SUCH A DIFFICULT REVIVAL

SUCH A DIFFICULT REVIVALThe hardest for Russia the First world war, followed by even more destructive for the country’s civil war, rejected the Navy powers for many years. The winning “red” had to use the pieces of the former “Imperial” power. This was the case with the submarines. In the 1920-ies in the system was gradually introduced surviving pre-war units, and not always the best. Rather, the best preserved, which can be put into service without a Herculean effort and cost. As for the future, the legacy remained a motley bunch of projects for the development of domestic “leopards” overseas “Holland” and “products” of the Italian Laurent, who were in very different stages of development. An important problem was that the cut for several years by the global military-technical thought Soviet Russia could not make good use of the experience gained in the development and operation of submarines in other countries during world war II.

 
However, in these difficult times domestic creativity did not stand still. Although many engineers and designers were after the “civil” abroad, there were also those who joined under the new government. Initially somehow to design submarines could only one in the whole country! – organization, Department of diving at the Baltic shipyard. It, in effect, “pulled” the only man the shipbuilder-submariner B. M. Malinin. In the early 1920s, he held more than a modest position of assistant shop chief mechanical engineer, but, in fact, worked on new projects without any hope for their execution in the near future. On the same grounds worked and connected “to the subject” other shipbuilders.
 
Slightly better was the case at the top. In the marine division of the Commission for Voenproma worked not only and not so much the “workers and peasants”, but well trained military experts, officers and engineers have fallen in the service to “red”. And in the hardest 1921-th year has appeared quite slender-looking plan for the development of the submarine fleet, which was supposed to build a traditional, that is, the torpedo of the submarine within a thousand tons, and underwater mintage that fit well into the framework of the future tasks of the Soviet Navy in the Baltic and Black seas. However, along with reasonable options in these lean years was regarded as allegedly required workers ‘and peasants’ fleet and a large submarine with a powerful artillery. And designers together pounced on this task. They believed that the still developing nature of abstract exercises, none of them obviously can not be implemented in the foreseeable future, but is there to liberate the whole piece of engineering.
 
And “flight”, this has not kept itself waiting. So, Malinin “drew” underwater cruiser with a length of 143 m, with a displacement of 4570 tons, increasing with immersion up to 6700 t – level then cruisers. When driving on the surface of the steam turbine had to push it up to 25 knots! There were also diesel engines: for economic progress, a hike in “dangerous waters” and charging of electric motors. Design range looked fantastic: more than 40 thousand (!) miles at consistent use of turbines and diesels. And weapons is quite consistent with the size of the submarine. Nine guns of caliber of 100 – 130 mm, four of which could fire at the aircraft (for convenience shooting the deck near the battery expanded to 7.5 m, as on a small destroyer). Plus a dozen torpedo tubes with ammunition from nearly thirty torpedoes. Such a “Soviet “Nautilus”” the calculations could be at sea for almost six months. And with quite comfortable conditions for the crew: the miracle of the cruiser provided for two quarters, and the sailors themselves were housed in cabins. Too much to comment on this project; suffice it to recall the sad adventures of the British “To” much less ambitious, but just in those years which has proven to be “incompetent”. At that time it was impossible to create a huge “naval” boat, capable of functioning together with the large surface ships without sacrificing the majority of its combat “hidden qualities”.
 
However, the flight of thought of the designer is not limited to such a “leap into the future”. Malinin invited “oenorm” the Commission also “Project Max”: a submarine with a displacement of twenty thousand tons (!), with armament of six 8-Dujmovic in three armored turrets and six anti-aircraft “acres” in addition to the 15 torpedo tubes. This “monster” had a three-inch bronaaaa and could develop up to 30 knots under the turbines on the surface, but still go 75 miles underwater at a speed of 15 knots. Here already any words just freeze on the fly: such submarines the then technology could not build no power. Even in a single instance. Even assuming that all of the contradictory features would have been in some absolutely incomprehensible way to bring in metal. Such was the imagination of the engineers “the only country in the world, walking down the Communist path” where the Hyper-optimism in those days was the norm rather than the exception.
 
