“MISTRESS” IN THE PURSUIT OF

We left Royal Navy under development hollandska-Spirovska submarines of the first generation. This series of nameless boats revealed both advantages and disadvantages of the first Maritime powers of the world in a completely new shipbuilding. The first, of course, include the speed with which built submarines. Here, the shipbuilders of Britain showed their best side. Despite the fact that I had to produce a fundamentally new boats, the timing was very compressed and the quality is very high.

 

But in terms of experience, divers “mistress of the seas” had very hard times. They were trained very intensively, courage they were not to take, but skills are skills difficult, with the loss of the “secret ships”, and the lives of their crews.
 
Another weakness was the complete lack of their own projects at the initial stage of development of the submarine fleet, that is not surprising, given the persistence with which the Admiralty rejected the proposal of its designers. Well, now the British had to pay “movement in the Wake” of its former colony.
 
The first series of the British submarines that have received special designation And with the corresponding number, consisted of 13 units. In fact, almost all representatives of this “pack” is considered “native sisters” Only the first four largely remained “American”: from the first transatlantic serial “Hollands” different ships “Quartet” first of all, Yes, perhaps, and only in length, which increased by as much as 11 m. (British, more specifically, develops this “adapted” project firm “Vikkers”, formally brought it to a round figure of 100 feet, but the length of the body was a bit more “accurate” 30.5 m). The rest is almost preserved in the analogy with the overseas-type: kerosene (gasoline) motors, the same feed system rotation on a single shaft, the same the only torpedo in the nose. Despite the increased length, internal layout largely corresponded to the prototype from the “electric boat”. However, even among the first of the Quartet was not a complete kinship: from A-2 the designers even slightly lengthened the case and increased its diameter. “Cucumber” a little podrazdel and got a few more reserve buoyancy, as by the time it became clear that this factor is critical from the point of view of the ability to somehow float in the open sea.
 
The first “truly British” boats aroused great interest of both sailors and the public at large. They arranged tours for the elite. The controller of the Navy (the main person responsible for the construction and acceptance of ships for the Royal Navy from the Admiralty), even dared to let into A-1 my daughter. Moreover, the boat then sank, even at the wall dock. The crew ran inside the hull, mimicking the acceptance of ballast in different tanks, while high-ranking father explained to the girl the “artful arrangements”.
 
But in addition to the state demonstrations continued for the rough work, sometimes very dangerous. At the stage of acceptance of the A-1 explosion gases released from batteries that seriously injured four workers “Vickers”. The commander of the boat, Lieutenant Mansergh, so I bought gasolinevin adjustment of engines, not just left to spend the night on Board the mother ship-uterine “Hazard” to continue his “fighting machines” in the early morning. However, these troubles seem very insignificant in comparison with the fate of the submarine. Head unit, the operation of the motors which finally managed to establish the first large maneuvers in March 1904, just… gone. The search have rushed the mother ship-womb “Hazard”, which soon discovered a bright white spot of abundant pop-up bubbles of several meters in diameter. “Hazard” immediately realized what had been missing and that very bad things. Attempts to lower the divers on this relatively shallow location were unsuccessful because of the strong surf. Had to wait for the sea weather. The air continued to rise from the bottom within 12 hours – the time during which the crew of A-1, of course, one would try to save if you have experience. Under body missed the ropes, but the means for lifting the 200-tonoga cargo was not. Torment themselves, the British sent the work to raise… the Swedish rescue company “Neptune”. A shame for the “mistress of the seas”: after the accident occurred only a mile from the nearest lightship! However, the master of the hoist thoroughly fussed: they had by divers to seal all openings in the hull, and then pumped air in it. It is clear that the rescue of the crew of speech does not go. All were killed including the commander and the second officer, who bore a very famous name – Churchill.
 
As it turned out, the cause of death was a collision with the mail steamship “Berwick castle” which considered that it “was hit by a torpedo” (in peace time!).
 
