THE SHIPS OF THE EAST “DRAGONS”

THE SHIPS OF THE EAST Early 80-ies of XX century coincided with major changes in the geopolitical situation in the world, especially in the far East. Such “invisible” in the past, countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, experienced rapid economic growth, which in the West they were generally known as “young dragons”. That’s an affectionate nickname clearly testified that the traditional “dragon” region — Japan and China — there are worthy competitors.

 

As is usually the case, recovery and provoked the growth of geopolitical ambitions. Far Eastern countries have embarked on an intensive modernization of its armed forces in General and Navy in particular. A kind of apogee of naval expansion was the appearance in the composition of the Thai Navy aircraft carrier. Ten years ago, none of the Western experts could not imagine this even imagine! However, the fact remains: have their own large warships for the influential countries of East Asia became an element of prestige.
 
Of course, the aircraft carrier is extreme: its operation was Thailand not expensive, and most of the time “Chakri Naruebet” (“Honor of the Chakri dynasty”) is now idle in reserve. For most far Eastern “dragons” are the most impressive units of the fleet were the destroyers. And if you do not take account of the Soviet Union, ships of this class over the last two decades in Asia was built much more than all European countries combined.
 
Destroyers traditionally are the basis of the modern Japanese Navy is officially called Maritime self-defense forces. In the 1960s, the years of military shipbuilding of Japan followed in the Wake of the US — Japanese destroyer that time were equipped exclusively with American weapons and had a pronounced anti-orientation. For example, entered service in 1967-1970s four destroyers of the type “Takatsuki” the composition of weapons and electronic equipment much like American frigates of the “Knox”, although it was slightly larger and had a purely “mononono” architecture.
 
Unlike overseas “relatives”, they carried the reinforced artillery weapons and additional Swedish 375-mm rocket mortar “Bofors” (the only non-American weapons), but instead of a full helicopter had only unmanned vehicles systems DASH (see “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 8 in 2002). Later this unfortunate system was removed from service, and the place has installed anti-aircraft missile defense complex “sea Sparrow”.
 
THE SHIPS OF THE EAST
 
337. Destroyer “Hatakaze”, Japan, 1986
 
Built at the shipyard “Mitsubishi”. The standard displacement of 4650 tonnes, full 5600 T. maximum Length 150 m, beam of 16.4 m and draft of 4.8 m. capacity of the gas turbine 74 and 100 HP, speed 32 knots. Armament: one PU SAM “Tartar-Standard”, eight anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”, the complex PLURA ASROC, two 127-mm universal guns, and two six-barreled 20-mm gun “Vulcan-Phalanx”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW. Just 1986-1988 built two units: “Hatakaze and Shimakaze”.
 
338. Destroyer “Tachikaze”, Japan, 1976
 
Built at the shipyard “Mitsubishi”. The standard displacement of 3950 tons, full 5200 m. the Length between perpendiculars 143 m, beam of 14.3 metres and draught of 4.7 m. Capacity twin-shaft turbine plant of 60,000 HP, speed 32 knots. Armament: one PU SAM “Tartar-Standard”, complex PLURA ASROC, two 127-mm universal guns, two three-pipe 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW. Just 1976-1983 was built three units: “Tatakatte and Sawakaze”.
 
339. Destroyer “Hatsuyuki”, Japan, 1982
 
It was built in the shipyard of Sumitomo. The standard displacement of 2950 tons full 3700 m. the Length between perpendiculars of 131.7 m, width of 13.7 m, draught 4,1 m. Power gas turbine unit 56 800 HP, speed 30 knots. Armament: beauty of PU SAM “si Sparrow”, eight anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”, the complex PLURA ASROC, one 76-mm universal artillery systems and two six-barreled 20-mm gun “Vulcan-Fapex”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW helicopter SH-60J. Just 1982-1987 built 12 units.
 
340. Destroyer “Asagiri”, Japan, 1988
 
Built at the shipyard “Ishikawajima”. The standard displacement of 3500 tons, full 4300 m. the Length between perpendiculars 136,5 m, width of 14.6 m, draft 4,5 m. Capacity of gas turbines 53 900 HP, speed 30 knots. Armament: as “Hatsuyuki”. Just 1988-1991 built eight units.

 
In parallel with the four “Takatsuki” the Japanese built nine more cheaper anti-submarine destroyers of the “Amagumo”, three of which also had a DASH system, and the rest is her — complex PLURA ASROCK. However, these small (standard displacement — 2100 tons) ships with diesel propulsion and a modest speed (27 knots) essentially were the typical frigates and not destroyers.
 