It is worth noting that the designers were working not only clearly infeasible projects. Much more modest (and more realistic) was marininskii development of the underwater frontier, and the more “average” boat with a displacement of only 755 tons on the surface. Here’s her features looked achievable (or almost achievable): the speed of 15 knots on the surface and under the water 12, and even 9 torpedo tubes, of which only 3 were shot on a diametrical plane. And a couple of guns, 100-mm and 76-mm caliber. In General, it is “earth” the underwater project.
 
Submarine
 
The submarine “D-1” (Dekabrist), 1 series, USSR, 1930
 
Built at the Baltic shipyard in Leningrad. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface-933/1360 t Dimensions: length-78,2 m, width 6,45 m, draft-3.8 m diving Depth – up to 85 m. Engines: two diesel engines with a power of 2200 HP and two electric motors power 1050 HP Speed of surface/submarine (project) – 14/9 knots on tests and 15.3/8.7 in uz. Armament: eight 533-mm torpedo tubes (6 at bow and 2 stern, 14 torpedoes), one 102-mm (later and one 45-mm) gun, one machine gun. The crew of 47 people. In 1930, built 6 units: Dekabrist, Narodovolets, “guard”, “Revolutionary”, “Spartak” and “Jacobin.” In 1933 renamed to “D-1” – “D-6”, respectively. “D-1” killed in 1940 in the educational campaign, “D-6” – in November 1941 in dry dock in the bombing, “D-3” not returned from a hike in July 1941, and “D-4” was sunk in December 1943.
 
The world's first underwater minelayer
 
The world’s first underwater minelayer “Crab”
 
Underwater frontier ranked as the least average position “between heaven and earth.” On the one hand, absolutely unpretentious speed of 12 knots and over the entire 7 – under water, on the other -120 min, placed in four tunnels with a length of 45 meters, occupying the entire stern. The device is very ingenious, allowing to “throw out” the entire stock in a short time, with equal intervals of the performances, and no trim, was a vicious enemy of any underwater frontier. In principle, the project is very interesting, but almost equally impossible for the devastated country in this time as “max the monster.”
 
“Carousing thoughts” designers had to “settle” sailors with the chief of staff of the red Navy submarine N. A. Zarubin headed. Commission from the Navy in 1923 he made the first technical specification for a very reasonable types of submarines, torpedo (with 12 vehicles with 22 torpedoes to them) and minzaga 42 mines, armed with two torpedo tubes. Importance was attributed to the depth of immersion, which is expected to double compared to the standard at the time 60 – 70 m, and survivability, provide double hull and watertight bulkheads. The implementation of the requested “dreamer” Malinin, who quickly developed a project and proposed to begin construction immediately. But it lacked too much. In fact, the country has not produced any component, comprising an underwater vehicle. I haven’t had the necessary funds.
 
So it’s been a few years. In 1925, the developers have received a new set of jobs from the fleet in the field of underwater shipbuilding. Again, in addition to the underwater frontier and “destroyers” submarine variant “ocean cruiser”. As usual, with the traditionally high performance: speed surfaced and submerged, respectively, in 24 and 15 knots and a motley array of weapons: from a large number of torpedo tubes and a pair of 102-mm universal guns to many mines and two planes! Envisaged and armor deck, and even the sides, though of moderate thickness, from 20 to 75 mm. of Course pioneer was the requirement for of modern devices: radio, hydroacoustics, fire control torpedoes and artillery. Reiterated the importance of ensuring increased survivability and reduced emergency dive. Tactical considerations also looked very modern, almost ahead of its time. It was assumed that the boats had to be able to make at least two 6-torpedo salvo (that’s the number of torpedo tubes was located in the nose) at the enemy ships, reaching 18 knots. It is clear that this required a high underwater speed.
 
Thoughts and ideas certainly advanced; it remained to try to bring them to life. Quite reasonably, it was decided to focus on “fleet” submarine. Since the initial assignment was not indicated dimensions, the developers decided to try two options, a displacement of about 900 tons and 1440 t. But in the course of the “paper” calculations, it became clear that now only a smaller version. And a year later, in 1927, finally was born the project boats 1st series, suitable for the realization of already risen from the ruins of the Soviet industry.
 
Firstborn of Soviet submarine got the names of the categories “revolutionaries”, but the name of the head – type “Decembrist”. 3 units laid on the Baltic and the Black sea. Began construction. As for many other complex technical projects of the time in reviving the country, it was not just a job, but a real fight. With the shortage of people and materials, with lack of experience. The fight that was necessary to win.
 