What happened in the beginning of the “underwater road” of Britain’s tragic incident gave rise to many discussions and the most bizarre claims. The rescue company “TAS Conservant” claimed that if the accident occurred on the Thames, it would be able to raise the boat for three days, while the Swedes “provaljalis” for a month. One way or another, but there is a clear need to create a special rescue service for such critical situations -the conclusion that came up in each of the countries entered the era of mass diving after sooner or later the advancing catastrophe. Unfortunately, we now know very well what occurs when such a service is in decline, the example of the tragedy of the nuclear submarine “Kursk”.
 
In the meantime, the British have taken the minimum necessary technical measure, providing in the cockpit floor watertight hatch that could be closed in seconds. After all; as it turned out, this seemingly obvious “nothing” not enough A-1 to be saved: the ship “rode” only in the wheelhouse, slightly damaging it, and almost entirely without touching the rest of the body. But it was enough to let the water gradually filled the whole body, condemning people to a terrible death. And the action taken has played its role just two years later, when the cabin of the nearest relative And-9 on maneuvers in the English channel came under the bow of labotanica “Kout”. Now the bottom hatch immediately battened down, and the submarine was able to rise to the surface before he began a more serious trouble.
 
No wonder the British are famous for their persistence soon after the tragic death of A-1 the members of the Royal family, including Queen Alexandra, demonstrated their attitude to scuba diving, one after the other when visiting the other boats in the series. And the heir to the throne even made the dive. It all demonstrated a strong belief in the need to move forward, despite the loss.
 
And so it happened. After four units from among the first And was followed by a second series of nine improved “ashek”. Their displacement grew to 10%, and not at the expense of length, which, on the contrary, even reduced to 1 foot (30 cm). Almost doubled the power of the electric motor, with 80 to 150 HP interestingly, while the new variant was able to “disperse” under water just one additional node: known effect limit for a particular body shape, again confirmed, this time for submarine vessels. As little useful was the power increase casalinuovo motor: zles 100 extra “horses” has provided the increase is only half of the node. However, like their American progenitor of the British And had less than eposredstvenno seaworthiness. Short gentle waves in the waters surrounding the British Isles made these pickles helplessly dangle, even in very decent weather. In submerged condition was practically blind. Any more or less long passage the submarines had to overcome, in tow, the pre-zakuporit firmly inside the command for which this has been a great trial, exhausting all the power without any influence of the enemy. In General, a full set of drawbacks first “Hollands”.
However, the most important innovation from the point of view of the combat power of the appearance of the second torpedo. Now, in the nose there was a “shotgun” and later an American boat type “C”. So Royal, Navy rapidly catch up. But in this way fleet of “mistress” were waiting for the next severe disaster. The first “four” they literally decimated the root: all four boats suffered a serious accident in 1912 came under the prow of their own mother ship “Hazard” went down, taking with them 14 lives. The submarine was raised, but more in a system are not introduced, and used as target seven years early. And the same fate befell A-4. She sank after a collision with the ship. The thrust of the English rose and her, but put against the wall for 15 years trying to revive even during the “great war”. Only in 1920, when the full futility of the “old lady” was obvious even to any “non-core” sailor, the boat passed to the metal. A-2 as it tried to refute a grim determinism, and it almost succeeded – the submarine sank after the formal deductions from the lists of the fleet, but still before its all sold for scrap.
 
The bad tradition was continued by the representatives of the superior generation. A-7 in January 1914, “dived” on the bottom of the Gulf of Whitsand that, despite the beautiful name, the curtains white the sand, and a thick layer of silt. The result was sad: the submarine could not get out and died, while of the crew managed to escape. A-8 ran aground near Plymouth and also sank before the end of the entrance examination. It turns out that over one third of the units of this unhappy series ended his days at the bottom without “help” of the enemy, taking with them the lives of nearly six dozen divers.
 
