GENUINE RUSSIAN NAVY

The victory over France in the war of 1870 opened to the Federation of German States, formed under the auspices of Prussia, a completely new Outlook In Central Europe is variegated carpet of the numerous Duchies, counties, kingdoms and markkraft appeared a powerful state that had access to the two seas — the North and the Baltic In its composition was the seaside city, once part of the Hanseatic League, the strongest of the medieval sea trade of the company Clear the views of the rulers of a United Germany sooner or later had to turn to the ocean The more successful in almost all respects, the war with France proved to be completely ineffective for the Prussian fleet is Disproportionately weak, compared to the Navy’s second naval power of the world, he, nevertheless, was rebuilt several steamers of the Lloyd auxiliary of the cruiser and tried to use them for actions on communications of the enemy.

 

However, it just had neither the strength nor skill, the Germans explained that a special peacefulness in relation to international trade (sounds a bit of a parody, if you remember the unlimited war at sea in the First and Second world wars) One solution to create naval forces had little to do With the construction of a new German fleet acutely raised two fundamental questions — where to get the ships and who is going to swim’? The first had two decisions to buy warships abroad or to develop their own shipbuilding Germany chose the second path, and soon, once the sole Prussian shipyard in Danzig joined the factories of the company “Vulcan” in Stettin, the state shipyard in Kiel and Wilhelmshaven and other enterprises a Solution to the second problem — the formation of crews required a much longer time and many training voyages. The problems arose with the command staff If experienced enough sailor can be prepared for two or three years, the commander gains experience of at least five to ten years, and what to say of the admirals’? Before the advent of experienced senior officers would take decades, and lead the fleet needed now And here, Germany has found its way — in the first years the fleet was led by army generals In 1871 Lieutenant-General von Stoch has held the position of chief of the naval forces, as well as being the head of the marine Department of the war Ministry In these positions, he was 12 years old And in 1883, after his departure, the Navy Department was headed by General von Caprivi.

 
To the formation of a fleet of Stoch started on my own land purely For a person’s General understandable is a situation when the army consists of two parts one of them is in the heavily fortified fortresses, and the other, including cavalry and forming with light weapons, engaged in forays and exploration, continuously disturbing the enemy forces According to Stasa, the role of “fortresses” were to play battleships of coastal defense in conjunction with their bases, while the role of the “cavalry” was a good fit cruisers From the armoured forces had to wait a little while shipbuilding Germany was possible only in small vehicles But intensive enough to build armoured cruisers could start from that German shipyards and engaged, gradually increasing the pace with regard to performance, nothing outstanding United Germany in the beginning did not create the First corvettes much like hopelessly outdated ships defeated France, However, German designers quickly abandoned wooden hulls Actually pure wood became only the first three of the cruiser “Ariadne”, “Louise” and “Freya”, founded immediately after the war francoprussian next two cruisers, by the way, the largest over the next decade, “Sedan” and “Leipzig”, had an iron hull, however, covered with layers of wood and copper — that time traditional anti-fouling With a displacement of slightly more than 4,5 thousand tons, they carried a substantial battery of twelve 170-mm guns and a pair of 380-mm torpedo tubes and those And others had a full sailing rig, but they were sailing equally disgusting. Leipzig seemed to the generals too large and expensive, and the next, already a fairly large series of six ships named after famous military figures, had one and a half times smaller in size More modestly was “the ladies ‘company” “Carol”, “ol”, “Marie”, “Sophie”, “Alexandrina” and joined them “Arkona” Designed in 1875, but began to build almost five years later, they were hopelessly outdated by the time of entry into service (“Alexandrina” and “Arkona” was included in the fleet only 10 years later — at the end of 1886, in this time, Armstrong was already built clones of the famous “Esmeralda”), Although “ladies” carrying externally a formidable battery of ten 150-mm, plus a pair of guns of smaller caliber (88 or 105 mm), all guns remained nizkorentabelnye with very small angles of attack and imperfect shells.
 