As we already know, the complete collapse of the venture with radio-controlled helicopters forced the Japanese to engage in the creation of a special “aircraft carriers” destroyers (see “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 12 of 2002). As anti-aircraft missiles on the latter was absent, for their protection was built three ships of the “Tachikaze”, and then two more of the “Hatakaze”. All of them were direct descendants of the first missile destroyer “Amatsukaze” (1965) and its prototype — us “Charles F. Adams”. The basis of the armament of the new Japanese ship missiles “Tartar” and ASROC— remained unchanged. “Hatakaze” differs from its three immediate predecessors increased dimensions and a new gas turbine power plant, which radically altered the silhouette of the ship. Along the way, the launcher “Hatakaze” moved from the aft to the nose — similar to the way it was done in the American frigates of the “Oliver H. Perry”.
 
In a flail destroyers of the family”, Tachikaze and Hatakaze” are estimated by experts as a somewhat outdated concept, but well-balanced ships with good seaworthiness, a significant cruising range and a powerful weapon, by the way, later reinforced anti-ship missiles “Harpoon” anti-aircraft artillery complex “Vulcan-Phalanx”. Of course, the absence on Board the helicopter have significantly reduced their anti-submarine capabilities, but the Japanese deliberately went for it, believing that this disadvantage is quite kompensiruet the presence in the composition of the fleet destroyers-helicopter carrier type “Ha-Runa” and “Shirane”. At the same time, it is highly strange that the “Hatakaze” — an impressive ship of 150 m in length and with a displacement of 5600 tonnes — had no space for a helicopter hangar and landing area, because it would have had to sacrifice only the aft 127 mm gun mount. Why Japanese designers have abandoned such a rational decision for most foreign naval experts remained a mystery.
 
But multi-purpose destroyers Otsego displacement, traditionally built large series, in 1980-e years became, at last, “vertoletonostsa”. Twelve ships of the type “Hatsuyuki” and eight type “Asagiri” have gas turbine power plant and are the standard weapon of American pattern, but Japanese production. A feature of the new dest-rowerow — in abandoning the 127-mm guns in favor of 76-mm and in the presence of heavy anti-submarine helicopter SH-60J (produced by the licensee version of the popular “sea king”). The armament of the destroyers of both types is the same, but the “Asagiri” is different from “Hatsuyuki” the increased dimensions, the lack of structural materials based on aluminum alloys and high survivability fighting positions at the expense of their transfer into the case — this was done based on the experience of the Falklands conflict. According to calculations, it is assumed that the probability of failure due to the impact of one anti-ship missile “Asagiri” is several times smaller than the “Hatsuyuki”.
 
Since 1996, the Japanese fleet began to grow with new destroyers of the “Murasame”. They represent the increased (standard with a displacement of 4,400 tons) option “Asagiri” with two launchers vertical launch (Ohr) missiles instead of the previously used “boxes”: the Ohr anti-recettori ASROCK is within the nose, behind a 76-mm artillery systems; the Department of internal policy of anti-aircraft missiles “sea Sparrow” — amidships, between the chimneys. The first group of destroyers of the nine units are planned to enter service by the end of 2002; currently under the construction of the second group with an increase of 300 tons displacement. It is assumed that all of the family “, Murasame” will consist of 17 ships.
 
In China, for creating a new generation of destroyers began in the 1980s, years before the fleet of the major Asian powers had only obsolete ships of the “Jinan”, in design and technology correspond to the level of thirty years ago. To catch up, Chinese shipbuilders decided to make maximum use of foreign experience. The result of the destroyer “Harbin” embodied a truly “international” project: gas turbine he had American diesel engines— West, anti-aircraft missiles, radar and computer science — French, anti-ship missiles, rocket-mortars and artillery — Chinese. For the first time in service appeared towed sonar, combat information control system (CICS) and modern means of electronic warfare. Since the attempt of Chinese engineers to create their own marine anti-aircraft missiles was not successful, had to buy a French complex “Nawal Krotal” and on its basis to establish the production of missiles, HQ-7. Aircraft weapons was also French: helicopter Z-9 (is a produced by the licensee “the Dauphin”), and harpoon deck landing system “Samah”.
 
The destroyer
 
Destroyer “Harbin”, China, 1993
 
Built at the shipyard in Shanghai. The standard displacement of 4800 tons, full 5700 T. maximum Length 148 m, beam 16 m, draught 4.3 m Power combined diesel-gas turbine 72 200 HP, speed 31.5 node. Armament: one beauty of PU SAM MO-7 (“Nawal Krotal”), eight RCC-802, one coaxial 100 mm gun mounts and four twin 37-mm automatic, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW, two helicopters Z-9 Just 1993-1996 built two units: “Harbin” and “Qingdao”.

