However, the truly revolutionary (even if only for the British Navy) was the next type E. In fact, it can claim the title first “truly British” submarines. In fact, this development 1910-ies has been so successful, what was the basis of all subsequent types on the decade, up to the postwar period.
Although the size of boats not too increased in comparison with their predecessors, almost all characteristics noticeably “tightened”.
First British submarines received at least some division into sections with the use of watertight bulkheads. If to be exact, two that were not even provided the conservation of buoyancy in the hole on average, the most voluminous compartment. However, even this modest separation allowed, in some cases, may save himself underwater vehicle, at least part of his team. Boat without watertight bulkheads if the hole were usually killed all the people except who happened to be in the cabin when driving on the surface.
In contrast to the “first pancake”, the engines on the boats of the new type turned out to be surprisingly practical, unpretentious and reliable. They continued to use until the end of the war on subsequent types, believing that good horses in midstream is not. A “horse” really showed his best side. A couple of submarines, given Australia, went there on his own. And safely reached, without a break. And no repairs have taken up the service. Moreover, one of them, AE-2, managed to leg it over 30 thousand miles before its diesel engines need “treatment”.
Type E had another nice feature: the boats were very technical. Immediately after the outbreak of the First world war not without active participation of Winston Churchill, who at that time was the post of First Sea Lord – sea Minister, the Parliament quickly adopted the Emergency programme to increase its fleet, which, in particular, was intended to quickly build 38 is the newest boats. Vickers and his factory in barrow could not cope with such a huge order, and the Admiralty gave “gifts” to all the firms who were willing to take on such a new to their business. Volunteered almost two dozen, and none of them had any major difficulties in carrying out the order. Built on a variety of plants boats did not differ on either quality of work or performance.
Submarine AE2, built by the UK for Australia
Submarine E20, armed with 6-inch howitzer
Submarine E-11 in the camouflage coloring
However, the new submarines were peculiar not only engineering successes. Found a fly in the ointment. On the type E experts of the Admiralty armament finally realized his dream of a circular torpedo attack, providing boats, four vehicles, shooting in all directions. The tubes in the bow and stern was added 2 traversing apparatus in the middle of the body. It seems to be great: where would not appear the enemy, to catch the sub off guard was impossible. She could always make a shot in a matter of seconds, not turning to the enemy by the bow or the stern. In fact, this apparent advantage of turning into a significant disadvantage. The target could be sent not more than one torpedo, that is, the enemy threatened only the single “iron fish”. Consequently, it dramatically reduced the effectiveness of attacks, especially from significant distances. The British tried urgently to improve the situation, starting to install on the 2nd of the series (after the first dozen, of which a few units have received Australia) at the two apparatus in the nose. Now boats could treat the target with two torpedoes, but only if that goal happens to be directly in front of the submarine.
In addition, the English 450-mm torpedo carried not too large warhead that could sink the old ship. In the end, successfully struck an important new goals, such as linear cruiser “Moltke”, easily avoided deaths, only injuries. Just a bad experience this “torpedo hedgehog” the British came to the conclusion about the need to increase the number of tubes in the nose (aiming “naturally” proved to be much more comfortable than “back”), and to develop a much more powerful torpedo. And more precise: at the nominal distance of 6 km starting from half that distance to get the product “Royal artillery factory” became unsolvable goal – so much the torpedo deviated from a straight line.
Meantime had to make do with what was available. Serious help is not too powerful and reliable torpedoes became boat “artillery”. Initially, the type E was supposed to equip one 102-mm gun. It received one of the first series. Then, in connection with the installation of a second torpedo and the changed weight distribution, followed by experiments with lighter 57-millimetrovie, 40-mm “POM-Poom” increased “relative” machine-gun “Maxim”, and finally become the standard rapid-fire trehdyuymovym (76 mm). However, the British never forgot about experiments, sometimes very extravagant. So, E-20 were neither more nor less, 6-inch howitzer! But this option was not a record. In the spring of 1916 E-22 was converted into … Gidroaviasalon. Even with the group just two fighters of the firm “sopvich”. They were intended to intercept the German zeppelins, greatly annoy the British at sea and on land. The boat was supposed to take a position in the North sea, to float their “aircraft” and wait for the appearance of menacing giants. It was thought that a sudden attack in the open sea, where the enemy did not expect, can be very successful. In fact, after several campaigns, such a creative idea had to be set aside. Zeppelins did not want to be caught on this bait. None of the attacks “Soplica” and failed to implement.