Interestingly, for nearly 15 years, the Germans did very little to improve the performance of their cruisers on the Contrary, at the beginning of 1880-x years, they soon deteriorated Single 2000-ton “Nixe” had a speed of just 10 knots and is absolutely not suitable for use as a vehicle (besides his artillery consisted of eight guns absolutely non-standard for Germany 125-mm caliber, which were subsequently dismantled one by one ) it is not Surprising that “nice” immediately relegated to the status of the training ship, although in this role he had a hard time Corvette very badly behaved at sea, particularly under sail was Founded in 1883 year, the “Charlotte” was a virtually enlarged copy built eight years ago, “Bismarck”, of course with full sail “Charlotte” became the absolute champion among his contemporaries by the number loaded on Board (do not dare to say — mounted) guns, eighteen 150-mm and sixteen 88-mm, excluding small calibre, is and all this with a displacement of 3700 t> In the original mechanical installation of the ship two cars worked on one shaft it is not Surprising that soon after entry into service had to replace these machines one twice the capacity and reduce the number of guns To the end of the century artillery original cruisers came into line with the size of the ship, and there were only a couple of 105-mm and twelve 88-mm guns However and “nice” and “Charlotte” will serve as a training, and then the vessels long enough before the First world war in Fact, all of the many cruising economy (and only during the “breeding” Stosh until 1883 was laid on 22 Corvette and messengers ship — memo) at its core was the training quality did not allow to hope for success in the “big” war, by the Way, the General’s command there were no ideas in the question of how we ought to use in this case of the cruiser But in any case they cannot be called useless by contrast, without high costs, Germany has solved several problems at once produced quite a large number of sailors and, most importantly, to the German flag started to get used to the whole world Almost all of the corvettes most of his career spent in long voyages, often in tropical seas, off the coast of Africa and in the Pacific, where a new great power began to gather their own possessions In General, I do not know when in history so bad for its time, warships were so in demand and useful result with the onset of the 1890’s, when the Empire of the Hohenzollern took the last representative of the dynasty, Wilhelm II, an enthusiastic supporter of building a strong fleet and a man who considered himself a connoisseur of Maritime Affairs, to implement its far-reaching plans was available for people and guns, and factories, and docks
 
By the time all the major Maritime powers have practically done away with unarmored cruisers, Dago small ships of this class acquired the armoured decks. Germany, like other States, also started the construction of combat vessels, the first of which were two cruisers of the “Irene” can be considered the founders of the “large cruisers” of the German fleet; development line continued armored “Maiami”, which were replaced by the armored units and, in the end, linear.
 
 
56. Armored cruiser “Augusta Kaiserin” (Germany, 1892)
 
Built at the shipyard “Germany” in Kiel. Displacement 6220 t, length of maximum 123,20 m, beam 15,60 m, draught of 7.40 m. the thickness of a three-shaft steam engine triple expansion installation of 14 000 HP, speed 21.5 per node. Booking: deck 50 mm (on the bevel 70 mm), cutting 50 mm. Armament: four 150-mm, eight 105-mm, eight 88-mm guns, four 37-mm small-caliber gun turret and five 350-mm torpedo tubes. In 1898, the artillery consisted of twelve 150-mm and eight 88-mm rapid-fire guns. Completely rebuilt in 1903— 1907, removed four torpedo tubes. 1914 — artillery training ship. Scrapped in 1920.
 
57. The Corvette “Ariadne” (Germany, 1872)
 
Built at the shipyard in Danzig. The tonnage 2040 tons, the length maximum of 68.16 m, width of 10.81 m, draft 5,70 m. Capacity single-shaft steam engine installation of 2300 p. p., speed under steam 14 knots. Armament: six 150-mm and two 120-mm rifled gun (eight 150-mm on the “Freya”). Only 1872 to 1876 built three units: “Ariadne”, “Louise” and a few large size “Freya” (2370 tons, length 85,35 m). Everything was delivered on spom in 1891 — 1897 years.
 
