“THEIR” AND “OVERSEAS” FROM WORLD TO WORLD

Luck experienced “sharks” and the serial “the walrus” caused a real boom in requests for the construction of domestic underwater vessels already quite respectable size, and good quality. It remained to translate these queries into the metal which in the conditions of rapidly progressing but still lagging behind Western industry in Russia was not easy. In addition, not enough money; however, this has not stopped Marine Ministry, announced a competition for the best project for mass construction.

 

It is clear that the clear leader was the project of the Baltic plant, compiled by I. G. attended on the basis of proven “walrus”. However, competitors have, because in 1909 a curious development, introduced and other companies and designers. So, the Izhora plant proposed submarine surface displacement of 360 tons, the design speed which on the surface under kerosene engine has to reach almost 15 knots. Another site promised Nevsky Zavod in St. Petersburg, which is an impressive submarine, underwater displacement of over 600 tons, was recognized as the most serious competitor to the “Balts”. The choice is decided … the only one torpedo tube to “Neva” the boat in the stern he was single, while on “Shark” and the descendants of them there were two. The rest of the project turned out to be no worse, and experts have even noted the more successful characteristics of the flow around a body water. It has affected the choice as a prototype overseas “gollandskogo” of the case. (As we will see, the old idea of a “true submarine” John Holland although on the backburner, but not completely dead.) Your original version suggested and E. V. Kolbasiev. His “product” for double-hull vessels of up to 940 MT in a submerged position was not struck by the special speed characteristics; the surface speed was barely 12-13 knots, but the highlight of the project was different. The weapons looked fantastic: on Board were taken 28 torpedoes, of which 16 were in the external tubular apparatus, the gunman in the traverse, and the rest was intended for the traditional bow and stern tubes (a pair in each end). Such a terrible boat is very seducing sailors, but the Naval technical Committee (MTK) and decided not to recommend it to the house, vaguely noting that the implementation of difficult “for administrative reasons”.

 
So, it seems to be the chosen one among all applicants, the project of the Baltic plant was supposed to be a triumph Bubnova, because his drawings were provided for the construction of the largest of a series of large submarines for the Russian Navy. However, the delay in ordering due to lack of funds in the Treasury in General and in the naval budget in particular has undermined the enthusiasm of the designer. Without waiting for realization of their offspring, in the spring of 1912 he was unhappy and frustrated, left the leading shipbuilding enterprise in the country. It’s a shame: not hiding it just a few weeks. At the beginning of April things started to happen again: the Naval General Staff (MGSH) finally adopted its requirements for big boats, which are meant first and foremost the Baltic factory.
 
Submarine
 
The submarine “Cougar”
 
Submarines
 
Submarines “bars” (longitudinal section and plan layout):
 
1 – tube torpedo tubes; 2 – underwater bow anchor; 3 – substitution of the tank underwater anchors; 4 – centrifugal pump; 5 – differentia tank; 6 – machines system Drzewiecki; 7 – main propeller motor; 8 – main engines; 9 – combat tower; 10 – periscopes; 11 – the steering wheel, vertical rudders; 12 – removable binnacle compass; 13 – 17 – oil, substitution, egalitarian, “tear-off” and oil tank; 18 – officers ‘ cabins; 19 – a battery cells; 20 compressor; 21 – tank freshwater; 22, 23 – fore and aft horizontal rudders

 
Submarine
 
The submarine “bars”, Russia, 1915
 
Built at the shipyard Baltic shipyard in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The surface displacement of 660 tons, underwater 780 tons Dimensions: length 67,97 m, width 4,45 m, draught 4,01 m. immersion Depth: working – 45 m maximum 90 m. Engines: 2 diesel engine capacity of 500 HP and 2 electric motors with a power of 900 HP Speed surface/underwater 10/8.5 uz. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes (2 in nose and 2 aft) and 8 torpedo tubes Drzewiecki (12 torpedos), artillery weapons changed repeatedly. Since 1916, one 76 mm, one 57 mm and one 37-mm gun. Crew: 45 people In 1915 – 1918 built 18 units: “leopard”, “Cheetah”, “boar”, “Wolf”, “Unicorn”, “Snake”, “Tiger”, “Lion”, “Panther”, “Lynx” and “Cougar,” “the Leopard”, “Acne”, “Tour”, “Jaguar”, “Ruff”, “Trout” and “IDE”. 2 the latter was not completed until 1921, the current fleet is not used. “Leopard”, “Cheetah”, “Unicorn” and “the Lioness” was killed in 1917. The rest joined the fleet of the USSR, was repeatedly renamed. “Panther” (then “B-2”) in 1935 was significant modernization

 
Submarine
 
The submarine “Wolf”
 
However, the respectable enterprise of the leader of the domestic military shipbuilding, there was an active rival joint-stock company “Noblessner”. It also wanted to participate in the “pie” and even specifically promised to build a new plant in revel (now Tallinn) only for construction of submarines. The newcomer had other trump cards: it is the Nobel’s factory, which acted as a cosponsor of freshly baked companies, producing Russian diesel engines that have become the main engines for the submarine fleet. At the same time the leaders of “exclusive Harbor quarter” decided “to buy” and the main Creator of the original project. They succeeded by I. G. Bubnov was head of KB to a new firm.
 