This “battle” started on the drawing boards. The designers certainly tried to implement on his “firstborn” the most interesting of their ideas within the framework of reasonableness and deliverability. And something in this “field” was able to do. Curious “know-how” was the inclination of the axis of rotation of the vertical steering in the nose. The designers have assumed that in this case would be to stabilize the rate of circulation in a submerged position at which a submarine was thrown to the surface. However, the calculation of the innovation was unjustified – not for the last time. The rest of the design of a Soviet first-borns were consistent with already established norms; we can only note have not common internal bulkhead in the form of hemispheres: it was believed that so they can better resist the pressure difference in case of flooding of one compartment, of which there were seven, very decent for the time.
 
However, the lack of design experience was able to overcome due to the enthusiasm. Trouble began in preliminary tests. Trial dive (fortunately still in the dock) has led to the fact that both the head of the “rebel”, “Revolutionary” and “Decembrist”, began unpredictable to tip it to one side, then on the other – a sure sign of a lack of stability. Each team was afraid to be in such “inverted langkah-poly”. The situation was saved Namori (then the title of commander of the Navy) R. A. Muklevich, although a very peculiar way. Upon arriving in Kronstadt, he personally went to sea in “the Decembrist,” noting then that the submarine sufficiently stable, but the team does not know how to handle it. However, by the time the designer and Builder of boats Malinin and his immediate staff, and also Director of the Baltic plant were sitting on the benches, confessing in “sabotage”. Quickly figured measures to increase stability; in fact, they were quite small and required a month and a half of work and only 2% of the value of the boat. Developed them all the same designers, but now included in the staff of the “Special technical Bureau” – “sharashka” under the auspices of the OGPU – as prisoners. In fact, despite the “extremely suspicious” behavior of submarines, no tragedy there. Just needed to remove 10t “top” of the weight, passing on the shore a heavy lead anchor emergency ascent, and slightly modifying the design of the tanks. However, the designers were forced to spend years behind barbed wire, fortunately, still in relatively human terms “privileged prisoners”.
 
The first Soviet boats are generally considered unsuccessful, although a large and principled claims after the increase in stability has not been charged. Yes, there was a fair amount of minor flaws, including a rather unpleasant, such as failure to reach rated speed and increased time of immersion. But we remember that the same “ills” suffered many foreign models in countries, figuratively speaking, that ate the dog on the underwater shipbuilding. And all of our six successfully went Hiking for 10 years, until in November 1940, “D-1” has not returned from a short trip to the White sea. Believed she died as a result of one of its technical defects. (So far from the Baltic sea “D-1” was because in 1933 the Baltic three was transferred to the North.) In the war eternal rest on the seabed found “D-3”, who did not return from a trip to the coast of Norway, and “D-4”, lost under the depth charges a German patrol near Yalta. Another “Chernomorka”, “D-6”, received significant damage during a RAID by enemy aircraft; it was put on repair in dry dock in Sevastopol, where the German bombs had finished its purpose. The remaining pair survived the war and went to be scrapped only in the second half of 1950-ies, worthy of having served all the prescribed twenty years.
 
But let us return to the thirties. The Soviet submarine fleet gradually grew, and partly without the efforts of designers and shipyards. We are talking about the British “1.-55” who stumbles on a mine and went down with all hands in June 1919, when the evasion of the fire “red” destroyers “Gabriel” and “Azard”. After 9 years, it raised and in 1931 he commissioned. Although by the time “the English” could not be considered “young”, many were used on it technical solutions came just at the right time domestic engineers, forced verissima in its own juice, without access to foreign samples. Therefore, the role of “Atheist” (so – quite vindictive – renamed “L-55”) was not so much to strengthen the submarine forces of the red Navy how much as a kind of sample and the “source of knowledge and skills”. The very same “English” in the far did not go Hiking and almost throughout its service was used mainly for charging batteries capable Soviet “colleagues”.
 
Some of the “trophy” technical solutions were applied on the second series of domestic submarines belonging to the so-called “combined” type. We are talking about boats, capable, depending on the situation and objectives to act as a torpedo and as mine layers. The need in the past clearly recognized the leadership of our Navy at the outset of the underwater shipbuilding. And here it is appropriate to return to the years before the First world war when the Russian fleet was created the world’s first underwater Mensah, and very original design.
 