However, Affairs at “E” and without it more than enough. It is this type of submarines accounted for a major share of the effort of Britain during the First world war in its “underwater” section. Of the 57 units for one reason or another in heavy 1914 – 1918 killed 28 – almost half. But they could do a lot. They fought in all the seas, which became the scene of hostilities. But most impressive were their adventures on remote theatres.
We have already talked about the first attempts of the old British submarine to force the Dardanelles and enter the sea of Marmara. But already in April on the Isle of the Wise, where the British set up a temporary base, pulled up, and the newest at the time of the boat type E. And they had a lot to endure, but also a lot to do.
The first “on business” E-15, but just here “the first pancake” came the absolute worst. Lieutenant Brody ran his boat not too successfully. Over the boat was blown aground, and located directly under the guns of Fort Dardanos. The Turks did not hesitate to open fire on it. The commander fell one of the first, and in just a few minutes, building E-15 turned into a total ruins.
But the British, believing his submarine a great achievement, did not want to be in the hands of the enemy got even their remains. He followed the order to destroy the “wounded animal”. For its implementation had to take extraordinary measures, which hardly received any other boat. The first task attempted in the night “the old lady”-6, but to no avail: the Turks found it and fired, not allowing to aim. The next attempt was made by the representatives of another new kind of weapon – seaplanes. But their bombs fell far from the goal. The next night with his “number” came two destroyers, but this trivially move has been altogether a failure. Spotlight on him and fired the strongest fire, they wisely thought it best to withdraw in a hurry.
In the morning it was dark already famous by the time Holbrooke on In-11. No luck to him. Arriving at the place and raising the periscope, holder of the Victoria cross found in “milk”. Due to the heavy fog he could not see anything and turned back, also not complying with the order. Followed literally the words “heavy artillery”: the battleships “majestic” and “Triumph” tried to destroy the long-suffering housing E-15 from a safe distance. And again without result.
Only a week later the task was finally able to perform. Once dark night two boats with the most battleships, equipped with torpedo tubes, boldly snuck literally to the throat of the enemy. Already have most of the purpose of their also found. The case was decided literally in one minute: the Turks turned on the floodlights, and one of them accidentally highlighted the long-suffering housing E-15. One of the boats fired two torpedoes, both hit – the deed was done. But the main boat was lost under fire. His partner was able to remove and safely “ride home” for all people.
Romp around the unfortunate “secret of the submarine” did not end there. The next morning the British sent a reconnaissance, to have survived about the total destruction of the unfortunate boat, but the command doubted the reliability of a complete “annihilation”. In the evening again in the Strait went To 6 and she barely died, sitting on the ground about a hundred meters from E-15. The Turks did not hesitate to open fire, but “old” was more fortunate than her more advanced (but also more deep-seated) “cousin”. In-6 was able to return, becoming convinced that E-15 is left only shapeless stones. Interestingly, during this adventure, the commander of “b’s” Robinson received the highest award – the Victoria Cross.
The second “set” of the representatives of type E in the sea of Marmara also proved disastrous. The victim this time was the Australian boat AE-2. Unsuccessfully attacking on the way the Turkish battleship “Turgut Reis”, she was able to force the Dardanelles. In the sea of Marmara she was lucky again to meet a battleship, this time “the Barbaros Hayreddin”. And again the attack was unsuccessful. As the next few Australian boat shot almost all torpedoes and was about to return, when suddenly popped up to the surface directly in front of the prow of the Turkish destroyer “Sultanhisar”, not preminum immediately send her to the bottom.
