting the mines and bring it into action. However, even without this the construction of the boat and failed to finish.
But that didn’t stop Deschamps. The following year he started to build a second, what seemed to him a more perfect version of the mini-submarine. The main improvements occurred in the proportion of the unfortunate “akimania”: perhaps the master thought that he is not loaded. Now, in addition to control the rudders, the legs were intended to “exercise” the blacksmith’s fur, which was carried out forced circulation of air. (Stock it had received from the container, well supplied with gearbox.) Did not remain without attention and “without duties.” still part of the body. Rocking on a chair, super-submarines could now by using two piston pumps to pump out water from ballast tanks. In General, it’s just scary to imagine what was written would be a separate part of the body of the commander while moving, taxiing and surfacing. Perhaps Deschamps could get a patent on his “mechanics” as a excellent exerciser. As a weak compensation for the inventor decided to limit pair of sleeveless gloves, one on each side. Perhaps realizing that the deprivation of the “crew” of both hands at a critical moment can be fatal for a boat, and for himself.
Underwater vehicle (boat) “Eragiketa” engineer P. Pierne, France, 1846:
1 — tanks of compressed air; 2 —intermediate compartment; 3 — additional manual drive propeller; 4 – chemical; 5 – airlock; 6 – flue pipe; 7 – the wheel
Built in Cherbourg. Type of construction – single -. Dimensions: length 10.67 m, body diameter of about 3 m body Material: iron. Immersion depth of about 10 m. Motor: muscle strength, propulsion — propeller. Weapons: none, the installation charges by divers. Crew: 6 — 8 people were Used for underwater work in various ports. Scrapped in 1858.
This time the sculptor-designer, brought the case to the end, which was not the way he imagined. The submarine successfully launched, she even somehow floated in a positional situation, but first test it in a real case could have been tragic. It is clear that this is an attempt by the author: want to get into a little odnopozova “gas chamber” was not found. Deschamps wanted to help lift a small ship that sank in the Seine, but couldn’t: the boat lost stability and sank. Enthusiast with difficulty saved, but he’s already got carbon dioxide poisoning, as well as several bruises and a few fractures.
The story mini-submarine, or “underwater Bicycle”, that took the intermission. But not ended: the idea was very attractive to Amateurs, and we will see how representatives of different professions will still be enthusiastic to storm it. Alas, almost always unsuccessfully.
Very different was the fate of the development of a professional, combined with good financing. French engineer prosper-Antoine Bayern paired with rich donors by Michel Bouet in just a year (1846) has built quite a large underwater vessel, which received the name of “Hygrostat”.
The submarine was in the form of a very large bullet: a long cylindrical barrel with a rounded nose. For durability, the designer has provided the corps a dozen metal hoops. Inside, there was a bulkhead that divided the “bullet” into two parts. Aft was concentrated the whole “technology”: manual drive screw, a pair of pumps for pumping ballast water, thrust rudders. Front were divers and placed the appropriate equipment: airlock, hoses, cylinders of compressed air. From section to section you can go through the sealed hatch in the bulkhead, which in the normal position, tightly closed and tightened with screws. Albeit primitive, but the undoubted concern on the survivability and fate of the crew; remember that we are talking about the mid-nineteenth century. Don’t forget Bayern about the lighting: the light was filtering through the numerous Windows in the upper part of the body. There was a lead and hoisting the anchor, and a device for absorption of carbon dioxide. In General, the engineer worked very carefully, using all the meager opportunities of his time. And the “product” paid him a surprisingly long and blameless service. For 12 years of “Hygrostat” actively used for a variety of underwater work, from clearing the harbour, the military port of Brest before harvest supports end-of-century bridges in the capital, Paris. In principle, it is a simple, but viable underwater ship suited for combat use: the same the divers could set the charges, then we undermine the short circuits fed by the battery that was in the boat. (This is done with bridge supports.) However, France is not led in those days of wars in which it would make sense to use a “Hygrostat” in the Crimean campaign the allied fleets, times superior Russian, coped with their tasks, and without such tricks. Yes, and the suffix “stat” in the title turned out to be very useful: it is unlikely that the submarine would be able to go to the hidden attack; its muscular engine with such a massive size played a role, except that the auxiliary means. But, anyway, the boat Payerne became the first French submarine, received practical application, and very extensive. But the lack of serious accidents for such a long time is a credit to the designer.