The author of mintage “Crab” was M. P. Raids, modest train the technician who tried to realize his idea of “underwater Director of mines” in the Japanese besieged Port Arthur in 1904. It was there on their savings, he was able practically to build a 25-ton boat that can dive to 9 feet and make 4 mines or a couple of torpedoes. Nameless creation even passed the immersion test, after which, at least, the command of the 1st Pacific squadron and the port allocated to the inventor of the gasoline engine from the boat, which he unsuccessfully tried to get informed. But Raids have not had time to bring the frontier to combat-ready status prior to the surrender of the fortress; on the contrary, he had to dismantle all the equipment and blow up the building, so that the enemy got nothing. So anything that the very existence of naletevshego chokes for many years was considered questionable.
 
Meanwhile, the inventor himself after returning to Russia has developed the project has a 300-ton submarine, in which he proposed some very interesting ideas, including an ingenious system of storing and placing min of long “pipes” in the rear of the hull. Mines rolled down the inclined chute, the adhered roller, sliding rail located at the top of the tube. This system allowed the production more evenly and safely than with the German version of reset min. of the vertically oriented mines.
 
The first option, the Commission of the Naval Ministry with the participation of such a well-known expert shipbuilders, like I. G. Bubnov, and A. N. Krylov, having carefully considered the draft and made many valuable observations, still rejected him. But tireless inventor continued to work, consistently offering second, third and fourth embodiments, each additional few more than the previous, taking into account all comments made in the address of the predecessor. So in the end appeared the 500-ton frontier with quite decent characteristics that can take up to 60 minutes, armed himself with a pair of torpedo tubes. Production was supposed to lead now with a special chain transmission with a mechanical drive, zaplavka mines with anchors and ejected them from two pipes at the rear. The absence in the process of “human hands” provided a very uniform distribution of the deadly “balls”. This ship has satisfied discerning of the Commission, and in the fall of 1908 the building was finally approved.
 
Underwater minelayer
 
Underwater minelayer “Crab”, Russia, 1916
 
Built at the Baltic shipyard in Leningrad. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface – 533/736 t Dimensions: length – 52,8 m, width – 4,3 m, draft – 4,0 m. the immersion Depth up to 35 m. Engines: four kerosene engine capacity of 1200 HP and two electric motors with a power of 660 HP Speed surface/submarine (project) – 15/7,5 knots testing – 11,8/7,1 bonds. Armament: two 450mm torpedo tubes in the nose(4 torpedoes), 60 min, one 37-mm gun (later replaced by 66-mm), two machine guns. The crew – 36 people Flooded in April 1919 by the British when leaving them out of the Crimea. Raised in 1935, scrapped
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “L-1” (“Leninist”), 2nd series, USSR, 1930
 
Then began the realities of pre-revolutionary Russia, the country is rapidly progressing and at the same time, which had a pretty stagnant state and the bureaucratic apparatus. Construction on Nikolaevsk shipbuilding began only a year later, and it was conducted very slowly. And the Naval Technical Committee (MTK) bombarded engineers additional requirements, causing the need to redo the drawings and re-ordered parts and equipment. Raids were lost in a whirlwind of travel and securities; construction was repeatedly interrupted from-for unwillingness of the plant “bend” under the next options from the MTC, and the trivial lack of money. For testing min (same design Naletova) and the method of their production was special built towed pontoon, experiments that lasted for about a year. In the end, the factory refused to produce min; in 1912 the Ministry of the Navy had to re-sign him to a contract all the same “500-ton submarine frontier”. At the time, technically almost ready for the descent, held in August. Totally unprepared as a fighting unit housing immediately enrolled in the lists of the fleet and named it “Crab”. But at the same time removed from his creation Naletova, passing completion under the supervision of a “Special Commission of the Naval Ministry”. In full accordance with the proverb, seven nurses the child would be without the eye: factory testing only started in the summer of 1913. It is clear that they were difficult, primarily because of the capricious kerosene engines. Was also insufficient stability. To eliminate the defect of the multi-headed Commission proposed several options, from insertion into the housing of an additional section and decreasing by half the thickness of plating to… the full removal of kerosene engines. From this “idea” refused quickly: one “electrical” minzag could put mines, except that at the entrance to Sevastopol.
 
