THE DESTROYER By the beginning of world war II, Soviet destroyers and leaders in its combat performance characteristics superior to the best ships of the same class built in other countries. Destroyers types of “Angry” and “Watchdog” and leader of the “Leningrad” was armed with 130-mm guns, three -, and four torpedo tubes, and twin anti-aircraft machine-guns had Paravan guardians carried on Board depth charges and mines boom. Power of artillery and volley firing range, these ships had a significant advantage over the latest at the time of the German destroyers series and 2 American style “Bristol”.

If the fast German ships of this class have a top speed of up to 37 knots, we were able to walk at speeds of almost 39 knots. For the leaders of the “Leningrad” this value exceeded 43 knots. By the beginning of world war II, “ti ships were considered the most fast in the world.
Our story about the creation of the famous Soviet destroyers of the type “Bold”, which was considered to be the world’s best ship of that class.
On the basis of the experience gained in the operation of the first two series of destroyers, the Soviet shipbuilders before the war started to design a new series of more powerful and more advanced destroyers of the type “Fire”, with the tower artillery, and more efficient mechanical systems.
Shooting open guns of the main caliber as our and foreign destroyers very difficult in the stormy conditions of the battle, when the waves and spray prevented the fast loading guns and focus fire. For a new ship developed a two-gun turret, which was bulletproof and waterproof. They had a new system aiming guns and better devices of fire control.
Was designed and a new mechanical setup. Steam turbine the leaders of the “Leningrad” had an unusually high efficiency: it is enough to say that their relative efficiency was 78% instead of 72%, usually received at such facilities. However, these turbines had a higher fuel consumption at low and medium speeds.
Designers of power plants it is well known that the higher the frequency of rotation of the turbine, the higher its efficiency and smaller dimensions. On the other hand, the higher the frequency of rotation of the propeller, the lower its efficiency. The art of the designer, therefore, is here reduced to the optimal choice of frequency of rotation of the turbine and of the propeller, in other words, to determine the most beneficial gear.
A careful analysis of the calculated norms of the gears and operating data of Soviet destroyers helped to create a new series of these ships turbine installation high reliability and efficiency. The frequency of rotation of the propeller was adopted lower than the destroyer type “Watchdog”, which ensured a high efficiency of the propeller.
I believe that the readers of the magazine would be interesting to compare the “Fire” (the ship of the new type) with the latest destroyers of the period, built in Germany.
At the end of 1939 I had the opportunity in the Soviet government delegation of shipbuilders to visit a number of naval shipyards of Germany to explore some of the German ships.
Destroyers Z-series stood for four turbines, working on single reducer. But since all of these turbines cannot be placed so that they directly worked on one reducer, the Germans had to install them via the idler gear. It turned out bulky, heavy machine, low efficiency, worked with the unbearable noise. Don’t know still why in those years the German designers were in such a strange way layout of turbines. Even their famous battleship “Bismarck” on single reducer running simultaneously five turbines.
I saw this turbine-mastodon, I found it terribly cumbersome.
After inspection of the engine room of the German destroyer Z-series No. 22 the type of “Anton Schmidt” it became clear to me that the German designers did not think about the optimal choice of the rotational speed of the propeller and turbines. On that ship, the frequency of rotation of the screw was adopted 475 rpm, which, of course, crucial for the low efficiency of the screw. The Germans wanted to obtain the minimum possible fuel consumption per horsepower, while our designers were definitely provided for obtaining minimum fuel consumption per mile per hour. In order to reduce this consumption to 1 liter·s·h the German designers for their ships took unreasonably high steam parameters: 75 ATM initial pressure and 430° — the temperature of overheating. The simple calculation shows that increasing the initial steam pressure in the boilers from 50 to 75 ATM gives an insignificant effect. Trouble the mechanics of these German ships began at low and cruising speeds. If at full speed the ship and you can get some reduction in fuel consumption for 1 HP, at intermediate speeds the flow becomes invalid: higher than the initial steam pressure of 20 ATM. That’s why the German destroyers, with a more powerful installation of a speed smaller than our ships of the “Leningrad”.