But the British once again demonstrated their perseverance. After just a few days after the AE-2 through the Dardanelles broke E-14. (She even managed to meet with his unhappy Australian “sister” before she died.) This time the boat and her commander captain Lieutenant Boyle were successful. On the bottom went first Turkish gunboat, and then the victim was transport with the troops (although the latter managed to jump ashore – the notorious British torpedoes failed to sink even a merchant ship). Most importantly, E-14 were able to safely return. And its commander became the latest holder of the Victoria cross. Subsequently (in June 1915), the submarine made another trip in the sea of Marmara, this time destroying a few of the boats fire their 57-of graph paper.
In may it replaced the E-11 under the command of captain-Lieutenant Nasmyth, who became a real winner. Torpedoes from his boat one after another was sinking the transports interspersed with the gunboat “Pelenc and Indeed”. Nasmyth emboldened so much that went right to the Bay of Costantinopoli and torpedoed transport, standing directly at the berth of the Admiralty in Galata. (Actually, he was looking for the battlecruiser “goeben”, “Yavuz Sultan Selim”, but he had bad luck). However, the effect of such a bold action looked strong command of the enemy temporarily stopped the movement of troop transports in the Marmara. In just 11 days E-11 sank the gunboat and six vehicles, including two military, in addition to another stranded.
However, most of this submarine had a chance to disappear without a trace. On the way back, when passing through the Turkish minefields in the Dardanelles, E-11 was armed with a mine, hanging from the nose wheel depth. To surface in a minefield was not: certain death. But Nasmyth did not lose control and plunged to the maximum depth and slowly brought his boat with boom – dangling over her face. Then the gallant commander by blowing tanks and maneuver managed to lose your dangerous cargo. Not surprisingly, he became the third owner of the Victoria cross among British divers, “who ruled” in Turkish principalities.
Less fortunate were the commanders E-7 and E-12, “stood watch” in a strange sea from mid-June. They sank only a few small sailboats and steamboats. Curiously, the exact score of their victories and failed to establish, as part of the victims drowned or were just stranded in a shallow place, and subsequently, these boats quite easily “revived”. And to do this work, as with E-15, no opportunities were not available. However, for the E-7 still, and the sinking of the transport of ammunition and, most importantly, the firing of a powder factory near Constantinople. It is, in General, insignificant, and materially non-event (57 mm projectiles could do that little damage to medium size building) caused a terrible panic in the city. All businesses and institutions have stopped working in anticipation of an imminent British landing, and many people simply abandoned their belongings on carts and rushed away from the coastline!
However, the major success was yet to come. Their authorship belongs to the same brave and lucky Nesmith and his E-11. In the second, the August campaign the victims were consistently the transport and the gunboat “peyk-I-Shevket”. (By the way, the Turks then lifted.) But then came a real victory. In the field of view of the periscope hit the battleship accompanied by destroyers. It was happily escaped from the AE-2 “Barbaros haireddin the” used this time in a very specific role transport ammunition and… money to pay the troops at the front. First and became fatal for him: after being hit by a torpedo sdetonirovala, if a few thousand shells and grenades, and trying to jump out on a stranded old ship (and again the British torpedoes were too weak) capsized and sank, taking with them a significant part of the crew. Razzadorila this result, Nasmyth decided to sink another destroyer that rescued people from “Hajredin”. However, this time the baffles.
It would seem that the top perseverance on the verge of arrogance. No, for boats of type E are even more provocative actions. The same E-11 for a couple of E-14 approached the shore of the Gallipoli Peninsula, where the only road leading to the positions of the Turkish troops took place near a shore line, then the two submarines opened fire on the troops! One trehdyuymovym and the more 57-graph paper could not inflict much damage, but, nevertheless, the road stopped. A couple of days the Turks had established several batteries of field artillery, which drove the boats as soon as they appeared on the surface.