But the British were not going to curtail the development of a new kind of naval weapons. The next series (like the Americans, the British used to refer to letters of the alphabet, but the Royal Navy was not used additional sequentially numbered as in systematic overseas “pioneers”), “B”, was a noticeable improvement, compared to the “first letter”. Displacement has increased by more than half, although, interestingly, the crew size is not increased, and the cost jumped by only 15%. The armament remained the same, all the same “bow shotgun”. Just boats began to build larger, which is quite reasonable as part of ensuring the habitability of the martyrs-divers, and from the point of view of most of the buoyancy,
 
Designers, of course, provided a whole set of innovations. Some of them were quite exotic. So, the torpedo was looking at an angle down; the idea was that the submarine supposedly it was easier to shoot in the process of ascent, which is somewhat doubtful. But that was the time all sorts of experiments, only some of which proved helpful. Sometimes many years later. On the type In the British first used an additional pair of horizontal rudders installed on the cabin. The innovation has got accustomed only in part: on the following types of the said “addition” was moved to housing closer to the nose. And who would have thought that 60 years later this location will be applied on nuclear submarines of the US and even become their “signature brand”.
 
Submarine A-2. England, 1904
 
Submarine A-2. England, 1904
 
Submarine A-2. England, 1904
 
It was built by the firm Vickers in barrow. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 190/207 T. Dimensions: length 31.6 m, a diameter of 3.62 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: gasolinevin motor 450 HP + motor capacity of 87 HP, speed overwater/underwater – 11,5/7 uz. Armament: one 450-mm torpedo tubes in the nose (3 torpedoes). Crew: 11 people In 1904 – 1906 built 13 units from A-1 to A-13 in two slightly different variants.
 
Unfortunately, along with inventive “little things” most necessary changes to implement and failed. The submarine still had no watertight bulkheads, and members of their crews literally had nowhere to lay his head, the dwelling was not provided. No one thought even of a primitive ventilation, and muzzy “tainted” environment, the sailors had to take turns to swallow fresh air, being short and small cabin. For all these reasons, the time spent at sea was limited to four days in the summer and for a day less in winter. (It is worth noting that meant quite mild weather of South Britain or even “toy” Mediterranean winter.) This, of course, on the surface; underwater boats, type “b” could be no more than ten hours a day, although during world war some had to stay as much as six hours more than what was already on the verge of human capabilities.
 
As the main engine again featured a 16-cylinder motor gasolinevin, let a little more power, but still dangerous and capricious. Not cool was the underwater course, which provides the same 180-horsepower electric motor, resulting in a bigger, heavier boat could develop under water only 6.5 host. And the batteries allowed to go under water without recharging no more than four hours – a result that corresponds with not the best of the first French “electric ship”.
 
So, the British was seemingly not very suitable for war “tool”. But the units of the second series of submarine forces of the Royal Navy nevertheless could quite quickly (about three minutes) to take a good hold on the wave. And their share has got a lot of real military adventure. The first four units were guarding the transportation of British troops across the channel from possible attacks of the German ships. One of them already was not In-2, who died in 1912 in the traditional way, under the stem of the liner “America”. She escaped the only member of the crew.
 
The remaining units took part in the more hazardous but more glorious adventure. Immediately after the entry of Turkey into the war on the side of the opponents of Britain, the Admiralty had established a blockade of the Dardanelles from the sea. From the very beginning part of the blocking forces included In-9 In-10 In-11. And early next year they were joined by another three “sisters” under the numbers 6, 7 and 8. First, their service seemed a little interesting and even boring, but in December 1914 reptile command took a risky but crucial decision: to send In-11 under the command of Lieutenant-captain N. Holbrooke straight “liver” to the enemy. The idea was to try to get in the sea of Marmara, where the Turkish ships and vessels considered themselves safe. Indeed, the Dardanelles Strait leading from the Aegean sea into the Marmara, seemed an insurmountable obstacle. Its length is 25 miles, while the width in the unfortunate narrowness between Kilid Minibar and Chanak-Kale, subsequently costing the allies hundreds of lives of sailors is less than 10 cables. While the Strait was by no means serene “river”: water from the Marmara sea flows under high pressure, creating a current with a speed of five knots. Very unfavorable conditions for the outdated small submarine, but what else could I do? No surface ship could not pass in this deadly “cleft”, where on both shores each movement on the water watched numerous batteries and FORTS, and beneath its surface – minefields.
 