58. Armored cruiser “Irene” (Germany, 1896)
 
Built by “Vulkan” in Danzig. The displacement of 4950 tons, length of maximum 103,70 m, beam 14.20 m, draught of 7.62 m. Capacity twin-shaft steam engine installation “compound” 8000 HP, speed 18 knots. Reservations: the deck is 20 — 30 mm (on the bevels 20 — 55 mm), cutting 50 mm. Armament: fourteen 150-millimeter, six 37-mm small-caliber turret guns, three 350-mm torpedo tubes. Only in 1888 — 1889. built two units: “Irene” and “Princess William”. Repeatedly rearmed, in 1893 artillery consisted of four 150-mm, eight 105-mm and six 50-mm guns. Completely modernised in the early twentieth century. Reclassified in the auxiliary court in 1914. Scrapped in 1921 — 1922 years.
 
59. MAPY cruiser (memo) “Hel” (Germany, 1896)
 
Built by the “Weser” in Bremen. A displacement of 2050 tons, maximum length 105,0 m, width 11.0 m, draught of 4.55 m. Capacity twin-shaft steam engine installation of the triple extension, 6000 horsepower, speed 20 knots. Booking: deck 20 mm (bevel 25 mm), cutting 30 mm Armament: four 88-mm and six 60-mm rapid-fire guns, three 450 mm torpedo tubes. In 1906, two 88-m guns removed. Since 1910 is a auxiliary ship, in 1914, was again used in the current fleet to patrol in the North sea. Sunk in September 1914.

 
The first ships of the new type turned out not too successful, their reservation was weaker than in the Armstrong cruisers, and artillery did not correspond to those requirements which at that time was made to the armament of the cruisers. And it looked really bad such specific cruising features, such as the speed and autonomy of Germany did not want to use armstrongism rapid-fire guns — krupovskaya tools had a worldwide a very high reputation, and the transfer of the order to the competitors would be a very unpatriotic thing to Pay for political games had the crews of the cruisers “Irene” On paper they are fourteen 150 mm guns looked very solid, but none of them were rapid-moreover, only four of the guns had a barrel length of 30 calibres and stood in the sponsons in the middle of the hull, the rest was short — only 22 — and could not shoot next three miles, and had a rather narrow sectors of fire to the actual date of entry into operation the first of the German armored cruisers were good enough to fight with the help of this foreign ships They could only be used for the same traditional purposes “cruisers in peacetime” showing the flag worldwide, a small punitive expeditions against tribal leaders, as well as educational sailings. For such purposes they are quite fit, differing in chain good seakeeping and a moderate pitch and rolling in addition, they are well obeyed the helm, the commanders of maneuverability and control has always been purely positive. In General, despite the formidable rows of guns, it was a peaceful time for “Irene” and “Wilhelmina” was a natural state.
 
The weakness of the artillery of the German cruisers were not a mystery for the leadership of the German Navy, so in 1893 they rearmed: 150-mm guns in the sponsons left, the nose 105 of the graph paper were replaced with rapid-fire long gun barrel in 36 caliber, and eight on-Board replaced But six rapid-fire and artillery still remained weak Repeatedly had proposals for additional re-equipment, in which cruisers would have received several more rapid-fire 88-mm guns. However, this option was never implemented, likely due to the small combat value of the ships (already by 1895, the speed of 18 knots was more suitable for gunboats than cruisers)
 
But progress gradually took their Designers and factories to gain experience. The latest “General” cruiser, “Kaiserin Augusta”, was a starship created for quite other grounds. In fact, he became the first application in Germany is quite modern unit class
 
Unlike their predecessors, the idea of buildings which were not fully understood, neither for the designers nor for the management of the fleet, the new cruiser is clearly intended for the war against merchant shipping. The emphasis was on high speed, but at the same time “attack” and “defense” did not remain without attention If the artillery compared to the overloaded predecessors look moderate, the armored deck was quite solid for its time “Kaiserin Augusta” for its idea and incarnation in many ways resembled the Russian “shestidesiatniki” “Varyag”, “Askold” and “Hercules”, which was built a little later, just before the Russo-Japanese war was Supposed the cruiser’s speed will be able to catch up with almost all merchant ships of the enemy and get away from exceeding it by force of warships — the classic formula for the raider and scout
 