The wonderful adventures of British sailors continued. When one attacks, this time of transportation, E-11 broke the machine gun, literally, so that came off the barrel. But even this breakdown Nasmyth and his team to stop was impossible. E-11 moved to a secluded corner of the sea of Marmara, and the crew proceeded to the plumbing. The sailors decided to make a new machine gun from the remains of old, wielding the most primitive tool. And indeed they succeeded! Trehdyuymovym regained the ability to shoot. And hard Nasmith then once again lucky: the E-11 came across a convoy of tug pulling five boats, accompanied by the destroyer “Archistar”. Nerves the Turks could not withstand: after starting shooting guard shamefully fled, and holder of the Victoria cross was chalked up another couple of boats. Then he snatched it up already … on the railroad in the most vulnerable of its location, choosing a target bridge-viaduct. Fortunately for the Turks, the stone base of the viaduct was not the teeth weak, in fact, the gun. However, the goal seemed so tempting (after the destruction of the bridge the message was stopped for a long time) that went in the course of these diversionary methods. At night, the viaduct has summed up the charge, and by morning, the railway was paralyzed. (Nasmyth found their followers in the field of struggle with the railroads. The same “trick” later tried to do another bridge senior assistant, E-2, but was missing not having the result.
A E-11 continued his exploits. Palatalise and replenishing stocks, it is the third time entered in already a native of the sea of Marmara, to inaugurate there the present pogrom. Nasmyth drowned ships and sailboats that artillery fire, torpedoes. Not over this, this time and the destroyer “Ariser”, who had to leave during the previous “voyage” E-11. For such a small power goal of 450-mm torpedo was enough: it broke the housing in half, sinking the boat with most of the crew.
Submarine E-11 out to the sea
The crew of submarine E-11. Submarine E-11 is the most successful submarine of great Britain in the First world war. Laid down by Vickers Limited in barrow 13.07 1912, was put into operation 14.10.1914 G. Excluded from the lists 07.03.1921 G.
Full information on the results of this successful RAID has not been elucidated so far. On account of the Nasmyth besides “Arisara” recorded 11 ships and three dozen small sailboats and… another train. (But some of them, the Turks managed to raise and re-enter in the system.) The experience was emulated by other commanders. E-12 and E-2, armed with more solid 102-mm guns, fired several times at the Turkish troops and even entered into battle with a field battery! And, as you write English, quite successfully. In the sea of Marmara was supposed to try and very powerful weapon – the 152-mm howitzer installed on the E-20, but this boat was not lucky. According to plan of command she had to act together with the French submarine “Turkuaz”, but that were drowned in crossing the Strait. And what’s worse, the “French girl” found paper indicating the place and time of rendezvous. And there is a “mate” was the enemy: German UB-14 with no problems fired a torpedo at unsuspecting British submarine and sent her to the bottom. The commander of the German boats managed to destroy even E-7, although at that time operated from a boat, using a prototype of depth charges – charges, coiled with bead and explode at a predetermined depth. (I must say that the E-7 was not able either to leave or to resist, entangled in the antisubmarine nets.)
All in all, the Marmara sea became a resting place of four representatives of type E: E-7, E-14, E-15 and E-20. Some other submarine was seriously damaged. So, E-12 was struck by several shells into the wheelhouse and bridge, but, fortunately for her, the rugged case is intact, and the submarine returned safely to base. However, any sacrifice of this kind was worth it. For the campaign in the Dardanelles, lasted only eight months, the British boat torpedoes and artillery sank two battleships, two destroyers, five gunboats, 41 steamer and almost two hundred(!) sailboats, even small. Not to mention the aforementioned “outrage” on land. Outstanding result, with the vast majority of success accounted for type E.
However, the Marmara sea was not the only theater of operations where he was successful British submarine. Other “sandbox games” (mostly fatal) was the Baltic sea. In October 1914, the Admiralty decided to help Russia by sending to the Baltic three submarines of type e: E-1, E-9 and E-11. Submarines had the night to pass the Danish Straits and to reach Libau, attacking on the passage of the German fleet.
At first glance, this approach looked even more dangerous than the exercises in the Dardanelles. However, E-1 and E-9 successfully carried it out. But the E-11 under the command of already known Nasmyth failed to pass, and she nearly sunk by mistake the neutral Danish submarine. The boat had to return in order subsequently to become famous in the sea of Marmara.
