STORM CARRIERS

storm the aircraft carrierthe Main opponents of the American “new order” at sea the fleet of the Soviet Union, naturally could not stay away from the “missile mode”. Especially as its had a good “platform”: just built or still under construction cruisers of project 68, and 68 bis. In fact, shortly after the death of Stalin along with him departed, and plans to create much-beloved, large ocean-going fleet in his artillery. The existing situation demanded a more flexible approach. Undoubtedly a very significant role in the development of new concepts belonged to the commander of the Navy N. G. Kuznetsov. Committed to a balanced fleet, he was forced to battle on two fronts, not only in competition with the “potential enemy”, but in combat is not always reasonable ideas of the new leaders of the state. In mid-1954, under his patronage started to be developed a comprehensive plan for the harmonious development of all types of ships – not only submarines, which are “laid eyes” the Presidium of the Central Committee and First Secretary N. With. Khrushchev and surface. Found the place and the cruisers, part of which had now become the rocket.

An updated version of the “Sverdlov” (the series is far from complete!), launched in life in the same 1954, received the designation “Project 67”. It was envisaged to remove built (and not set to under construction) all four towers of the main caliber and part of the anti-aircraft artillery. The artillery was released for the new weapons – attack missile. It is curious that the weapons did not exist, but this fact designers and strategists not stopped. As they say, “for speed” had to borrow some practices from strategic aviation. That is where we have used the first samples of weapons, which through the decades called “cruise missiles” and has become an important component of Maritime power. But then, in the first postwar decade, the weapon of this kind was clearly struggling “grudnichkovye age.” Suffice it to recall the American “Regulus”, which was supposed to be installed on many ships, but really placed on only four cruisers, and not for long: the product of overseas firms was not successful.

 

Not just evolved, and the fate of our aircraft shells, as is quite rightly designated, then the shock of the ship firstborn. Indeed, according to the scheme they is very reminiscent of a good jet fighters MiG-15, of course, without a cabin for the pilot and conventional flight equipment, which were replaced by powerful charge receivers and management tools. These systems first entered service in the forces of coastal defence (S-2 in the complex “Sopka”), Now had to rework the design so that a plane could be launched from special launchers from the ship’s deck. For this, first of all, it had to be the wing and stabiliser folding, at least partially, otherwise the new weapon would be too big for confined spaces, even quite large cruisers.

As a result of intensive work of the ground plane-missile-2 and a half years “hatched” sea cruise missile “Arrow”. Created especially for her twin missile launcher was a very original and perfect for that time: solid construction even had a stabilization system that compensates for pitching of a ship at the start. Two such plants would have to take their places in the bow and stern in place of the lower towers of the main fire. It is worth noting that they were a truly cyclopean structures, as the length of the plane-projectile reached almost 9 m, and the height and wingspan with the combined consoles exceeded 2 meters. To the obvious “childhood diseases” of new weapons can be attributed to a relatively small range, significant preparation time to start and longer intervals between subsequent runs. In order to “shoot” all the ammunition, which constituted 19 “arrows” on both installations were required to watch that in the conditions expected when the nuclear war was “a luxury”. Although there were undoubted advantages in only recent the most devastating in the history of the war the country managed to create quite an effective system of control of shock missiles.

In principle, by 1956, the business has reached full scale testing of the system in the sea, which was followed by a decree on the cessation of work. Not the first and not the last time that significant funds spent on the development of advanced military equipment, nowhere boomed. But initial plans called for a restructuring and the completion of the project 67 all 21 units of the cruisers of the “Sverdlov”. The reasons for this policy change there were a few; including one of the main you can call the change of leadership of the Navy. Place N. G. Kuznetsova, consistently defended the need for an integrated development of all funds of the fleet, was taken by his Deputy Sergei Gorshkov, who had completely different views on further ways of development of naval forces. The new commander-in-chief reacted to the missile project is very cool. Work was suspended, even though they moved well, but four of the ship of project 68 ZIF (with new chetverenek 45-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns significantly improve opportunities near PVO) was supposed to complete the construction of the missile option by the end of next year! But in the end it was limited to experimental launches “Arrows” in mid 1955 with the “Admiral Nakhimov”, which affect the further destiny of this already “mutilated” cruiser.