1 — the emblem (five-pointed star), 2 — towing Paulus, 3 — the Jack-shaft, 4 — the Jack 5 — anchor lantern-fire, 6 — guard rails for flags of colorization and illumination, 7 — bow anchor, 8 — hawse hole, 9 — bale strap with two guide rollers, of 10 anchor capstan, 11 cleats, 12 — the breakwater, 13 — two-gun tower, 14 — a view of the mooring cable 15 — buoy 16 — webovky, 17 — bow cabin, 18 — vent head, 19 — command post, 20 — windproof glass command post, 21 — pin radio antenna, 22 — Pelorus gyrocompass, 23 — searchlight, 24 — magnetic directional compass, 25 — searchlight post, 26 — flashlight the distinctive side of the fire, 27 — the control of torpedo firing, a 28 — radar antenna, a 29 — rangefinder post 30 — light masthead lights 31 — the radar antenna, a 32 — light masthead lights 33 — antenna direction finder, a 34 — light duty fire, 35, 36 — antenna radar, a 37 — radio antenna, 38 — light of the navigation light, 39 — FLC-mast, 40 — halyards signal flags, 41 — Typhon, a 42 — spark arrestor, 43 – the first flue, 44 — davits, 45 — skylight turbine division, a 46 — radio antenna, 47 — torpedo, 45 — emergency command post, 49 — a mainmast, a 50 — antenna, 51 — lights the navigation lights of the mainmast, 52 — gaff, 53 — naval flag of the Soviet Union, 54, a vertical ladder, a 55 — second flue, 56 — the average cabin, 57 — aft aching, 58 — outboard gangway, 59 — 37-mm twin anti-aircraft machine gun, 60 — liferaft, 61 — the fire ax, 62 — fire beater, 63 — two-gun anti-aircraft tower, a 64 — fire extinguisher, 65 — ladder-beam, 66 — buoy 67 — illuminator, 68 — rail rack, 69 — rail Desk contraforma, 70 — mooring capstan, 71 — companion hatch cockpit office, 72 — mortars, 73 — racks for depth charges 74 — Disapparate, 75 — stern flagpole, 76 — lantern gamborino fire, 77 — post drop depth charges, 78 — emblem (coat of arms of the USSR), 79 — rudder, 80 — thruster, 81 — cone propeller shaft, 82 — bilge keel, 83 is a vertical view of the mooring rope, 84 — sonar station, the 85 — tooth Paravan guardian, 86 — hatch chain locker, 87 — Hiking the stopper an the main armature 88 — portable chain stopper anchor chains, 89 — Cam retainer anchor-chain, 90 — deactivator, 91 — lookout post 92 — the entrance to the command post, 93 — universal viewfinder, 94 launch, 95 — gaff rig the foremast, 96 — mine rails, 97 tank of deactivator, 98 — Luc boiler office, 99 — Luc, 100 — light hatch aft turbine section, 101, the door 102 — Luc cockpit office, 103 — a second cockpit hatch offices, 104 — feed stingrays, 105 — feed deactivator, 106 — the rostra, 107 — sectionally Yal 108 — barkaz, 109 — fenders first shots of the 37-mm guns, 110 — bridge, 111 — a portable chart table 112 — Cabinet-room Telegraph, 113 — remote indicator of the circular review, 114 — remote control torpedo shooting, 115 — steering column, 116 — tipping strap.

Although in 1939 the German shipbuilders have reported that the cruising range of their destroyers reaches 4,000 miles, we evaluated this quantity the figure is not more than 2000 miles. Practice has demonstrated the correctness of our assessment. Here is an example. During the so-called Narvinsky operations of the German squadron, along with the cruisers were eight newest destroyers. After 2000 miles, the squadron arrived in the Norwegian port of Narvik. Back out to sea, these ships could not: their fuel tanks were only dead stock 35 T. All the ships were sunk in a strange port English aviation. In this squadron there were two old destroyers, the power plant which had the usual steam parameters. In their bunkers had 50 percent of the fuel, and this allowed them to anchor and to evade attacks of British bombers.
Adopted by the Germans too high frequency of rotation of the propellers of the destroyers not only leads to increased fuel consumption per mile, but damage to propeller cavitation. After several hours of sailing the ship at full speed the blades of the propellers had fallen off. In the workshops of the shipyards of Germany of those years, I saw piles of damaged propellers with new destroyers.
When compared to our ships of this class with the German, it can be argued that the Soviet destroyers were lighter, faster, more maneuverable and had a greater cruising range. Above was our ships and long-range artillery tower. And if we talk about the vitality of the German destroyers, it is not a comparison does not go with the survivability of our ships. Linear arrangement in the machinery space arrangements on the German ships made them vulnerable in comparison with ours, which were used only echelon location mechanisms.
In the first months of the war the Russian shipbuilding industry has suffered a great loss. In August 1941 the enemy captured the largest shipbuilding center on the Black sea Nikolayev. By order of the chief of the Nikolaev military-sea base kontr-Admiral Kuleshov was removed from the system all equipment of shipbuilding plants, blown up on the stocks built cruisers Frunze and Kuybyshev.
The unfinished destroyer “Fire” was used for evacuation of families of workers and employees of factories. For this purpose, the ship was equipped with temporary living quarters, and cargo holds loaded bronze valve and other valuable property.
When the August sun day “Fire”, having on Board several hundred women, children and the elderly, followed towed to Sevastopol, the sky above him appeared a fascist “Junkers”. For them, it was a tasty morsel and an easy target. A few vultures on low-level flight rushed to the attack… a few hours before the release of “Fire” in the sea of the Nikolaev shipbuilders managed to mount it 76-mm double-barreled anti-aircraft guns, and the command base equipped with its experienced gunner. It is the fire of this anti-aircraft towers and saved the unfinished destroyer and all aboard from certain death. One Nazi aircraft received a direct hit, fell into the sea, the second, having filled, he immediately turned away from attacking the course and went beyond the horizon, the other followed him.
