THE TRIUMPH OF MEDIOCRITY, OR THIN CALCULATION?

Launching British submarine unity (“Grey” years of production in Britain of large patrol boats and fight against their faults in the beginning of 30-ies of the last century began to rastsvechivaya more vivid, but sometimes quite unexpected colors. There is a new subclass of submarines, which were received by different requirements, most important of which, in accordance with the trends of the time, primarily Economics was the principle of “cheaper, better and Shine.”

 
However, before signing up to follow this principle, just as the Admiralty had made one more attempt to create a pretentious boat, able to “act together with the fleet.” Thus was born the project “underwater rivers” (the units of this series were named after British rivers, beginning of course with “great” for England, the Thames). To maximize speed on the surface had to sacrifice a lot. To start the service: “the Thames” had only six torpedo tubes in the nose and one gun – and this despite the surface displacement of more than 2000 so Not good things with vitality. Although the thickness of the plating of the pressure hull was increased to 19 mm, and tanks “hugged” him in the middle of almost the entire surface, making the type of boats, as did the British themselves, “almost double-hulled” design as a whole was not strong enough. Immersion depth initially limited to more than modest for the time of 90 m, but in reality, the tests were carried out when submerged only up to 60 m. Everything for the sake of speed: most of the body, as in “childhood years” of the submarines held the engines. By the time the British managed finally to achieve stable operation of their diesel engines, but to achieve the planned 22 nodes had to complicate the whole system, using the boost mode. For this part of the mechanical installation included a couple of auxiliary engines with a total power of 800 HP, which carried out the turbo to “add” to 8000 HP main engines additional 2000 HP To the same 10-cylinder monsters with a piston diameter of more than half a meter at full power is pretty noisy that it is no longer just an inconvenience. Boats could not remain in Vogue his main advantage is stealth, even in poor visibility conditions: in the dark or fog. And the desired nodes, although achieved, but only in conditions of good weather.
 
However, it would be unfair to consider “the river” clear failure. These submarines had a very large cruising range under engine at low speeds. What is clear: at high speeds the engines are “devoured” diesel fuel in large quantities. When the 8-node the “Thames” could take up to 10,000 miles and 5 knots – almost twice more, becoming the most distant among the pre-war British submarines. Moreover, they confirmed their abilities in practice. Herself the head of “Thames” immediately after the entry into operation held a “race” from Portsmouth to Venice length of about 3000 miles without making any stops, and developed an average speed of 17 knots. Great result, talking primarily about what “childhood diseases” British diesels are gone. And before the Second world war this same boat performed along the coast of Africa. Here, of course, no stops, no cost (“Krugobaikalskaya” the journey took almost three months), but the fuel boat for all 12 500 miles not disapprovals.
 
But the distance under the water looked very modestly. As in the beginning of the century, at full speed under electric boat couldn’t even leave the horizon. Battery was just enough for 10 miles of 10-node “extreme”. However, reducing the speed triple, it was possible to pass nine times more. However, approximately the same characteristics as scuba diving had in the interwar period, almost all of the submarine. Everything depends on the capacity of lead batteries that are close to the maximum of its capabilities. To increase the range and speed of the motors by increasing the number of “batteries” was irrational: the internal layout of the submarines was already very close (and, in principle, well-established).
 
But these shortcomings were predictable and understandable for both designers and customers. It was annoying that pretty expensive (half a million pounds sterling) “Navy” boats, the creation of which (if we assume the type “G”) Empire spent millions on that could build a squadron of battleships or several fleets of destroyers, now that I managed to overcome most of the problem so steps, once again found themselves at the foot of the ladder. In the 1930-ies in all major Maritime countries have built or considered the draft of the battleships, which were considerably higher than those of 22 knots “rivers”. In the UK the project was approved the construction of five 28-hub units of the type “king George V”. For such ships boats of the”river” couldn’t keep up. Had to cut back on their buildings instead of 20 units came off the stocks only three.
 
THAMES
 
THAMES
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Thames” – the head submarine of the type “river” (river)
 
However, the realities of war soon broke out, of course, there was a place, and even “in the forefront”. Long range and good habitability did the “Thames” and her “sisters” very valuable for ocean patrols. The commanders tried to use their allegedly greater surface speed, but the success was not too impressive. However, in may 1940 during the Norwegian campaign, “Severn”, “Thames” was able to catch up and stop a shot across the bow of a small steamer “Monarch”, captured by the Germans, and then sink it. Ten days later, in the same area, the same type of pseudo-runner “Clyde” disgraced in the pursuit of the auxiliary cruiser “Vidder”, which had the course of no more than 14 knots. The British boat fired several dozen rounds from his chetyrehmetrovy, but the distance was too great, and the weather is quite fresh. And “German” calmly walked away from formally at 8 knots higher speed of the submarine. Fiasco “fleet” of boats this episode did get a confirmation with a signature and seal. And the sad fate of the “Thames”, who died on mine in the summer of 1940 around the same area, was only a small appendage to this sad story. Although the remaining two units mini-series later were more successful. After the failure of “Look-der” “Clyde” managed to torpedo and damage there, off the coast of Norway, the battleship “Gneisenau” and “Severn” sank your Italian “colleague” “Bianca”. And towards the end of the war, in 1944, these “soon – and dalnoboy” went to the far East, where their ability was needed most.
 
But back in 1930-ies. Before the Admiralty were still all the same task: to determine the long term development of their submarine forces. War is possible, possible opponents and allies in it as possible tasks, and the theaters of war of the Royal Navy, while the “hiding in mist”. Therefore, the most reasonable view was the continued construction of the patrol of submarines as the most universal: suitable for hunting for enemy ships, and their merchant ships, and to fight the enemy yourself the same.
 
KLYDE
 
KLYDE
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Clyde” (“river”), England, 1935
 
It was built by the company “Vickers-Armstrong”. Design type – double-hulled. The displacement of standard surface/full surface/underwater – 1850/2200/2725 t Dimensions: length – 105,16 m, width of 8.61 m, draft and 4.76 m. the immersion Depth up to 90 m. Engine: two diesel engines with a capacity of 10 000 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 2,500 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 22/10 bonds. Armament: six 533-mm torpedo tubes in the nose (12 torpedoes), one 102 mm gun, two machine guns. The crew of 61 people. In 1932 – 1935 built three units: “Thames”, “Clyde” and “Severn”. “Thames” was lost on a mine off the Norwegian coast in 1940, the other two scrapped in 1946

 
However, the “first wave” British patrol submarines had many significant defects: leaking fuel tank, “feed the sea” fuels and the unmasking boat; a fair amount of problems with the diesels, of which wanted to squeeze too much at the expense of reliability. All this is revealed already in the first years of operation types of “O”, “P” and “R” and gave good food for thought. Shown drawbacks have led the Admiralty to a very reasonable conclusion: for submarines main quality is reliability, and if to achieve it you have to sacrifice the performance, then it should be done. Other important and necessary qualities were simplicity of design and low cost. They allow in conditions of military danger or has already begun, the war quickly build up submarine forces.
 
Required attention and care on the possibilities of rescue of crew in case of accidents or battle damage. Submariners always felt like a hostage in “steel coffins”, so even the limited resources for the evacuation were given at least some sense of confidence. Unfortunately, the special security camera, durable enough to withstand the pressure at great depths, would occupy too much space. There were other ways, mostly involving the use of personal oxygen units, but they demanded from crew skills and endurance. In General, the designers had work to do.
 
The project is the first “modest” patrol boat, which took into account many of the mentioned approaches, appeared in 1929. And in the same year was issued an order for a few units of the new series “S”, which had a displacement of only 640 MT in the standard. (After the adoption of the Washington naval agreement for the purpose of comparison and accounting has adopted a special standard of “standard displacement” is the mass of the ship, kitted out for combat, but without fuel and some other essential goods. The real displacement was always more-so for boats of type “S” the first series it was 730 t). The reason for such a drastic change, in addition to the permanent requirements of the economy during the crisis, lies in a shift of priorities. If large “patrol” boats were intended primarily for action in the far East, it is now considered that the risk of war moves to Europe. Accordingly, the requirements for range and autonomy in native waters could be much less rigid. The original smalls was intended to replace the outdated units of “N” type, but in the end they waited for a more honorable fate: new type eventually became the most numerous submarines of the Royal Navy of all time. And it is unlikely that this record will be overcome in the future.
 
SWORDFISH
 
SWORDFISH
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Swordfish” (“S” type, series I), England, 1932
 
Based on hovery in Chatham. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. The displacement of standard surface/full surface/underwater – 640/730/930 t Dimensions: length – 61,72 m, a width of 7.31 m, draft – 3,52 m. Depth up to 75 m. Engine: two diesel engines with a power of 1550 HP and two electric motors with a power of 1300 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 13,75/10 kt. Armament: six 533-mm torpedo tubes in the nose (12 torpedoes), one 76-mm gun, one machine gun. The crew -38. In 1932 – 1933 built four units: “Swordfish”, “Seahorse”, “Starfish” and “Stargen”. All participated in the war, the first three died in 1939 – 1041. “Stargen” transferred to the Netherlands Navy, were used as trainers, scrapped in 1947

 
It is worth noting that initially there were no signs of such a result. Not outstanding performance (they were no better than type “L”, and in some ways they are even inferior): not very “mighty” weapons; a proven “modest” polutorakratnoe design… Even the problems remained the same: due to the use in the Assembly of the studs of the external tank leaking, so the fuel tanks discreetly placed inside the pressure hull (which does not contributed to the “space” inside it). Not impressed and vitality – the division into six compartments were except the minimum necessary.
 
What to innovations, and they looked not too good. Another attempt to create a progressive gun mount suitable for anti-aircraft fire and is able to quickly “hide” before the dive was reckless. Beautiful, but bulky design before cutting increased resistance when driving and shooting at the planes and remained an unattainable dream. In the end, innovation is applied only on the first pair, and then on it it was removed and replaced with a standard install on a pedestal. And here trehdyuymovym relished. At an elevation angle of 40 degrees it could really shoot at the planes when they were approaching at a low speed and reach the top. Vosmikaltsievy the projectile and a firing range of over 10 km was a good fit for the defeat of small vessels and targets on shore.
 
Well, for large ships and ships were meant torpedoes. Now the British preferred to have the maximum number of vehicles in the forward volley, which was quite reasonable from the point of view of tactics, but contrary to the strength of the housing, which nose has an oval shape. Hence quite modest depth, moreover, limited to just 60 meters away in a “safe” option. Very small remained distance when driving under water. Maximum 10-knots speed the boat could not walk more than 10 miles and 4-node “turtle” speed – hardly more than hundred. And the time of immersion, about fifteen minutes when the original is completely empty ballast tanks, is not impressive. In General, a typical “grey average”.
 
STARFISH, 1937
 
STARFISH, 1937
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Starfish” (type “S”)
 
However, the cost of “Eski” is only about 230 thousand pounds (about a tenth of this amount was spent every year to operate) that prompted the ordering of another pair next year. And this was only the beginning. After the first test results the Admiralty was generous to the eight boats of the second series “S” (subtype “shark”). The design changes were minor: the hull slightly lengthened, leading to increase in displacement in a 30 m increased Slightly and the capacity of the diesel engines, which could now provide a maximum stroke of 15 knots. Otherwise, changes were minimal, which was the main attractive force for the rapid growth in the number of units of this type already in the war years.
 
But first series type “S” had to make war. It should be noted, is not very successful. From the first four survived the war only “Stargen”, though largely due to the fact that in 1943 it was transferred to the fleet of the Netherlands (who was at that time “in exile” in the UK), where she is under the name “Seehund” served mainly as a training. However, before the boat managed to score, with both positive and negative sides. 20 Nov 1939 “Stargen” torpedo sank the small German auxiliary anti-submarine trawler “V-209”; a fact hardly worth mentioning, if this sinking was not the first successful attack by a British submarine during world war II. But two months earlier she mistakenly almost drowned tractorbeam gulp “ancestor” of all “S”, “Swordfish”, but fortunately the torpedo passed.
 
However, for the “Swordfish” such good fortune was short-lived. In November of the following year it sank after detonating a mine. By the time the bottom rest and the remaining two submarines of the first series, and they perished with a small interval in the same waters, in the German Bay. It even forced the Admiralty to discontinue the patrols in such a dangerous place.
 
TRITON
 
TRITON
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Triton” (type “T”, series I), England, 1938
 
Based on hovery in Chatham. Design type – double-hulled. The displacement of standard surface/full surface/underwater – 1090/1325/1575 t Dimensions: length – 83,82 m, width: -8,09 m, maximum draught 4,83 m. Depth up to 75 m. Engine: diesel engine power 2500 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 1450 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 15,25/8,75 bonds. Armament: ten 533-mm torpedo tubes (eight in the nose and two in the middle of the body, 16 torpedoes), one 102 mm gun, three machine guns. The crew of 56 people. In 1938 – 1941 built 15 units. In the middle of the war, after 1942, the surviving units upgraded with the extra torpedo tubes in the stern and 20 mm anti-aircraft machine gun. “Thetis” sank in June 1939 during testing, raised, completely rebuilt and in 1940 re-commissioned under a new name “tan-derbilt”. He and “trooper” in 1942, rebuilt in carriers of human-torpedoes “Chariot” (2 PCs) with the torpedo. All participated in the war, nine died, and the rest scrapped in 1946 – 1947.

 
Badly injured in the beginning of the war women and the second series of “Asok”: five of the eight in early 1941 also were already at the bottom of the North sea. Of the remaining three one, “Sunfish”, intended for transmission to the Soviet Union via lend-lease, but became a tomb for its crew and commander, an outstanding submariner, I. Fisanovich before the start of service in our fleet.
 
On the transition from Scotland in July 1944 “In-1” as it is now called the acquisition, noticing the approaching aircraft, chose to try to go under water, while the British were strictly instructed our crews that need to stay on the surface and to give signals by flares. But, apparently, this instinct of the submarine: air is the enemy is the most terrible. And the British “liberator”, which was considered “In-1” “German”, they dropped bombs and, unfortunately, got. A little excuse for English that is not quite understandable reasons, the former “Sunfish” significantly deviated from the recommended “safe” route. Only two smalls lived to the end of the war, to immediately, in 1945, to be scrapped. However, there were successes: almost all the units sank one or Peniscola transports. And “salmon” achieved an outstanding result: its a full volley in the “lucky 13th” December 1939 doublet was struck by two German cruisers “Leipzig” and “nürnberg”.
 
As for the larger patrol submarines, designed in the future to replace the bad types “O”, “P” and “R”, the development of the project demanded significantly more time. Here intervened another factor: the London agreement on the limitation of naval armaments has set a limit of displacement not only separate units, but all submarines each of the major powers involved. For Britain this meant the need to “shrink” the size of their “patrol” boats to a standard surface displacement (which was used for “the Washington-London” calculations) – about 1100 tons instead of 1475 t in previous projects, to be able to build more units. Therefore, the lead boat of the new generation, named “Triton”, was able to complete the design and order only in 1935. But it came out very successful for most of the parameters, starting with weapons. “Triton” had the maximum number of torpedoes in a volley among the “colleagues”, but all foreign -nasal in addition to the eight, there were a couple vehicles in the middle of the hull that also could shoot at the nose. A total of ten tubes could give a single volley at the enemy.
 
THANDERBOLT former THETIS
 
THANDERBOLT former THETIS
 
Submarine, Trba (type
 
Submarine, Trba (type “T” 1-series) after the upgrade, 1944. An additional torpedo tubes in the stern and a 20-mm gun on the ground behind the cabin
 
Himself durable case on the type “T” was still riveted, and not to risk a fuel leak, and had to again place the tank inside of it. And the outer light housing had an interesting shape that has become characteristic “Englishwomen”. The nose is strongly towered out of the water due to the hefty streamlined “knob” that hid numerous torpedo tubes. Then the deck goes down and narrowed in order before setting again to “swell” (there were some medium-sized devices). Behind the wheelhouse deck was lowered again, forming a graceful aft extremity. All this gave the submarines pretty aggressive look, love, in particular, journalists and military observers. The four-inch gun again placed in the annular shield to protect his servants from splashes and wind. But the division into compartments was limited to six bulkheads. They, like half-inch (12.7 mm) sheathing the hull was quite strong but not as heavy (in the early patrol the bulkheads were one and a half times thicker), thereby ensuring that claimed savings in weight.
 
Good ideas and characteristics of the project type “T” was badly marred by the tragic case of one of the head units: the “Thetis” was sunk during trials in 1939, taking to the bottom of exactly a hundred lives. 99 of them belonged to the crew members and the admissions Committee, and the hundredth was the diver who died during vain efforts to rescue boats and people. Although the accident occurred very close to Liverpool to do nothing and failed. The investigation found the cause: in one of the torpedo tubes were open both covers – front are designed to fill with water and release “fish” and back, through which the torpedo was lodged in the machine. The rapid flow of water through the “hole” with a diameter of more than half a meter (533 mm) created an almost instant trim. Not helped by watertight bulkheads.
 
The causes of this disaster and the first experiences of the engineers suggested to make the project more than a hundred changes, it is not repeated in the future. For example, a huge bulbous nose strongly interfered to keep the submarine at the desired depth in the trench position, and after surfacing, badly hampered her. On the part of the boat went on unfavorable step, removing the two external torpedo tubes, to make narrower fore end (however, these devices still could not be recharged). Curiously, in the combat experience revealed the lack associated with full conscious rejection of the possibility of fire in the stern. If the target managed to slip through the scope, its just nothing to “treat”. So in 1942 he started the modernization of the surviving units, leaving only one stern torpedo tube. At the same time in a special area behind the cabin mounted 20-mm automatic cannon “Oerlikon”, a fairly effective weapon against careless or too “obsessive” enemy aircraft (the Germans had already actively used anti-aircraft guns on their boats).
 
UNITY
 
UNITY
 
Submarine
 
Submarine unity (type “U”, series I), England, 1938
 
It was built by the company “Vickers-Armstrong”. Type of construction – single -. The displacement of standard surface/full surface/underwater – 540/630/730 t Dimensions: length – of 58.22 m, width 4.88 m, draft – 4,39 m immersion Depth up to 60 m. Engine: diesel engine capacity 615 HP and two electric motors with a power of 825 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 12,5/8,5 ties. Armament: six 533-mm torpedo tubes in the nose (10 torpedoes), one 76-mm gun. The crew -27. In 1938 built three units: “Undine, unity and Ursula”. The first two died in the war (Ondine flooded by the crew after surfacing after processing, depth charges, unity tyranena their transport), “Ursula” in 1944, transferred to the Soviet Union returned in 1949 and scrapped

 
Representatives of the type “T” managed to Excel in combat, although suffered heavy losses. Nine of the 15 units were killed in the war. Tenth, “Taku”, brought the number of victims up to level ten, though, and has demonstrated a great vitality, having escaped after the explosion of the mines. But the badly damaged submarine did not recover: it was already 1944, and victory is clearly expected. The “triumph” of more fortunate: he not only died in a similar situation, but reached base and was repaired, as “Tribunes”, who breaks several depth bombs literally directly on the body.
 
As for their attacks, then the head of the boat they started with a real tragedy. “Triton” was chosen as the target of their own “older cousin”, the former “Australian” “Oxley”. With the frantically honked: “My!”, not even noticing that the signal is faulty floodlight. Torpedo sent “Oxley” on the bottom; managed to save only the commander and one crewman. However, in the difficult days of the German invasion of Norway in April 1940, “Triton” fully atoned for my involuntary fault. Shestistolpny a shot with a decent distance more than two kilometers on the German convoy with the troops, proved to be effective. Three torpedoes put to the bottom of the same number of transports, were on them almost 1000-th soldiers of the Wehrmacht – the greatest losses in the course of the operation “Weseruebung”. But not all luck. “Triad”, for example, had in the course of the same battles to spend 14 torpedoes to achieve a single hit in transport. And six torpedoes fired “Titl” German “U-4”, passed by. The punishment followed the next night: “vengeful German” tracked down the offender when she was charging batteries on the surface, and sent her to the bottom with all hands. However, “U-4” didn’t that stoked the submarine, besides the one that tried to deal with them, stating about the death of their torpedoes … a small tanker!
 
Interesting career had Trident, who had during the war to report on all of the major theaters of war. Having started its activity in European waters in October 1939, he worked off the coast of Norway and Biscay, and in the Arctic, dropping to the bottom of enemy ships with a gross tonnage of more than 20 thousand tons, at the same time “the trailer” the hunter submarines. And in February of 1942 one of the three released torpedoes struck the stern of the heavy cruiser “Prinz Eugen” by sending it in for repair for three months. Then the submarine was sent to the Mediterranean sea, where, in particular, sank a large transport volume of nearly 12 000 registered tons.
 
In the summer of 1943, “Trident” went into the Indian ocean, where he managed to make only one combat campaign. Appeared problems in diesel engines, which do not resolve in a pretty poor conditions-based in India, and the boat had to return to repair to England. However, these troubles and the long journey did not stop, ultimately, to achieve “Trident” outstanding results, with 50 thousand tons sunk them he was the most successful among the units of its type. However, “near misses” is also missing in the Bay of Biscay it was the torpedo by the German submarine “U-31”, which then followed an artillery battle – to no avail for both sides. And in the Indian ocean a powerful volley of eight torpedoes at Japanese training cruiser “Cássia” has not produced success.
 
URSULA
 
URSULA
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Ondine” – the head submarine of the type “U”
 
Looks bright and the service of another representative of the first series of the type “T”, “Torbay” (only he and “Trident” from all of the 15 submarines served throughout the war, until the surrender of Japan). On account of his daring evacuation of 120 British soldiers hiding until August 1941 in the mountains on the island of Crete after his capture by the Germans: they managed to take on Board and deliver to Alexandria. There in the Mediterranean sea “Torbay” was able to get to RAID Corfu, where in very difficult circumstances not simply was 17 hours, but was able to derail a couple of goals. And just on account of his listed 55 thousand tons (more formal than “Trident”), but this number includes only the number of damaged ships. But the Italian submarine “Jantina” went to the bottom of course, from his torpedoes.
 
Urgent need in combat units since the beginning of the war forced to use even the unfortunate “Tethys”. Lifting from the bottom, his body is literally gutted and again “filled with” machinery, equipment and weapons. Therefore, it is quite clear that the boat got a new name, becoming the Thunderbolt. Superstitious sailors reluctantly went to serve on the former “utoplennica”; in the beginning there was only appointed volunteers, and then were allowed to refuse this assignment under the order – the case is quite exceptional for the Royal Navy in modern times. Such a troubled past has not prevented a renewed submarine to achieve success upon re-entry into service. Its share went “its Italian” submarine “tarantini” that went down after a 6 torpedo salvo, fired from a large distance (about 5 km). But the Germans were more alert, and hunting thunderbolts for their “bots” with the release of the same six torpedoes failed.
 
And in 1942, “thunderbolt” and the same “trooper” were modernized, becoming a media driven torpedoes, the type of the Italian submarines of the “10th flotilla” Prince Breeze. Behind the wheelhouse was equipped with containers for two “kariotou”, the British version managed people torpedoes. In January 1943, the boat was out on a trip to Palermo, where British saboteurs the torpedoes got his main success, sinking in the Harbor’s newest light cruiser “Ulpio Arco de Trajano”. And all the “black mark” in the fate of himself, unfortunately, was a failure: in his seventh campaign in the Mediterranean waters in March 1942, a former “Tethys”, now the thunderbolt, after a successful attack on the Italian convoy was sunk with all hands depth charges of the Italian Corvette “Cicogna”, becoming the latest victim among boats of this type.
 
In addition to the serial (and very successful) development of the types of patrol boats, the Admiralty decided to revive previously rejected a subclass of small submarines, intended, as stated, “to train anti-submarine forces and short duration of action in European waters”. In accordance with the “simplification principles”, they again took odnostolpnoy scheme, which, of course, were in contradiction with ensuring the survivability and security. Anyway, most of the characteristics of a new type “U” was extremely modest, not to say retrograde. So the hull was still riveted (the British still did not trust the welds and in the end 1930-x years), and there was danger that at greater depths it will start to flow. So boats, formally designed for a dive depth of 60 m, was tested only at a pressure corresponding at least 50 m. Naturally, inside had to accommodate and fuel, and ballast tanks, which worsened conditions for the teams: all enlisted personnel slept and ate literally on the spare torpedoes.
 
On the type “U” for the first time from all the British boats came diesel-electric main machinery. This meant that the movement of the boat is always carried out by means of electrical motors, even on the surface, when I turn on the diesels that caused the action of the generators. This solution (in fact, the separation of engines and propellers) saves space and gave much less of a headache to the engineers in regard to the location of motors, because there is no need for bulky devices to transmit the torque from diesels on shafts. But “in the appendage” and so is not particularly sophisticated technically, the boat got a problem with the actual screws, which when rotating was making a characteristic whistle. Such “singing propellers” in the era is already quite decent means “wiretapping”, not only unnerved the crew, but also facilitates the detection of the boat acusticum of the enemy.
 
That’s what the British did not want to sacrifice their “babies”, so it’s weapons. It is, as usual, provided a powerful bow salvo of six torpedoes, plus a 76-mm gun for surface combat. Unfortunately, the concentration of vehicles in front of the body, having very small diameter, even on the midsection, required about the same “bulb” as the type “T”. Of course, with the same consequences for movement on the surface. And, even worse, with a full salvo of the boat is almost always “showed face” – light weight nose floated over the water. While firing a gun was shown other problems: since the mechanical supply of shells was absent, they had to push through narrow hatches at a great distance and shooting there were only four shells in kranzach located in the wheelhouse. Besides, the servants had very hard times during the emergency dive: people had to quickly squeeze through “a bottleneck” that delays threatened to doom the ship.
 
It may seem that type “U” was the focus of faults. For balance, you can add that these submarines are well-behaved under water, literally turning “on a dime”. The boats were relatively cheap, only 200 thousand pounds per unit, although the difference in price compared to the more universal and progressive type “T” only 15 per cent, was hardly justified. But still, the main requirement – reliability – project managed to implement. Coastal on the idea of a boat with the beginning of the war patrolling around the North sea is not calm. The greatest success achieved by “Ursula”, in 1941 transferred to the Mediterranean, although her as “sister” unity, rammed the merchant ship. But if unity went to the bottom, then “Ursula” had been saved and after almost a year of renovation in 1944, shipped to the Soviet Union. As the saying goes, “malice”, as the British continued to actively build the submarine type “U” in the war for himself.
 
The British submarine
 
The British submarine “Swordfish” on road test, 1933
 
It is worth noting that British submarines of all types merzlotnykh had good equipment for detection of enemy radio communications. They were carrying passive hydrophones, though somewhat inferior to the German, but this disadvantage is more than covered by the presence of active sonar, “Attica” new brands. Quite was decent and periscopes with the possibility of large zoom and night viewing, although on the same “U” they were very short, only 4 m. the beginning of the war its place among the other equipment took direction finders, and with the advent of radars with a small wavelength, and the radar is firmly established on the English boats.
 
What can we say about the difficult path of the Admiralty and the Royal Navy in respect of its submarine fleet? It may seem strange at first glance, consciously agreeing to a restraint in respect of the characteristics of submarines, Britain could benefit. In any case, the huge funds spent earlier in an attempt to create and build significant quantities of super-submarines, noticeably frayed at the edges in the First world war and the subsequent economic crisis, “mistress of the seas” could not afford it. Politics is a dramatic reduction in the number of new units also it is not consistent with Imperial needs and ambitions. Here’s a more cheap and simple to build types could, if necessary, to produce in large batches. What happened at the outbreak of the Second world war. You have options, as they say, on any size allowed good maneuvering resources in the course of the war. And as we know, the British submarine forces are not left out neither in quantity nor in quality.
 
V. KOFMAN

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