However, no luck is not only a “shock” variant of perestroika. Simultaneously with the project 67, it is also in a dire race, were working on the project 70. This figure was hiding modernization of the same 68-bis ships defenses. And here as the primary victim was considered the long-suffering chief of artillery, and as a prototype for the missiles was taken by the ground sample. This time it was anti-aircraft complex “Volkhov”, which used “ware” used some years later against the famous spy plane “U-2”, which came to us uninvited guest – Francis Harry powers. Missiles according to some characteristics superior to American “Terriers”, having greater range and reach heights, and had high enough time the reliability of defeats the purpose. However, the advantages were bought at a high price, not so important when using from fixed ground installations, but became critical when transferring to the ship. A two-stage missile M-2, like its terrestrial prototype, IMAP kompaktnog scheme, including liquid rocket engine and solid rocket booster. The dimensions turned out to be very large, especially length, amounting to almost 11 m, more than the American “long-range”, “Talos”. Impressive weight (over 2 tons) and a significant fire hazard liquid fuel was decided by a few important “Achilles ‘ heels”: becompact limited and low “rate”. To them were added a huge antenna pointing; here the reason was reliable but by that time pretty primitive and required a large power radio command system.

However, this system still brought to realization “in metal” and even have adopted. As the carrier of the first Soviet naval anti-aircraft missiles have chosen “Dzerzhinsky”. From the cruiser stern shot a lofty tower, torpedo tubes and eight anti-aircraft guns with add-ons, hoisting in their place spark for M-2 and an impressive antenna. At the same time corapi received a lattice mast in the middle of the body. In the end, it’s pretty much like NATO’s “perestroika”. Only the Western countries have managed to create a successful anti-aircraft system, which in the case of “Terriers” could be called large scale. We also had to limit the only plant M-2. Besides, its actual implementation has been very slow. Although the main work on “Dzerzhinsk” project, which received the designation 70Э (experimental), finished at the end of 1958, adopted a single instance of anti-aircraft guns adopted only in 1962. And it remained the only one: work on the replacement of the remaining towers at ZORO stopped.

This quarter’s success determined the fate of the chief, the massive “anti-aircraft” project 70. It’s been suggested that cruisers poprostu pishitsya towers with the installation of four instead of two for M-2, are combined into two complex (as it was only two management system “Corvette”), as well as six new 100-mm coaxial machine guns CM-52 and six chetvertnykh 57-mm guns. On cruisers were supposed to be helicopters and two Ka-25, which could carry out reconnaissance and anti-submarine defense. The idea is that it would have turned out quite modern ship, but with known potential disadvantages, in particular, with a very limited supply of rockets – a total of 44 pieces on all 4 machines. Recall that the first American-born “Boston” and “Canberra” had 100 more missiles and that kept a few towers of the main fire.

Experimental Dzerzhinskiy quickly reclassified in a training ship, which has ispolzovali to show the flag (and Soviet advances in rocketry). He visited most of the nearby third world countries, from Turkey to Tunisia, but once was shown a “serious people”, going to the French Le Havre. In 1980, imposing and impressive handsome man might seem more of a rarity than a “living advertisement,” and brought him in reserve in Sebastopol. And eight years later, in the years of “perestroika”, the first Soviet missile cruiser, the defense finally was expelled from the Navy and was soon dismantled for the metal.


And yet, these failed first “bacon-pancakes” have rendered an important service. On the basis of imperfect missiles created more and more perfect and efficient designs. Instead samoletami “Boom” began to develop a more compact P-6, placed in closed containers launcher, combined into “packages”. In accordance with the new views, which “conducted” now S. S. Gorshkov, the emphasis had to do it on a special (shock and anti-aircraft) missile cruiser, and the integrated option. So a new restructuring project 68-bis of the 64th and 71st, replacing respectively the 67th and 70th. On the first of them was supposed to have one package a new strike missiles and two air defense systems, long range and close range. A former anti-aircraft variant of missile and artillery: 71st artillery group remained bow, and in the stern was dominated by missiles, the type of “Americans” and “the other Swedes” (or rather, “the Dutch”). The role of The brain selected all the same the testing “Admiral Nakhimov”, which was supposed to enter service in a new capacity in 1959. In the end, the new program looked even more promising iznachalniy “Kuznetsovsky”, mainly due to the rapid development of technology. Soviet “Terrier” has now become a complex M-1, similar to “Tartarus” is a set of M-3. However, it was all good on paper, but in reality the development of Soviet missiles was desperately late, compared to graphs. The sailors and the leadership of the country got the opportunity of a long and careful analysis: process, often resulting in the collapse of the “dolgorovski” ideas. It happened at this time. The cost of restructuring the cruisers were equal or even exceeded the price of new units, and the possibility of their predstaviti quite limited. Indeed, the complex SURE the middle of the action “the Wave” had such a small range (as, indeed, the American “Tartar” first modifications) that carried its “air defense cruiser” could protect except himself. And anti-aircraft missiles, the point is “not vytantsovyvaetsya”. (Long-suffering M-1 was able to adopt only in 1962, and anti-P-6 two years later.) In the end, both projects cruising restructuring suffered the fate of its predecessors: finally they “slammed” the government resolution adopted in late 1958.