After the great Patriotic war, the project of the destroyer “Fire” has been revised with accumulated experience of war. On the ship have greatly increased anti-aircraft armament, a more powerful turbo – and diesel generators and radar equipment. Turned out great ships!
In practice it happens very rarely, when a complex Assembly or structure, especially of the class of modern warship, it turns out, as they say, “with drawing”. And construction of destroyers of the type “Fire” can be safely attributed to the number of such happy occasions. It’s hard to remember at least one example of deviations from the project, some problems in testing vehicles of this series or claims processors.
However, until a series of “Fire” was completed, the designers have begun to upgrade the ship. Weapons and equipment remained almost unchanged, the changes have been primarily in housing and construction technologies. Before the war our ship builders very carefully, even cautiously, approached the use of welding. Welded construction was used then only on light superstructures of warships. The experience of the war stimulated the use of welding on a large scale not only in shipbuilding but in all branches of the military industry, especially in tank.
The case of destroyers of the type “Fire” redesigned for the welding, and instead exploded Assembly on the slipway, “sheet” was the technique of building the hull sections and, later on, from blocks that were produced in the shops. Old technology from the slipway down to the empty hull of a ship, loading and installation of machinery, equipment and weapons produced for the fitting-out quay, which was fraught with great expenditures of time and labor. Now the ship was withdrawn from the shed on the trigger or descended from the slipway is ready. After the descent to the water immediately begins mooring trials, loading supplies, spare parts and equipment.
The head ship of this series was named “Bold”. It was at that time the most advanced and powerful weapons, and the fastest ship in this class in the world. Tactical and technical data, it compared favorably with the best destroyers type Fletcher, built during the second world war. Although the American ships of this type possessed high reliability mechanical installations, are inferior to our ship at the speed and power of the guns of the main caliber and range. After the war, in 1945, I had to work in the inventory Commission on the German ships surrendered in the Western hemisphere, and explore the German destroyer Z type No. 36 — one of the last ships of this series.
Mechanically this vehicle was in poor condition. All piping, valves, covers, condensers, etc., made of steel, literally rusted to holes. Almost all the DC motors in machinery spaces, boiler rooms out of service due to unacceptably high temperature. During the inspection caused by the ship’s former chief engineer said that the operation of mechanical installations has always been associated with permanent problems and that during the service of the ship he never could develop the full capacity of the plant. As a result of studying the documentation of this ship managed to establish that in comparison with the destroyer, No. 22 of his turbine has been altered: the frequency of rotation of the propeller is changed from 475 to 390 rpm. Z a Former mechanic No. 36 said that it was the only way to avoid catastrophic failure of the blades of the propeller from cavitation.
Destroyer type “Bold” is in the history of the domestic Shipbuilding is an outstanding project. It can be assumed that many connoisseurs and lovers of Navy will like the sleek hull lines and a slender silhouette of this magnificent ship. His detailed drawings published for the first time, will allow modelers to build accurate models of this destroyer and to perform successfully in competitions.
Ball color: breakwater, turret, view, mooring ropes, felling, vent head, commanding post, Pelorus gyro, directional magnetic compass, searchlight post, control of torpedo firing, range-finding post, fore-mast, funnels, davits, covers, skylights, torpedo tubes, emergency command post, the mainmast, ladders, stern post, anti-aircraft machine, view electric cables, ladder beams, mine cockpit compartment, deactivator, the gaff rig the foremast, tanks deactivation, doors, sectionally Yal barkaz, fenders first shots of the 37-mm guns, cabinets-room Telegraph, remote indicator of the circular review, remote control torpedo shooting, steering column.
Black color: tow Proclus, wall anchors, anchor hawse holes, Silovye strap, anchor windlass, bollards, rod antenna, lights, radar antenna, spark arrestors, mooring capstan, mortars, racks for depth charges, divafutura, post dropping depth charges, all stoppers of the anchor-chain, universal viewfinder, speaker, speakerphone, Silovye strap.
White: Jack of stock, half of each lifebuoys, lights all of the lights, frame direction finders, radio antenna whip, gaff, all the hand rails of the rack, aft Flagstaff, liferaft.
Red: the emblem (five-pointed star), Jack, half of each lifeline, lamp left side distinguishing the fire, fire axes and hooks (half), fire extinguishers, pennant.
Brown: the rudder fairings propeller shafts, side keels, the focus brackets Paravan guardian, mine rails, feed ramps, the rostra.
Green: lantern of the right side of distinctive fire.
Blue: all glass Windows, all glass skylights.
Yellow: tackle rigging.
Lacquered wood: fence ladder (partially), furniture.
Polishing metal: propellers (bronze).
SMIRNOV, engineer-shipbuilder

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