Later, in 1915 the British sent a two more submarines, E-8 and E-13. This time only E-8 reached Russia. E-13 is out of order, the compass, and it ran aground in Danish territorial waters. There she was, and finished off the German destroyer, despite the neutrality of Denmark. Subsequently, the boat was removed from the rocks and interned until the end of the war. Beaten track then proceeded to E-18 and E-19, although the first of them had to trudge through all the sea on one screw, lost the second one broke.
The Germans immediately felt the presence of “sworn enemies”: British boats showed remarkable activity, creating threats in the Baltic sea, is considered by Germans in the Western part of “home”. The commander of the German Navy in the Baltic sea, Prince Henry in one of his orders even stated that the destruction of the British submarine it will be viewed as tantamount to the destruction of the Russian armored cruisers.
A real account of German warships sunk by submarines of type E in the Baltic, includes armored cruiser “Prince Adalbert”, which was started at the bottom of E-8 under the command of Goodheart, and the old armored cruiser “Undine” and “hela”, which dealt, respectively, E-19 and E-9. In addition, were sunk several dozen ships and small ships. Probably needless to say, all the commanders received their highest awards, both domestic and Russian. However, the last two deserve special mention. The commander E-19 But known mainly by the fact that he was subsequently killed by the Soviet KGB during the liquidation of the “conspiracy ambassadors”. He fell on the stairs of the British Embassy in Petrograd, being the only one who was trying to protect the representation of their country with weapons in his hands, and became famous in the Russian literature as “the knight without fear and reproach”. A commander E-9 Max Horton had passed the whole war, and in England is considered the best diver his country of all time.
But the submarine-the winner has shared the fate of previously lost E-18. April 3, 1918, the crews of the E-8, E-9, E-19 and E-1 blew up their boats on the orders of command, which feared that they would fall into the hands of actively advancing German troops under the terms of the Brest-Litovsk peace Treaty, that the Admiralty were not satisfied. The same fate befell the remaining three “old women” type “With the” caught in the Baltic sea after a long Odyssey that included shipping them to transport Russian North with the subsequent transfer through the channel system currently in place.
But the greatest number perished “E” (no less than a dozen) are in the native North sea. The vast majority of them disappeared without a trace, apparently, stepped on a German mine. But they managed to send it to the bottom five German submarines and a few destroyers. Unfortunately, the British failed to crown his successes due to the poor quality of torpedoes. In April 1918, with the last exit of the high Seas Fleet linear cruiser “Moltke” got hit with E-42. The torpedo hit perfectly in the middle of the ship, but did not cause much harm. “Moltke” returned to port under their machines. Offensive puncture. Moreover, this battlecruiser was a good goal for boats of the type E for the second time. Three years before it torpedoed the E-1 in the Baltic sea, is also only a little “bite”. However, the Germans in connection with this getting canceled actions of its fleet near Riga, and the commander E-1 Lawrence received the George cross from the king. In summary, the activities of these “workhorses” Royal Navy, if not the strongest and not the most successful of the “colleagues” of his time in different countries is really possible to recognise quite successful.
As for type D, it is the representatives of the war remained close to their native shores. They seem to be intended to attack the German ships, but in fact they had to serve as a kind of means “rolling coastal defense”. Towards the end of the war – not without success. In late 1917 and early 1918, the victims of D-4 and D-7 fell two German boats. However, those successfully answered: D-4 was sunk by UB-72, and “German with the next number, “73”, after a month and allowed the torpedo to the bottom D-6. Three boat series died early. D-2 and D-5 in November 1914, although for different reasons: one from the actions of the German patrol when the patrol to the enemy coast, at the mouth of the river EMS, the second took the death of a mine. And D-3 generally drowned the friendly French airship who confused her with a boat of the enemy. In the end, survived the war only three units out of seven that went for scrap in 1921 as half of the survivors by the time their senior friends type E.
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