In August 1914 World war I began, and so necessary to the fleet, “Crab” was still in the shipyard, now in the process of restructuring. “Uluchshit” continued: in may of 1915 the supply chain min altered to “screw” by a huge auger. And then it took alteration of the min Problems were observed with the manual installation: on the surface of the water Minzah didn’t get to design as much as 3 knots; the underwater speed just inferior to the demand, though not as much.
 
That did not stop to try to use the ship for the important things even before final commissioning. At the end of June “Crab” went to sea with 58 mines on Board, accompanied by three new submarines of the “Walrus” and all four headed for the Bosphorus. Interestingly, in this very battle over the frontier trade was waving the Russian flag – it’s technically still was not part of the Navy of Russia. Despite the lack of speed, to the Strait came he used his “colleagues”, and successfully put minefield less than a mile and a half from the entrance to the Bosphorus. And, surprisingly enough, safely and without any serious accidents has returned to Sevastopol. Amazing because the crew, in fact, still very knew his ship, which, in turn, had a lot of defects.
 
Interestingly, already after the entry into operation of the same job – mine production from the Bosporus – “the Crab” was not lucky. When it resumes in late February, 1916, was played serious storm, and the boat had to return to port. The campaign was repeated in June, this time successfully. Another 60 min was established just half a mile from the Turkish coast. In fairness it should be noted that in this campaign crashes and troubles was much more than the first “adventure”. And their number is only increased when trying to mine the approaches to the Bulgarian city of Varna, where the “Crab” several times attacked by enemy planes. The service ended. Frontier set for repair, which never ended before the revolution. Then he, along with the Crimea and Sevastopol went up, first German, then English. The British and put it to the bottom, leaving the Peninsula in 1919.
 
Only in 1935, the firstborn of the Russian underwater protective case is lifted from the bottom. But by that time already built a new boat, able to continue his work. Before designers and industry had a difficult task: first of all, not to repeat the story of the “Crab”, which is infinitely long (8 years!) built, and then, after several trips, repaired. Required maximum speed of design and construction. And I must say, our “worker-peasant” shipbuilders with the purpose of this handle.
 
The second series of Soviet submarines was called “combined” because they have expected to keep a very powerful torpedo armament, combined with the ability to put a small mine “banks” of 10-25 pieces in enemy waters. “For speed” development of a technical solution took the already under construction “Decembrists”, “simplicity” – something borrowed raised “Englishman”. So, instead of double casing design was polutorakratnoe, lines hull performed a lapidary straight, vertical stem. Battery to deliver a lot of trouble in completely closed isolated box on the 1-series, was lowered into the holds, covered with light wooden floors, which if necessary can be quickly removed. From a distant ancestor, “Crab”, “Leninists” (so the name of the parent unit was called series) borrowed the system setting min. They were placed in a tube “stores” in the stern, although the design mechanics have changed, adopting a more simple and reliable option, all the same Malinin. Started construction in 1929 -1930 years, “combination” boats entered service before the rise-suffering “Crab.” In principle, they were quite reasonable, although the main disadvantage when used as suppressors remained a small amount of minutes, not allowed to put the long boom.
 
Almost simultaneously with the construction of the “Leninists” in the case went to the development of another project, the relevant “position” submarine. It was assumed that these submarines will be used in the shallow waters of the Baltic sea and the Gulf of Finland, including intricate archipelago off the coast of Finland. They had to “be able” for a long time lying on the ground on the position (location and classification), waiting for the battleships and cruisers of the “foe”, who in those years was seen primarily England. This required a powerful torpedo and apparatus 533-mm caliber. Among the priorities included in the same shallow draft and good underwater speed, higher than on the surface.
 
In General, the boats of the third series, the designation of “pike”, the former for many years almost synonymous with Soviet submarines of the great Patriotic war, proved to be very simple in comparison with the pretentious “Decembrists”. There is already a trophy of “L-55” was able to extract the maximum benefit, benefit, to some extent, submarines originally had a lot of similarities in ideas. The hull lines have become more angular, formed mainly of straight lines, which greatly simplified the manufacture of the kit and covering. And the design itself “dropped” to almost single, although it was listed as “pike” polutorospalnye: Nedelko-the”Boule” is left only the main ballast tanks. Became less and compartments is just 5 and the bulkhead between them is “tricky” spherical returned to traditional surface ships flat.
 