All the French military is not too hurried to get a “superweapon”. We remember the futile attempts by Brutus de Villeroy, you in the years of the same Crimean war submarine be of interest to his government, which ended with the emigration of the inventor.
Not helped and truly heroic efforts Pierna, which perfectly represented the Achilles ‘ heel of their offspring: the apparently low mobility, those who destroy at the root the idea of the elusive military means. And in 1854 he created the first submarine with a mechanical engine, not involving the use of human muscle power. The choice at that time was extremely small. In fact, the only exhaust (and even then not completely) the engine was steam. It required three components: fuel as source of energy, oxygen for combustion of the fuel and water to form a “working fluid” – a pair. The designer realized that it is preferable to have two boilers. One conventional design, the machine works on the surface of the coal, essentially the same as the locomotives. Difficulties with the boiler was not observed, in contrast to the second boiler is a special version for underwater travel. The inventor had to solve several tough technical problems: to provide oxidation of the fuel and exhaust steam and boiler gases. With water, no problems there: on Board, there was always a supply of fresh water, in principle, necessary for any ship with steam boilers. The problem of burning fuel Piern decided through the use of a ready mixture of fuel and oxidizer. The role of the latter is sodium nitrate. The removal of steam and gases was provided through a special “underwater pipe”, provided with a shut-off valve, opened only outward, in excess of the vapor pressure above the external water pressure. In principle, from the point of view of physics, both ideas seemed reasonable.
Submarine engineer Konsey, France, 1859:
1 — horizontal handlebars; 2 – diving suit with the helmet; 3 — a cranked shaft of the propeller; 4 – compressed air; 5 – propeller; 6 – wheel
Built in Le Havre. Type of construction – single -. Dimensions: length 9.0 m, width 1,67 m, height of 1.98 m. Material of case: iron. Immersion depth 6 – 8 m. Engine: muscular force to drive the crankshaft, a propeller – the propeller, the surface speed of 1.5 knots underwater – less than 1 kt. Weapons: not mounted, the commander could set the charge on the hull of the enemy. Crew: 8 persons were Tested in 1859, not adopted. Subsequently rebuilt in a rescue vessel, was supplied by a steam engine
But their implementation has demonstrated the complexity of the technical and chemical problems. Nitrate, of course, allowed the coal to burn, but the resulting oxides of nitrogen in conjunction with water vapor, as it is easy to understand nitric acid. The high temperature in the furnace led to the fact that this corrosive mixture acted not only actively, but quickly. Posted with steam, it is literally hours disabling not only the boiler, but the inside of the cylinder of the machine and its piston. And “Eragiketa”, named as the designer of his new creation, indeed, passed into a static state. Really, an unfortunate name.
A lot of problems was caused by the removal of steam and gases. Because of the uneven burning of the charcoal with saltpeter valve constantly choked, outboard water threatened to get into an accident the cylinder and to complete the work begun by the acid. In addition, the plume of bubbles issued “Providesthat” a possible enemy. In General, the military use of the imperfect of the engine (crash piarovskih boiler followed literally one after the other) remained an unattainable dream. The rest of the design of the first operating, albeit poorly, steam submarines largely repeated quite proven muscle “System”, albeit in a larger and more streamlined now with both ends of the metal case. Steam is a descendant of the result and continued the career of an ancestor, after serving for several years as a diving base is the same. It was only used with a conventional boiler above the water to exit the position and maneuvering, although the job in such cases is good enough and tug.
Bayern was not the only French engineer of the mid-nineteenth century, left their mark in the history of submarine building. His colleague Konsey in 1857 – 1859 years actively worked on his submarine, largely repeating the unforgettable creation of Fulton. But at least one technical solution has been very new. We remember the famous “American crankshaft”: the actuator, which allowed to connect to the “useful work” according to the movement of the boat under water, the maximum number of crew members at the same time. Well, the first drive of this type have appeared on the boat Konsey. (And then, most likely, not without the help of the designer-emigrant Villeroy, you it moved overseas.)