 

storm the aircraft carrier

However, refusal conversion “ordinary” cruisers does not mean the end of the Soviet missile program for surface ships. On the contrary, the work continued with the tenacity that just had to be rewarded sooner or later. By the time the first test took place a new anti-ship cruise missiles P-35. And finally, quite successfully! Smaller size, containers also fit in the “packages” that had the drives for horizontal and vertical guidance-only with Soviet know-how. Though fairly bulky in appearance, they could be placed on the deck of a relatively small ship, which was at that time important: under the impression of power nuclear weapons our strategists sought to limit the displacement of units. The term “cruiser” has become, if not abusive, it is quite unfashionable and even strongly suspicious. And the bearer of the new missile, designated “project 58”, originally called destroyer. And the names they received appropriate, “Menomonie”: “Ivan”, “guarding”, “Brave” and “Smart”.

However,justice eventually prevailed. Called “the destroyer” (even destroyers) ship carrying very powerful and also versatile equipment, like something is not quite right. Armament was consistent with the objectives: destruction of enemy cruisers, destroyers, large transports, and even aircraft carriers. And four 58-x by the time of commissioning already carried proud the classification of cruisers, and in 1962 three of the four changed items for more cruising. Original retained only “terrible”.
An absolute “highlight” of the project was a cruise missile P-35. Their successful development was the first step in a long chain weapons, a monopoly owner of which for many years remained the Soviet Union. In the West they have long disdain, believing that a “shock work” may well carry the aircraft. This is partly true, but the ability to have adequate weapons immediately at hand, the ship could become very important in the prospective battles, when much to decide a matter of minutes. And the purposes for such weapons was missing: the American strike group to the different composition plied the seas and oceans around the world.

In each of the two “packages” were four P-35 is a formidable fighting force. Rocket looked more than solid, with a starting weight of over 4 tonnes, of which 500 kg was accounted for by the warhead corresponding to the bomb about a ton of weight.

In this case, one from each of the four staff had a nuclear warhead. So it was the main problem, which served as a source of constant headaches for the strategists – what will be a war, nuclear or “conventional”. In the first case, and missing one missile, while in the second it was recommended to release them in one gulp. It was believed that a victim can fall any purpose, except that the largest aircraft carriers of the time, for which necessarily was required to get all three. And repeated salvo (the ships were another set of P-35 for both PU) time is certainly not enough: recharging takes about an hour, which escort ships and strike groups of the enemy to give not going. But, anyway, “Ivan” and his companions certainly were very strong shock ships, forcing the Americans literally hide their aircraft carriers with escort ships in the order. In addition, they had good defenses in the face of complex SURE “Wave” and two twin 76-mm automatic installations, is not inferior to the rate of their Western counterparts. Have something to entertain and underwater enemy: for this purpose there was a jet multilateral mortars and two three-pipe torpedo tubes, “fish,” which differed from the slender NATO “crumbs” for its size. Came out very good multi-purpose ship, but in the case of use against carrier battle compounds the fate of his caused a bitter regret. Although the maximum range of the P-35 had more than two hundred kilometers, with a distance of chances to hit the target with the active electronic warfare and the existence of “probable enemy” in the abundance of anti-aircraft missiles almost was not. The first Soviet cruise missiles was, perhaps, even more vulnerable than manned supersonic aircraft, since the latter at least could maneuver. To be sure to hit the floating airfield, 58-mu had to be as close as possible to the target, turning it into a “one-minute” suicide: a sad fate for a beautiful and strong ship.

Fortunately for the first Soviet missile cruisers and a special construction for the whole world, the third world war has not broken out. Moreover, the number of them left (compared to the crowds of American “frigates”, which, incidentally, soon became “cruisers” – on the model of our 58-x) insignificant: only four units of the originally planned ten, and besides, and scattered in different fleets. “Terrible” and “Admiral Golovko” remained in closed theatres – the Baltic and the Black sea respectively (though repeatedly out on long hikes), and “Admiral Fokin” and “the Vikings” could enjoy an outdoor (but most dangerous) the Pacific ocean. The end of life of these, of course, outstanding ships coincided with the last years of “perestroika” and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Served almost 30 years, they are no longer needed nor significantly weakened Russia, nor, especially, the newly formed Ukraine. But left a noticeable trace: strike cruiser steel distinctive “chip” of the Soviet Navy, was continued and developed in subsequent years.

V. KOFMAN

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