High demands on driving performance resulted in a significant increase in length and displacement Outwardly of the first “real” German cruiser were three pipes and a complete lack of mast. A revolutionary feature was the transition to three-shaft power plant. It has become traditional for big cruisers of the German Navy and received fairly wide distribution abroad Instead of cars double extensions were installed machine with triple expansion of the steam, with vertical instead of horizontal arrangement of cylinders However, water-tube boilers have not yet become common and the designers were limited to traditional cylindrical. Body made of steel at progressive longitudinal-transverse diagram of the power set. Because “Augusta” was intended primarily for service abroad, including in the warm seas, its body, like its predecessors, trimmed the tree and buntmetall — alloy replaced copper Interestingly, this “coat” was raised above the waterline by almost 0.7 meters
 
Somewhat disappoint artillery Krupovskaya of skorostrel not yet arrived, so I had to install a temporary weapons you want to replace at the first opportunity. Quick-firing guns appeared, as expected, in 1896, and immediately installed it on the cruiser
 
The first experience of creating large high-speed combat ship was not very smooth. Almost immediately, even on tests, it became clear that the case is not strong enough and requires additional amplification. Besides, even during the trial of cars idling in one of them there is a serious accident. So the cruiser in June, 1893, was sent to the factory Work required to correct identified defects, demanded a lot of time, and return the commissioning of the ship was possible only in may 1895. Thus, he had to serve only several months, after which it took almost two years for its finishing!
 
Concluding the conversation about the German Navy is somewhat vague, but it is a fruitful time of “land admirals,” it would be unfair not to say a word about a very small cruisers. Interestingly, since the late 1880-ies almost simultaneously the ships were built almost the same displacement, but markedly different in idea and purpose. One line of development set the tone a tiny “Schwalbe” and “Sperber” with less than modest was almost all the features, and the displacement of 1340 tons, and a speed of 14 knots (while maintaining the sails), but quite a strong artillery of eight 105-millimetrovogo, not counting small-caliber skorostrel In fact, they were a colonial kolodki (as if Germany was not enough for this purpose other, more solid ones) However, the “light cruiser of the fourth class” was developed in the face of several differing to Manado a six a little larger in size “seedpro”
 
More interesting is the so-called torpedo cruiser, for some reason klassifitseerimise in Germany as messengers of the court orders Their ancestor was the 1150-ton “Ziethen”, built in 1876 in England, it Originally never supposed to have artillery weapons, although subsequently established six 50-mm guns but the Main highlight of the project was a novelty at that time — two 380-mm torpedo tubes located in the bow and stern, with a large supply of torpedoes. The Germans creatively developed the idea of installing larger descendants “Titina” already self-development, “Blitz” and “Pfile”, it is quite decent for the 1460-ton-tion dwarfs artillery (one 125-mm and four 88-mm guns) In the future, mini-cruiser, armed mainly torpedo tubes, has developed its own way — namely, as a torpedo gunboat or cruiser of mine (in the same Germany — the “memo” is “Watches”, “Yagd”, “meteor” and “Comet”) And their slightly larger counterparts were the prototypes of future cruisers, scouts, or these light cruisers. So, built in 1887, “grife” when displacement 2230 t has not had a torpedo; his artillery, which consisted only of a pair of 105-mm turret and a dozen small-caliber 37-mm guns, technically much inferior armament “Schwalbe”. However, the “Greif” was a much more modern vehicle With its three pipes, 19 nodes and the complete absence of the mast, he gave the impression of a fast scout for the North or the Baltic sea, which he, in fact, was. And the gun (later replaced by eight 88-mm skorostrel) were good and for the destruction of the destroyers of the “Greif” was turned into a floating warehouse before the start of the First world war, but the last mini-cruiser, “Hel”, built in the mid 1890’s, was more “lucky”. It was the first battle ship sunk by British torpedo boat. “E-9” put it down 13 Sep 1914 in North sea.
 
V. KOFMAN

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