 
The destroyer
 
Destroyer “Yantai”, China, 1999
 
Built at the shipyard in Dalian. Full displacement 6600 T. maximum Length 153 m, width 16,5 m, draft 4.3 m Power combined diesel-gas turbine plant 72 800 HP speed 29 knots. Armament: one beauty of PU SAM NC2-7 (“Nawal Krotal”), 16 RCC-802, one coaxial 100 mm gun mounts and four twin 37-mm automatic, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes PPO, two helicopters z-9. Only 1999-2001 built two units: “Yantai” and “Shenzhen”.

 
The destroyer
 
Destroyer “Vangato-Devi”, South Korea, 1998
 
Built at the shipyard “Daewoo”. The standard displacement of 3200 tons, full 3855 T. maximum Length 135 m, width 14.2 m, draught 4.3 m Power combined diesel-gas turbine 59 000 HP, speed 33 knots. Armament: Ohr SAM “sea Sparrow”, eight RCC “har-POON”, one 127-mm universal gun mount and two 30-mm gun “the shot”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW, two helicopters “Super link”. 1998-2000 only built three units: “Changeto-Dyfan”, “Ultimando and Yang-Manchon”.

 
“Harbin” was supposed to be the lead ship of a larger series of destroyers, but the execution of the demonstration at Tiananmen square in 1989 caused severe cold in China’s relations with the West. USA managed to sell China only five sets of gas turbine LM-2500, imposed an embargo on all military supplies. In the end, American engines, the Chinese were able to equip only two of the destroyer “Harbin” and “Qingdao”, and later bought the turbines in Ukraine. Along the way, the project has made a number of changes: increased dimensions of the body, strengthened anti-ship weapons, improved avionics. So two type destroyer “Yantai”, which entered into operation in 1999-2001, has turned into a completely new type, significantly different from its predecessors and the characteristics and the silhouette.
 
Currently, the Chinese Navy has six modern destroyers, four private buildings and two Russian, such as “Hangzhou” (project 956). All of them are actively used to perform diplomatic missions and the so-called “showing the flag”. An example is the circumnavigation of the destroyer “Qingdao” committed in may and September 2002, during which the Chinese ship for the first time in the history of visited Sevastopol.
 
The basis of naval forces of Taiwan and South Korea for a long time were large destroyers like “Allen M. Sumner” and “Gearing”, the last major alteration and armed with missiles of various classes. However, time took its toll and by the mid 1990-ies all the operating life of these ships eventually left. The South Korean government decided to replace the old “American” destroyers of own construction, the benefit of the shipbuilding industry of this country was really advanced (volume merchant shipbuilding, the Republic of Korea by that time firmly occupied the second place in the world and even claimed first). The project KDX-1 developed in cooperation with a number of European firms and on the level of “internationalism” much superior to the Chinese “Harbin”. Externally, the Korean destroyer resembles a slightly smaller version of the West German frigate “Brandenburg”: missiles, gas turbines and part of the radar stations on it — American, artillery Italian and Dutch, diesel engines and sonar equipment — German, electronics, English and French. Head destroyer project KDX-1 entered service in 1998. He was given the name “Vangato-Dyfan”, so in ancient times the name was the 19th monarch of Goguryeo dynasty. It is curious that in the East it was not customary to name ships after people — the Koreans are the first to break this tradition.
 
Total project KDX-1 was planned to build 17 to 20 destroyers, but later their number was reduced to three units. The following vehicles decided to build an improved project KDX-2. If the top three by the standards of a respectable Maritime power should still not be attributed to the destroyers and frigates, the project KDX-2 is in all respects consistent with destroyers. The length of the ship increased to 154,4 m, total displacement up to 5000 t Instead of “sea Sparrow” is now set of UVP with a more powerful anti-aircraft missiles “Standard”; in addition, it is planned to install air defense systems of self — defense- American RAM or Israeli “Barak-1”. Currently building three ships of the KDX-2 is carried out at the shipyard “Hyundai” in Ulsan.
 
But the evolution of Korean destroyers is far from over. In Seoul are hatching plans for the construction of even larger ships of the KDX-Z, equipped with the U.S. multi-functional control system “aegis”. Interest to similar destroyers manifest and Taiwan. However, this is a separate issue — about ships-media system “aegis” will appear in the next room.
 
S. BALAKIN

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