Another useful item steel vertical rudders, of which there were two pairs in the bow and stern. This configuration allowed for more flexibility in the depth of immersion, though effective rudders required a more or less significant speed. And to ensure its “motor” of six (with a total of eight crew in the shower) couldn’t. On the surface somehow managed to briefly develop magical half node, but the submerged boat could not even resist the current: it was drifting down the river – all the same fatal the hay. So, in fact, not useful, and the third “originality” of the inventor: some kind of “polovodye”. In the center of the building upstairs was arranged in a special compartment-the gateway, ending not even a sleeve with a glove, like Deschamps, but the rubber (more rubber) shirt with a conventional diving helmet, which was through “shock-Supervisory” team member. A sealed compartment is allowed to equalize the pressure inside with the outside, so much trouble he experienced. Besides, instead of cutting over the water were only quite a few notable diving helmet. In principle, the device of the engineer was a lot more practical “sculptor’s” and was subsequently used in other projects.
However, the achievements and Amateurs, and professionals undoubtedly fade before the main French project the mid-nineteenth century, the famous “Plongera”. This underwater vehicle can be called truly serious, fortunately, was at this time not only the professional shipbuilder Charles Brun, but the sailors themselves in the face of the captain of 1 rank of Simon Bourgeois. By the way, the money for construction was allocated by the Naval Ministry, which controlled the whole process. All this had a beneficial impact on the project and its implementation. Founded in 1862, “Les Plonger” (“Diver”) has started testing just over a year. However, they lasted more than a year, but the sailors at this time was something to experience! The size of the submarine Brune and Bourgeois was ahead of its time for nearly half a century. More than 450 tons, underwater displacement – ten times more products “DIY masters”, as we have seen, are quite numerous. While the crew consisted of 13 persons: the same nabivshimi in close hull boats with a diameter less than the growth of man, sweat, was turning crankshafts or other actuators that use muscle power. “Plangere” the team was spared from this: designers have provided his air two-cylinder engine, driven by compressed air from 23 big (length more than 7 m and a diameter of more than 1 m) of cylinders. After “work” the air is efficiently supplied into the Cabinet and served for breathing of the crew. Of course, with the active power of the engine did it in considerable excess, so that the air had to be off through a special valve. Of course, he left at the same track on the surface of the water, which was not conducive to stealth. Furthermore, despite the block the interior of huge tanks, supply of this kind of “fuel” missed just 12 miles when driving in a submerged position. Turned out to be too optimistic and the estimation of the velocity: inventors have assumed that the boat will be able to give under water up to 9 knots, but in fact she did not develop even half of that. On the surface “Diver” could move a little faster, but still inferior to the speed of any steam vessel, and the vast majority of sailboats.
Submarine Le Plongeur (“the Diver”) shipbuilder W. Brune and captain 1st rank S. Bourgeois, France, 1863
Built at the naval Arsenal in the city of Rochefort. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/underwater 420/453 T. Dimensions: length 42,5 m, width 6,0 m, height with cabin 4,35 m hull Material: iron. Dive depth is about 10 m. Engine: pneumatic machine, power – 80 HP, thruster -thruster, the speed of surface/underwater – 5/4 ties. Weapons: – charge on the shpiron, is not really established. Crew: 13 persons were Tested in 1863 and 1864, for service is not accepted, in 1867, converted into a tanker ship. Scrapped in 1937
So the water once again proved to be a very unaccommodating environment. Not helped even the most carefully slick lines. However, the thoughtful design is admired: after all these tricks belong to the middle of the last century! The hull was divided into compartments by five transverse and two longitudinal bulkheads, in contrast with completely defenseless against any accident of the “barrel”. Furthermore, for emergency cases, include specific tool like would call now, a rescue apparatus. It was a metal punt respectable size (length about 8 m), attached the bottom to the hull of the submarine three threaded screws. The entrance was through two pairs of the hatch, inside the lifeboat could accommodate the entire crew. After loosening screws that the camera crew alone has surfaced due to the airtight compartments in bow and stern, filled the air. In General, it is a modern solution.
Was well thought out and the process of surfacing of the submarine. Ballast tanks were blown through the same compressed air; in principle, such ideas were in the air, but on this scale was implemented for the first time. The reason is clear: “Plonger” immersion took more than 30 tons of ballast water, which is pumped by the pump within a reasonable time would be difficult. In case of an emergency provided the option of “one-off” float, which the boat carried 34 tons of old cannonballs have several “closets”, locked with an iron rod. If necessary, the rod pulls out from the inside of the core spilled out of the submarines, extra pop without purge tanks. From the point of view of future generations of underwater vessels, this option seems unnecessary, but submariners of the 60-ies of the XIX century, it hardly seemed so. In General, the creators of “Diver” take good care of the people. On the surface, the light coming through the large Windows with thick glass, and submerged the case enters a special lamp, still oil. The commander could observe the environment from the small of the conning tower as tall as a man. And again, for the first time it was equipped with quite modern for that time equipment: in addition to the compass, there were the negotiation of the pipe leading to the engine room and steering compartments.