Put, tools for sunken submarine special danger did not represent. But the deadly effects exhibited in the Strait of mines has not been canceled and submarines. Required technical solution and inventive British case did not. The commander of the submarine Lieutenant commander Pownall along with his colleague, the commander of the destroyers, captain Kudam for a few quickly constructed mine equipment, which in one form or another, was then used for many years in all the navies of the world. Due to the fact that it all happened far away from their native shores with their powerful plants, the device is quite simple. It was a fence for the horizontal rudders made of steel tubing artisanal on the destroyer. The remaining exposed portions able to engage and fasten to the body of the mine decided to protect the steel cables extending from the top of the wheelhouse to the extremities. Now it was necessary to secure the equipment on the boat. Since on a temporary basis in the wilderness no Doc, of course, was not available, had to use possibilities of the submarine. It was alternately filled fore and aft ballast tanks, the tip was shown from under the water and it bolts to fasten the fence. So managed to do In a-11 as “slippery and smooth” in relation minipov bottom mines, which just slipped through pipes and cables.
It should be noted that the allies even managed to compete for the honor of the first to stick your hand in a shark’s mouth: the French also brought their boats to the coast of Turkey, and the aura of the pioneers in the underwater case is still hovered over them. However, the fate of a party of adventurous campaign decided the technical condition of the applicants. V-11 just got a new battery, which was a decisive advantage, while the French “competitors” (we tell) were in a sad condition.
 
Now it remained for the crew and its commander. Sample Holbrooke got a couple miles into the Strait, but failed: patrol ships of the Turks noticed a “strange object” and, just in case, fired it up. In-11 had to go back. Finally, a dark evening of December 13, 1914, the boat managed unnoticed to enter the Dardanelles. After the first couple of miles on the surface, it sank before narrow. With the help of installed fixtures submarine successfully passed all five rows min Submariners had to meet with a hideous screech of metal on metal when minray gliding along the cables of the fence and to the body. But the greatest nuisance was prepared by the nature: the motor could hardly cope with the strong current. However, all obstacles were overcome, and shortly before midnight-11 podospela in a positional situation, raised the periscope and immediately found that all the labors and dangers were not in vain.
 
However, the “sponsors” of the first sinking of the representative of the “main Navy” can safely be considered the Turks. The battleship “Messouda” peacefully settled at anchor in the vicinity of the narrows, intending to keep the fire of their batteries if necessary. Of course, nobody expected that the wily adversary will be able to get close to the ship. Patrol service was carried out without special tmania. Therefore, Holbrooke quietly let my boat less than 5 cables and released a single torpedo. It was hard to miss, and the deadly “fish” struck the battleship. “Messouda” even managed to detect his insidious enemy and open fire, but nothing to do with him failed. Battleship, even older than struck his submarine (and, by the way, and not waiting for a full installation of weapons), quickly rolled over and sank bottom up. It seemed that the victim will be fearful: a large part of the crew remained in the iron trapped in the darkness before the onset of the rising water. However, the Turkish service has shown itself from its best side: in a very short time they managed to fit it sticking out of the water in the manner of the back of the kit the hull of the battleship barge with equipment to cut through the “back” of the holes through which the will of got a few hundred people! As a result, in this spectacular attack killed 34 crew members armored “old”.
 
So Holbrooke fulfilled dull sounding orders to “attack any warship spotted”. However, it was necessary to get back. Since the explosion attracted the attention of the Turks, unlocking even the most careless on both banks and courts sentinel, In-11 had almost all the way back to go under water. He took more than nine hours, and even then, the heroic old submarine was saved by the fact the current that now carried her in the right direction, helping the electric motor, more poorly nourished getting batteries.
 