But the sailors did not give the engineers finally slip “in simplicity”, insisting where possible on improvements to the design. As a result, the size of the “pike” grew still at the design stage, and the original surface 350 and 400 tons of underwater turned into 575 and 700, respectively. And the submarine in General changed the class: is the coastal “positional” became “medium”. But at the same time – and the most successful in the first stage of development of the Soviet submarine fleet.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “L-55” (“Infidel”), USSR, 1931
 
It was built by the company “Vickers-Armstrong” in barrow. Restored at the Baltic shipyard in Leningrad. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Displacement underwater/surface – 955/1140 t Dimensions: length – 72,0 m, width – 7.2 m, draft of 4.1 m. the immersion Depth up to 50 m. Engines: two diesel engines with a power of 2200 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 1600 HP Speed surface/ underwater tests – 13,9/9 uz. Armament: six 533-mm torpedo tubes in the nose (12 torpedoes), two 76-mm cannon. The crew of 56 people.
 
Being a member of the British Navy, died in 1919, Discovered in 1926, raised in 1928, restored in 1931, in 1940 – was only used for experiments, after the start of the great Patriotic war re-commissioned, in 1943 was used to charge the batteries, excluded from the list in early 1945
 
However, she still had to grow and develop. The first “pike” only went for water, when in 1931, the designers demanded a new, improved design. He received the designation “series 3 bis”; then units of this type are renamed in “Pike-A”, and sometimes called type “Fish”, named head. (Initially, all boats series 3 and 3 bis were given the names of fish.) In the new series is actively used welding and light alloys, while simultaneously reinforcing the internal bulkheads, installing more powerful engines and better equipment. Many of them had to serve in the far East, where, after a long period of wretchedness and even of oblivion was revived a real fleet. These units are still produced in Leningrad, and then sent in a disassembled state by rail across the country, I had to consider when designing.
 
As already noted, the main problems in the construction of the first series of Soviet submarines occurred mainly with individual components of weapons and equipment. Thus, the artillery of these underwater units represented “the remnants of the king’s time”. In the list of matching samples consisted of obsolete models, both originally of French origin: 75-graph paper of the firm of Kane and the 47-mm “skorostrel” from Hotchkiss, both samples even in 1891 – 1892 years! They are ill suited for modern warfare because of short range. It is clear that the “old” was not suitable for firing at air targets, from the outset, an important task for “submarine artillery”. However, they served on the old boats “leopard”; a couple of “Kanarek” received and extracted from the sea bottom trophy – “L-55”. However, the need for new artillery systems was quite obvious. And since 1927, began the development of a universal 4-inch guns. As the Foundation took excellent car of destroyers like “Novik”. However, these long-range guns had a very long barrel, which embed on the narrow deck of the boat had to be shortened by a quarter. In addition, engineers designed a new machine, providing at least some shooting at the planes.
 
Unfortunately, that “at least some”. Installation B-2 worked at high angles of elevation is not particularly good: spin the wheels gunner had a very large force. Uncomfortable was loading, and as a result, the apparently low rate of fire. However, the first Soviet boat 102-graph paper was a clear step forward, and it was mounted on all the units of the first two series. Officially it was removed from service only after the victory over Germany in the summer of 1945. Even less useful was the “sorokopyatka” – “main caliber” of the first “pike”. The lack of automation made her absolutely not rapid-fire and of little use for firing at aircraft and ships. It is not the superior weapons of the British submarines, as we remember, who fought with ships and troops on the sea of Marmara in 1915. And our boats in the war had to spend up to 150 of these smaller shells to sink even small boats. Interestingly, one of the commanders of the black sea boats offered to take on Board… backpack flamethrowers, ensuring that this helps to kill surface enemy is much more effective than 45-mm “pukalki”.
 