“Le Plongeur” made a strong impression on his contemporaries. Indeed, designers were the first to build such a large underwater vehicle, which is real (and good!) swam both above-water and submerged, where the team was really in a “Royal” conditions compared to other specimens of submarines. Many of the distinctive characteristics of the “Diver” is clearly visible in the immortal creation of Jules Verne – the mysterious and powerful “Nautilus”. The writer was actually present at the descent of the “Plunger”; and the characteristics of this miracle impressed the fiction. Maybe that’s kind of weird device in his nose real boats led him to think about the main weapon of “Nautilus” -heavy-duty steel RAM. Actually, the long pipe was only a “stub” for future weapons. In fact, it was supposed to equip the ship Brune and Bourgeois trivial shestova mine, although a more advanced design. The infamous pipe was supposed to be a kind of “sting” piercing together with the charge in the case of target, after which the boat retreated backwards and out of it produces an explosion by closing an electric circuit. It is easy to see that the weapon of this kind is very unreliable. The same conclusion was reached by the sailors, who refused to turn “Plunger” real “storm seas”. The submarine never got real weapons and existed in its original quality is very long. Despite the success of the test, after only four years, in 1867 she was relegated to the status of… liquid barges. Interestingly, in this form, the first real big submarine lasted 70 years, until 1937!
Affected the reasonableness of the hull design and quality of manufacture.
However, in his original purpose “Diver” not interested in customers – sailors. Those wished to see only its negative side: a tiny cruising range on compressed air, the difficulty of holding the boat at a certain depth (a disease from which, as we shall see, to get rid of was the most difficult), the unreliability of weapons. In the end, the idea was not continued, and the history of submarine building like “I passed this station.” Meanwhile, it is likely that more attention to the “Plonger” would allow designers of many countries to save a lot of time and effort. It would seem that it was enough to wait for the time when there will be relatively reliable engines, allowing to solve the problem of range and speed, better weapons, self – propelled torpedoes, multiple to change the “mechanics” of steering gear and get quite a decent combat tool. But engineers for some reason chose another time not to tread on their soles polished rake, repeating many of the mistakes of its predecessors as regards equipment and the size of submarine vessels. “Diver” had remained a lonely dinosaur -quite unfairly.
Meanwhile, the solution of the problem with the engine happened to be very close. In the pursuit of it shouldn’t even have to leave France, and by the time of the creation of “Le Plonger” it’s already been known. It was enough to look at the project of a submarine “Ero”, developed by Professor of physics Marie-Davy from far from the sea, Montpellier.
A physicist has proposed a variant, which became for many years the main use for movement under water electric motor that did not require any fuel or precious oxygen for combustion. Interestingly, in the “electrolock” Marie-Davy, the use of this motor was brought to full universalism. In addition to driving the boat, it was intended for rotation of the drill in the “drilling” of the hull of the enemy. This combination of modern and archaic becomes clear if you pay attention to the year of the project is 1854, the height of the Crimean war. It is clear that in the practical implementation of the project was not practicable: the batteries of the mid-nineteenth century was a full of the exotic and was ineffective. But what prevented the constructors to return to the idea later, when the development of electronics would make profanatica in the real deal? After all, the first suitable for use on submarines lead acid batteries came just six years, and in 1884 the invention of the French engineer K. Fora in the form of grids made them quite energy efficient and technologically advanced. To answer this question is difficult: the designers chose to go its winding paths, not just passing the “loops” in the same place. Especially if they were in other countries. However, the French reaching the middle of the last century were not in vain: yet a little experimenting, by the end of the same century, France became one of the recognized leaders of the underwater shipbuilding.
Recommend to read MOMENTUM BELIEVES ELECTRONICS Ubiquitous electronics is steadily expanding its "activities". Where yesterday it was considered "foreign", today it becomes indispensable helper. Approval this fully applies to karting.... “MIKRUS”TOURIST CAR Practice Amateur autocostruzione, including my personal, shows that wagon layout with the use of wheels with tyre size 5X10 (motorized С3А) provides a very convenient and rational design...