Submarine type, England, 1905
 
Submarine type, England, 1905
 
Submarine type, England, 1905
 
It was built by the firm Vickers in barrow. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 287/316 T. Dimensions: length 43,35 m, width 3,90 m height 3,40 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: gasolinevin the engine capacity of 600 HP + electric motor producing 180 HP, the speed of surface/underwater – 12/6,5 ties. Armament: two 450mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). Crew: 15 people. In 1905 – 1906 built 11 units from b-1 to b-13. In-2 killed in a collision in 1912,-10 – in the summer of 1916 in an air RAID. In-6 In-9 In-11 in converted patrol-hunters PL. All the survivors scrapped in 1919 -1921.

 
But “home” is the commander of his crew were waiting for an elegant reception. Fellow commanders from other “b” Holbrooke met on the deck of the battle cruiser “Indefatigable”… a huge German Iron Cross cut out of cardboard. However, this humorous award ceremony followed and it is real, and is the highest military award of Britain – Cross
 
Victoria. At the same time all the crew members received a cash award, in full accordance with the prize regulations of the Admiralty. Three and a half thousand pounds shared between all the conductors with accuracy to the penny. Were showered with congratulations from the higher authorities; even the head of the German naval mission in Turkey, Vice Admiral Martin was awarded his brave opponent in the quintessentially British spirit, “Well done.”
 
It is clear that Turkey has received sensitive “flick on the nose”. And not only that danger could get very unpleasant consequences, because of the sea of Marmara remained the main mode of transporting supplies and reinforcements to Globalise the Peninsula is almost devoid of any realties suitable for use of roads. Therefore, it has taken emergency measures: the number of patrols on the banks of the narrowness of the increased service, they tried to put on a proper level. It came to fruition. Inspired by the success of “sisters”-9 had a very hard time: already at the entrance of the Strait found her. People started shooting, I had to take ahead of time. In addition, according to the crew, near the submarine exploded some mines “serf” type, activated with a coastal post. (The Turks of that action are not reported.) Oxygen and battery was fading fast, and b-9 had to go back, having undergone a lot of unpleasant moments when it seemed that the boat and its crew here-here will overtake the death.
 
So practically ended the active service of women type In in the area of the Dardanelles. They were replaced by more sophisticated submarines, also have achieved outstanding success, as we subsequently describe.
 
And for “old ladies” found another use. After the entry of Italy into the war they were transferred to the newfound ally, too, which had its own submarine fleet, but not succeeded in using it. The boat was transferred to Venice, was in dangerous proximity to the front line. The Italians feared Austrian raids and just in case, “leaned” against the British.
 
In fact the fleet of the enemy was not trying to attack any considerable force, he himself going over time to the actions of a subversive nature. As a result, British “” made about 80 outputs on patrol, not finding a single target. However, we have managed to sustain a loss, and even more new weapons. On 9 August 1916 by Austrian planes made an air RAID on Venice, where one of the goals for them was In-10. Bombs exploded dangerously close to the boats; the hull plating gave strong flow and the submarine filled with water, “squatting” on the bottom. The whole team had to leave its home. Subsequently, the boat even raised, but the repair completely obsolete hardware was considered too expensive and pointless.
 
A few months later, the survivors of the “b’s” in the amount of five units went to Malta, where they waited for the absolutely incredible transformation. The submarine was converted into … surface anti-submarine vessels! Of course, not on the principle of full fitness, and a lack of other defenders from the “submarine pirates of the Huns”. They removed the electric motor and unnecessary in its original form. The latter was replaced by trivial outdoor bridge, which hoisted the helm and in the bow was equipped with an elevated platform with a 76-mm gun. Oddly enough, but even in this primitive version of “the hunters”, have retained their numbers, but renamed the type “S”, has become a dangerous enemy of his former brothers.
But let us return to the prewar years. The Admiralty did not intend to stay on the “In” and demanded new ones. Without further ADO, the designers “Vickers” continued gradual improvement already now own American “Hollands”. Type “C”, in fact, was the last descendant of the overseas “ancestor”. The improvement consisted mainly in another (this time very small) increase in displacement, with the goal of making the submarine a little more habitable and seaworthy. As in the case of type “b”, this process took place in two stages, creating two subtypes of a new type. Series II was envisaged from the outset, nasal horizontal rudders and a more extensive superstructure in the nose. Innovations like, and they are subsequently reproduced during conversion on most units of the first series.
 
In other respects they were typical of the descendants of “Hollands”, with all the same gasolinevin engines for surface running. However, the British made an attempt to improve underwater features, installing a more powerful electric motor and a huge number of batteries, the total mass was 20% of the displacement. However, this does not help too: full charge 66-ton (!) “battery” was only enough to keep the submarine under water during daylight, followed by float and charge the “banks” again. Accordingly, if the enemy appeared somewhere in the late afternoon, to attack him would be not to hand.
 
This time, the British swung widely: type “C” became the most numerous in the prewar period all over the world. The construction of 38 units of both series lasted for three and a half years, prior to 1910. And the last three representatives immediately after the commissioning went on a very long journey: they were intended for the defence of Hong Kong, who was then a major British base in the far Eastern waters. In July 1909-11 the victim has already become a sad tradition for the English boat incident. She “ran” the ship “Addison”, this time by night. The boat sank instantly, taking with them 13 members of the crew of 17. However, in relation to the crash series in General was more fortunate than its predecessor. A-11 a similar fate – the clash – suffered in 1913-14. This time there were no casualties and the submarine was raised and again put into operation.
 
With the outbreak of the great war boat type “C” started an intense and dangerous service. By the time they were, on the one hand, relatively new; the majority of units for the time being “fulfilled” only 4-5 years. However, on the other hand, the direct descendants of “the Hollands” retains all the drawbacks of a small “coastal” submarines of the first generation. But the Admiralty was able to find a “niche” for them. Shortly after the outbreak of hostilities the Germans first used tactics virtually unlimited submarine warfare. Their boat without hesitation and warning sank merchant ships. A brutal war of annihilation had to get the experience and the fishing trawlers that tried to continue fishing in the North sea. The German boat surfaced right in the middle of the flotilla of trawlers and drowned them with artillery fire. The result killed innocent civilian boats, and that much more sad, floating on their crews, often failing to get your usually the only boat.
 
In the face of such mass killings, the Admiralty had decided to take no less insidious measures. The British assumed that if one or two of the German boats left on “hunting” for trawlers, disappear without a trace, others will refuse to attack on such vessels. To implement the ideas perfect, and just one possible type of weapon was his own submarine; any other ship could alert the enemy before the attack. The easiest option was just to take the submarine in tow of the trawler. To transfer to “underwater hunter” conditional signal about the attack were attached to the tow line for communication between the commander of the boat, and the commander takes care of her fishing boat. (Due to the fact that the trawler, the tug became part of the Royal Navy, it was a team of sailors and officers, often senior in rank, compared to the submarine commander.)
 
Looked this system is a little frivolous, but nevertheless bore fruit. The first result reached C-24 Lieutenant Taylor, coming on June 23, 1915, at 200 m, towed at the stern of the trawler “Taranaki” under the command of Lieutenant commander Edwards. “A pair of ambush” was among other fishing vessels engaged in their work on the Dogger Bank. The British were very lucky. Surfaced right in the middle of the fishing fleet by German U-40 by a happy coincidence for them, chose as the first target is “Taranaki”! Enemy submarine gave a warning shot… and almost ruined the whole thing: on the C-24 took it for a blast signal of the cartridge corresponding to the instruction to emerge. Fortunately, Taylor decided to resort to the telephone and asked the Edwards confirmation of the order. Instead, however, he heard a welcome message that its proximity is visible to the enemy submarine. The commander of s-24 was ordered immediately to give the tow-rope, but “technology” has failed: the latch on the mount is stuck. The sailors on the boat tried in vain to cope with the capricious “closure”, and Taylor once again had to resort to phone and ask Edwards to immediately release the other end of the tow. “Taranaki” there was no problem, as a result, British submarine finally got rid of the “leash”. But nonstandard variant of separation has led to the fact that its fore end is now pulled down a hefty cut heavy rope.
 
C-24 has been in a tough situation. The trim on the nose are not allowed to use the periscope from which you can see either the sky or water in the immediate vicinity. The idea is that the situation could be eliminated by blowing compressed air differentional tank, but Taylor feared that the air bubbles will give the cunning “ambush”. And there has been a good training for British submariners who do not vain spent training and exercises, losing boats in peacetime. Driving motor, and rudders depth, the commander managed not only to raise the boat to periscope depth, but keep her on an even keel.
 
Periscope “earned”, and C-24 were able to get close to unsuspecting enemy submarine and release it in the torpedo from a distance of at least 500 m Followed by an explosion and U-40 instantly disappeared from the surface of the water. Left “harvest” of those German sailors who had to jump into the water. And then the “hunter” is once again in a helpless situation: on the screw shaft is wrapped around the telephone cable. As a result, managed to save only the commander and one of the petty officers of U-40. Remained afloat and “Taranaki”. All this complex history has passed for half an hour.
 
After a month of successful hunting from ambush again. On 20 July it was attended by a pair of C-27 under the command of Lieutenant-commander Dobson and the trawler “Princess Louise” Lieutenant Kent. If the last time was too stiff a tow-rope, now broken phone cable. Good luck, Kenti had to report that he sees the enemy around the boat and pointed out the direction. Dobson had to make a decision, it is not seeing the enemy. A few minutes later he heard shots and ordered to pay a tow-rope. In this case, everything went smoothly. Further – the attack itself -was, strange as it sounds, even easier. Looking through the periscope, the commander of the C-27, slowly, crept up to the enemy and fired the torpedo at about the same distance, and Taylor. The result became the hunter game U-23 immediately sank stern down. This time rescue efforts were more than successful: on Board C-27 raised seven people, including the entire command structure “Germans”.
 
Submarine type With series I, England, 1907
 
Submarine type With series I, England, 1907
 
Submarine type With series I, England, 1907
 
It was built by the firm Vickers in barrow. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 290/320 T. Dimensions: length 43,58 m, width: 4.11 m height 3,50 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: gasolinevin the engine capacity of 600 HP + motor power of 200 HP, speed, surface/underwater – 12/6,5 ties. Armament: two 450mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). Crew: 16 persons In 1906 – 1908 built 18 units from C-1 to C-18. -3 blown up as a dig at Zeebrugge in 1918, With 11 killed in the clash in the summer of 1909, the others scrapped in 1919 – 1921

 
As it turned out was the reason that the success of the C-27 was the last for such an original “ambush” method. The British managed to keep secret not random part of the submarine. Of him already knew the fishermen, and saved by the crew of U-23 managed to communicate with the German “non-combatants” after the internment early in the war sent home via a neutral country. In the end, found out the German command. “Bots” have become more cautious And This method no longer was sunk no one boat of the enemy in the North sea. But the important result was still to achieve: the destruction of defenseless ships artillery ceased: because any of them could potentially “lead to a” deadly underwater avenger.
 
However, a victim of “casec” became an underwater Mensah UC-65 sunk by without the use of such “tricks”. In response, the Germans managed to sink only one-34. Succeeded commander with the characteristic name Hans on the U-52 is a Much greater threat to German steel mines, most of which, however, also raised underwater craft. They killed three submarines series II: C-29, C-31 and C-33.
 
However, the share of surviving dropped a lot of the truly dizzying situations, some of which deserve to become a story or adventure story, or a horror movie. What is the only story-25 Lieutenant Bella. At the very end of the war while patrolling on the surface near their own shores it got hit by five German seaplanes returning from a RAID on the port of Lowestoft. Divers could not even assume that it is the enemy, and deadly, and claim them as their own. Followed by bitter disappointment: turning, the aircraft flew directly into the boat, spraying it with lead from the guns. Victims of bullets immediately began the commander and two sailors, and one was seriously injured and fell down on the bridge. The command boat took the chief mate, but he didn’t want to throw the mortally wounded seaman, who begged me to leave him and save the ship. An officer with great difficulty dragged him through the narrow hatch into the Central post, which saved immediately died at the hands of his comrades.
 
Other members of the crew at this time frantically patched bullet holes in a rugged case on the spot carved wooden stoppers. Otherwise the immersion would be fatal – recall that boats, like all descendants of the first “Hollands”, was single-hulled. Like now you can go down and hide behind the layer of saving water. But at the last moment it turned out that you cannot close the hatch sponge: foot of one of the dead got under the cover. Meanwhile the Germans continued to drink the unfortunate boat fire. When you try to drag the corpse of the bullets fell two more. Then the first mate sent all of ventral post and using a knife, cut off the leg of the murdered sailor, and then finally batten down the hatch.
 
But, as immediately became clear, these bloody deeds were useless. S-25 still could not dive, since the motor also broke down because of hits. Devoid of any defensive weapons (again, remember, were armed only with torpedoes), the boat and the remnants of her crew, it seemed, were doomed. And then came miraculous help, and from “colleagues in the class.” Newer E-51 heard machine-gun chatter came and drove seaplanes fire sooh guns, after which took the s-25 in tow and brought home.
 
And yet, perhaps, the most unusual and risky Odyssey became one of the first units of type-3. Together with his “companions”-1 it was intended for lethal action in the RAID on Zeebrugge in 1918. Before the submarines put truly a suicide mission to crash into the viaduct connecting the mole, which landed British commando troops to the shore, and blow it up. The boat is literally stuffed with explosives and provided a kind of “autopilot”, which would give the possibility to pass the last two hundred meters after towing her vapor Trident gave the tow end. Then the team of nine volunteers under the leadership of Lieutenant Sanford had to ignite the fuse and escape on a tiny motor boat.
 
And they did it! Several hundred German soldiers at first watched spellbound from the top, with the viaduct as the submarine increases speed and cuts between supports, then the Sandford ignites the cord, and he and his men jump into the boat. The whole operation took literally seconds, after which the soldiers finally opened a furious fire. The water around the boat was literally boiling from the bullets. Screw the bullet-riddled boats refused to turn. A boat kept on the surface only because they had a few sealed compartments-the”cushions”. It seemed that the fate of the brave will be resolved within a couple of minutes: if they do not kill the arrow, then kill a monstrous explosion. However, the sailors found a couple of small oars and slowly and calmly sailed from the deadly “bomb” – style tour boat somewhere on the Thames.
 
Oddly enough, but they all survived, although one or more wounds received eight of nine. Saved their patrol boat, commanded the elder brother of Sandford. The Lieutenant received the highest award of Britain Victoria Cross. But the Germans had worse: several hundred kilograms of dynamite blow up the spans of the viaduct with a length of three to ten meters, together with were on it soldiers. Even after his “honorable death”-3 continued to inflict enemy losses. Hurrying to the aid of a Bicycle battalion flew in an unlit gap in the viaduct and, according to the British, almost all of the acceleration and crashed down. For example, if it is a strong exaggeration, glorious boats deserve the highest praise. But her colleague s-1 during the towing lost the rope and to take part in the operation have failed, leaving the whole death and all the credit to Sanford and his people.
 
A dizzying adventure, albeit in a different spirit, fell to the share of the “Quartet” dedicated to help “Eastern ally”, that is, Russia. We will tell you more about their history and the vicissitudes of the development of domestic submarines, their British “friends” and shared the role of both in the struggle in the Baltic sea in a future release.

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