However, speaking of exotic weapons, in 30-e years on submarines red Navy appeared briefly quite original weapons, which had none of the leading countries. We are talking about the Dynamo-reactive cannon (DRP), created by engineer Kurczewski. They worked on the same principle that anti-tank rocket-propelled grenades, shooting, in fact, missiles. It is clear that in this case the impact was small, and the caliber of the installation it was possible to dramatically improve. So, the first 76-mm setting DRP replaced the ancient 47-mm “hockey” slightly less ancient “Hollands”-a”AG” that was a definite (and significant) gain. And in 1934, the former Barca with the original name “Chartist” on the Black sea experimental Dynamo-reactive 6-inch! However, the euphoria of such artillery quickly began to decline: all of its performance was much lower than claimed. Particularly affected the accuracy to get from this “miracle” even in a big target at a short distance was very unusual. In the end, further experiments it did not matter.
 
The situation with the torpedoes proved to be too problematic. From the pre-revolutionary fleet in the inheritance of the workers and peasants moved some stock 450-mm torpedoes. 120 pieces were assembled from parts remaining from the same era. They had not only on those in the ranks, but also to newly built units. But here’s the thing: in accordance with the terms of reference they had a 533-mm devices. The situation was quite peculiar: for vehicles that has made a special earbud that allows you to shoot the old torpedoes. And the vast majority of target practice was conducted of 450-mm “fish”. Not very successful was the newly designed 533-mm torpedo “53-27”, discontinued in 1935.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “U-301” (“Pike”), 3 series, USSR, 1933
 
Built at the Baltic shipyard in Leningrad. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Displacement underwater/surface – 575/700 t Dimensions: length – 57,0 m, width 6.2 m, draught – 3.8 m Depth up to 90 m. Engines: two diesel engines with 1000 HP and two electric motors with a power of 800 HP Speed surface/underwater (on the test) negative 11.6/8.5 in uz. Armament: six 533-mm torpedo tubes (4 in nose and 2 in the stern, 10 torpedoes), one 45-mm gun. The crew of 41 persons. In 1933 – 1934 built 4 units: “U-301” – “U-304” (respectively “Pike”, “Perch”, “Ruff” and “Komsomolets”). All participated in the Soviet-Finnish and great Patriotic wars. “U-301” died in August, 1941, “U-302” and “Sch-302” – in late 1942, “U-303” renamed to “S-303” in 1949, excluded from the lists in 1953 and scrapped in 1961
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Sch”, III series
 
Big problems (like almost all countries) created the diesels. The young Soviet government turned to Germany, who willingly provided assistance to the country, the former being hardly a “natural ally” of the vanquished, crushed by the Treaty of Versailles. Famous diesel firm MAN helped to establish production at the plant in Kolomna, and for units 1-series just sold 4 of the motor. Domestic product suffered a rapid deterioration, that just does not fit for submarines, where the efficiency of the engines is a matter of life or death. Gradually the defects fixed, but it took a few years. Much better was the situation with electric motors, the production of which was successfully developed at all without foreign aid. But with the battery the thing went wrong, mostly due to “illness” that has become permanently chronic: poor compliance with modern technology. The battery came with a large spread of characteristics; some of them had to charge 2-3 nights just to in one day to keep the boat in position. It is clear that the attack is at high speed was not always achievable.
 
However, step by step, the Soviet submarine fleet moved forward. Yes, a lot had to do themselves, without relying on world experience, periodically opening a long time ago “America”. But submarines have become increasingly capable and numerous. And occupied an increasingly important position in the ranks of the red fleet. Because the “imperialists” led by almost the main enemy of the young Country of the Soviets and, concurrently, the first naval power of the world, Britain had a vastly superior surface fleet. Had to think about an asymmetrical response, such as “invented” in Germany in the First world war. The position of Soviet Russia was complicated by the fact the age-old fact that separate Navy had to keep in four separate theatres: the Baltic, the Black sea, the North and the far East. And not just submarines could be the gun is relatively inexpensive, very mobile and many that would inflict telling blows and to protect its shores.
 
V. KOFMAN

Noticed mistape? Highlight it and press Ctrl+Enter, to inform us.

Recommend to read

  • “OVERTAKE, NOT CATCHING”“OVERTAKE, NOT CATCHING”
    Composed at the end of the Second world war on Stalin's personal order long-term plan of development of the Navy (see "modelist-Konstruktor" No. 6 in 2002) were struck by its size. It is...
  • SMALL ORIGINALSSMALL ORIGINALS
    After the First world war, in addition to shipbuilding giant — Britain and the major European players in the face of France, Italy, Germany and the Soviet Union, in quiet corners of...

Spelling error report

The following text will be sent to our editors: