For about 100 years — since the beginning of the widespread introduction of steam machines before the end of the era of artillery and armour — the characteristics of any of a warship anyway was a compromise between speed, armament and protection.
Battleship, cruiser or destroyer, faster than his opponent, in battle, had undeniable advantages. So it was a struggle for speed has long been a priority shipbuilders. However, steam power, and steam-turbine power plant was too bulky, and for the sake of increasing their power had to sacrifice something — most armor. And really fast battle ship was inevitably a large, expensive and usually nedovolnym or poorly protected.
New opportunities have opened with the appearance in the 1930-ies of high-speed diesel engines and boiler-turbine installations with high steam parameters, which allowed to increase the specific power mechanisms in two-three times. But the real revolution in the energy sector of the ship took place a little later, when the engineers finally managed to create working samples of gas turbines. Their use would seem to solve all problems. So, on the eve of the First world war, on each horsepower of the power plant accounted for an average of 40 to 50 kg of weight mechanisms, it is now only 1.5—3 kg. Now power and, accordingly, speed practically did not depend on the size and tonnage of the ship, that until recently seemed unattainable dream.
Actually, the idea of a gas turbine, in which steam is used, the products of combustion of fuel, is very simple and has been known to engineers for a long time: the patent for the prototype of this engine was issued in England in 1791! But realize the idea a long time failed, mainly because of the lack of high temperature alloys that can withstand the high temperature working gas. Only in 1947 a gas turbine engine was tested in the British fleet artillery boat MGB 2009, after which promising type of power plant of interest to crafters of all leading countries of the world.
Significant progress in this area has made the Soviet engineers. Already in 1951, our country began the development of the first naval gas-turbine units (GTU) with capacity of 10 000 HP; in 1957-1959 her tentatively set for big hunter serial submarines БО163. Test — first on the stand, then in the sea, have produced encouraging results. However, there were some defects GTU: low efficiency at low speed, insufficient service life, relatively low aggregate power. In the result, we made a reasonable decision to focus on the creation of combined power plants in which the economic mode of travel will be provided by diesel engines and gas turbines.
The first domestic production of ships of the project 159 and 204 with diesel-gas turbine power initially conceived as hunters for submarines and had to replace the anti-submarine boats projects 122бис and 201. However, already on the drawing tables they are “grown” to the size of the classic frigates and corvettes. “159th” had to allocate a new class of anti-submarine ships (PLC) — however, existed for this class for long, and in 1966 they drifted to the more familiar patrol ships (TFR). The ranked project 204 small anti-submarine ships (IPC); subsequently, the class, close to the foreign corvettes, has become very popular in the Soviet Navy.
of 57. Patrol ship SKR-1 (project 159), USSR, 1961
Built at the plant. M. Gorky Zelenodolsk. The standard displacement of 938 tons, 1077 full t maximum Length of 82.3 m, width 9.2 m, draught of 2.85 m. the thickness of a three-shaft diesel-gas turbine plant 36 000 HP, speed 33 knots. Armament: four 76-mm automatic guns, one platetronic 400-mm torpedo tubes, four RBU-2500, two release gear. Only built 48 units.
of 58. Small anti-submarine ship MPK-45 (project 204), USSR, 1961
Built at the plant. B. Butoma Kerch. Displacement standard, t 439, 555 full t maximum Length of 58.3 m, beam 8.1 m, draught of 3.09 m. the Capacity of the two-lapinou installation of diesel 6600 HP turbo blower installation — 30 000 HP, speed 35 knots. Armament: two 57-mm automatic guns, four single-tube 400-mm torpedo tubes, two RBU-6000. Total built more than 60 units.
of 59. Patrol ship SKR-7 (project 35), USSR, 1964
Built at factory N° 820 in Kaliningrad. The standard displacement of 960 tons, full 1140 T. maximum Length 84,2 m, width 9.1 m, draught 3 m. Power dvuhsvetnoe diesel install 12 000 HP, turbo blower installation— 36 000 HP, speed 32 knots. Armament: four 76-mm automatic guns, two platetronic 400-mm torpedo tubes, two RBU-6000. Total built 18 units.
The tactical-technical task for development of the project 159 was issued in 1955; design work mostly managed to finish in a year. The architecture of the ship was a flush-deck, with a subtle silhouette, reminiscent of the big hunters of the previous generation. But, despite its “homeliness”, he possessed outstanding capabilities and many used in its design decisions were the most advanced. The original three-shaft power plant included a new diesel engine working at the Central propeller shaft with the propeller and two gas turbines, a rotating outer shafts. Economic progress has provided diesel; the remaining shafts were disconnected from the gear and freely rotate with the screws under the an oncoming flow of water. In this mode, the cruising range of the ship was more than 2000 miles. To achieve the greatest speed included turbines (when operating all three shafts of the vehicle at the test broke the 33-usloviy abroad). Common to all single-shaft propulsion installations, the disadvantage is the low maneuverability at an economic speed is offset by the presence of thrusters.
Seaworthiness of the TFR project 159 was good — this was due to a good hull shape and the stabilizers, used for the first time on the ship such a small tonnage. Also was first established and very advanced for its time sonar “Titan” placed under the keel in a big fairing. Anti-submarine armament consisted of peterwnova torpedo tubes for firing homing torpedoes, jet four mortars and two release gear; later part of the ships there was a second torpedo. Deserved praise, and artillery — automatic-two twin 76-mm gun mount AK-726 with a radar control system “Turret”. In General, the TFR was a well-balanced draft with the powerful for their size and armament is quite adequate radar and sonar detection. Compared to foreign “students” the advantages of ships of the project 159 look is undeniable. So, for example, built the same time as the English frigates of the “Tribal” doubling the displacement were armed with obsolete guns of the Second world war and was ceded to the Soviet patrol in all respects.
Power plant small anti-submarine ships project 204 was even more unusual. It is based on the so-called “motors” or “hydrojet engines” — a special tube with nozzles, inside of which was rotating propellers driven by diesel engines. In the usual (economic) mode they reported on the ship speed 17.5 site. To achieve maximum speed (35 knots) are included two powerful gas turbine compressor, which pumped in pipe systems air pressure. Thus was created an additional pressure that will increase the efficiency of the screw. In addition, it was expected that such propulsion will be less noisy. But in practice, alas, was not confirmed.
to 60. Patrol ship “Dolphin” (project 1159), USSR, 1975
Built at the plant. M. Gorky Zelenodolsk. The standard displacement of 1440 tons, 1,600 tons full maximum Length of 96.5 m, width 12,6 m, draft 4 m. Capacity of three-shaft diesel-gas turbine plant 36 000 HP, speed 30 knots. Armament: four 76-mm automatic guns, four 30 mm automatic, one chrk “OSA-M”, two RBU-6000, 2 release gear. Total built 12 units.
61. The frigate “al-Hani” (project 1159ТР), Shower, 1986
Built at the plant. M. Gorky Zelenodolsk. Displacement standard 1515 t full 1670 T. maximum Length of 96.5 m, width 12,6 m, draft 4 m. Capacity of three-shaft diesel-gas turbine 33 820 HP speed 29 knots. Armament: four RCC P-20M, four 76-mm automatic guns, four 30 mm machine gun, one air defense system “OSA-M”, one RBU-6000. Just built 2 units: “al-Hani” and “al-Kirtania”.
The test results of the motors was mixed. However, the IPC project 204 was built a great series for the Soviet Navy and for export to Bulgaria and Romania. Moreover, in 1957 began development of a vehicle project 35, are, in fact, adaptations of the project 159 under the power plant, similar applied on “204” IPC. New TFR immediately received a second anti-submarine torpedo tubes and RBU-2500 was replaced by a more powerful RBU-6000. But overall, the project 35 special advantages over their predecessor had, and further work on the application of motors decided to stop. Unfortunately, the original idea has fallen short of expectations.
But at “the source” project 159 appeared live offspring. Compact, rationally designed and well-armed patrol liked the naval departments of the countries of the “third world” — then they made up an important part of the war navies of India, Ghana, Vietnam and Ethiopia. This prompted to develop a special export project, get the number 1159.
In was based on the project 159АЭ, but to learn in a new ship of his ancestor was already difficult. Displacement has increased by half over a flush-deck hull appeared voluminous superstructure of aluminum alloy. Power plant left three-shaft, but the engines are now rotated outer shafts, and gas turbine — Central. The service was more consistent with the definition of vehicle as multi-purpose: instead of torpedo mounted anti-aircraft missile system (ADMS) “OSA-M” and two coaxial 30-mm AK-230.
The head of The TFR project 1159 Delfin became operational in 1975, and for fifteen years served on the Black sea for training foreign crews. Then project 1159 and 1159Т (“tropical” version) was built on 11 frigates for the Navy of Germany, Cuba, Algeria and Yugoslavia. Two more ships to Libya, was built on the redesigned project 1159ТР: instead of a single sticky bomb launcher RBU-6000 has set up four single-tube anti-submarine torpedo tubes and two dvukhkoridornye launchers anti-ship missiles “Termit” (P-20M). Finally, in 1989, after the completion of the export program, were sold to Bulgaria and head of the TFR “Dolphin”.
Yugoslav ships of the project 1159 (“Split” and “Kopar”) after entry into the system was doporuceni Soviet anti-ship missiles P-15 — four launch container placed on the upper deck behind the smokestack. And in the second half of the 1980s they had two fellow own construction — “To” and “Pool”. They were created on the basis of the project 1159 and was almost identical in energy and armament, but was markedly different in silhouette. Launchers missiles P-15 Yugoslavs moved in the forward part and turned 180 degrees; the add-in and the pipe was displaced in the stern, while refused a second 76-mm artillery systems. The gas turbine has remained the same, but diesel engines were replaced by French.
“Great-grandchildren” of the Soviet ships, 159-year project have proven to be a modern multi-role frigates, which once again demonstrates the large functionality provided by designers in the design of the first gas turbine patrol boats of our fleet.