Not surprisingly, in the end, just a modified version of them from the “exclusive Harbor quarter” and recognized as the best. This affected the distribution of the “pie”: new applicants received an order for 12 units. Baltic the plant had to be only half of that number, and this despite the fact that the work could begin in the summer of 1913, and revel the plant could begin construction only a year later. However, the black sea branch of “Balts” in Nikolaev won a couple units. But on the “southern flank” was planned the offensive of competitors: 4 units “grabbed” his newfound plant “Nawal” (Society of the Nikolaev factories and shipyards), settled in the same city.
 
The main problem for large domestic submarines were the engines. The Nobel’s factory in the period failed, in the end, the motors nameplate capacity for 1320 HP only got 2 units – enableservice “Cougar” and “Baltic” “the Snake”. (Baltic submarines are called a variety of animals, from big cats predators to reptiles.) However, they have had enough problems; the regular engines were too big for the not-so-great submarines great sitesnew working conditions of the crew. In the end, both the contractor had a ball, tracking and extracting the suitable diesel engines wherever possible. (In this respect, of course, lucky the black sea “the Loon”, “Duck”, “Petrel”, “the Pelican” and “the Swan” in which the engine power even considerably exceeded the project, reaching a total of 2500 HP) the Rest had much worse. For “IDE” exclusive was designed for two 420-HP engines production, “Vickers”, and “Unicorn”, “Ruff”, “Trout” and “eel” set the diesel engines of the same power from a little-known firm “new London”, was, in the end, very unreliable. Diesel engines from Kolomna plant, inherited the largest number of units (11) with a rather small capacity of only 250 HP each (5 times less than the project!), runs more stable, but as you can guess, finally “lost” performance. Not only surface, but also underwater: diesels fit the screws in this step, which proved to be completely unsuccessful for electric motors. Raznosortitsa was observed not only in the main mechanisms. A wide range of equipment is also divided by different manufacturers. In the end, the drawings specific units repeatedly redrawn, sometimes quite seriously.
 
In all these circumstances the problem arose not only with the nomenclature of machinery and equipment, but also with the time of commissioning. Baltiysky Zavod has risen to the occasion and gave his two first pieces, “bars” and “Cheetah”, almost on time. In July 1915, both boats proceeded to acceptance testing. Worth the extra time to notice that by that time almost a year the war was on, so even ending construction in accordance with the plans of the units, in fact, things pretty late. After all, they still had tests that revealed a fair number of comments that looks quite small, but collectively significantly reduced the fighting qualities of the submarine. At full speed the hull was vibrating so much that periodically incapacitated out for yourself the electric motors and diesels, not to mention the more fragile machinery and equipment. A lot of problems and has brought much-loved in our fleet torpedo system Drzewiecki. Their original location was too low, so “breaking” about them waves profusely filled with water the upper deck. Subsequently, some items were moved on the deck, somewhat improving the situation. On the other the problem was solved radically, abandoning the installations in the “grid” and close up their intended niche, is markedly hindered and so is not too high-speed submarines. However, another disadvantage remained indestructible. The fact that the torpedoes had a thin hull, it is adapted to the water pressure at depths of release (to 10 m), but deformed to several dozens of meters. The result is a very decent maximum diving depth was “leopards” is unattainable, at least without serious risk of losing most of his weapons. A similar problem arose with deck tanks; their 3-mm wall cracked and dangerous bend in the slow equalization of water pressure inside and outside.
 
But if the Baltic factory at the very least fulfill its obligation, the latter-day “upstart” “, Noblessner” hopelessly delayed their “products”. The parent unit of this company, “Tiger”, passed his test only in the spring of 1916, nearly 10 months after the deadline for the contract. This is despite the fact that the plant in revel (patriotically renamed in 1915 in Peter the Builder) was engaged exclusively in the construction of submarines and was in a favorable position from the point of view of equipment supply. Representatives of the Naval Ministry has awarded the production of a brief but devastating characteristics: “Amateurs”. In the end, out of the planned 12 units revel the plant led the construction of only nine. Eight of them managed to finish before the end of the war, but the ninth, “IDE”, as we have noted, no luck. The revolution and the Brest peace has led to the emergence of independent Baltic States and in 1920, the year the boat had to urgently withdraw from the capital of the newly formed Estonia to Petrograd. And there it is, in the end, just dismantled the metal: the young Soviet Republic had neither the strength nor the means to complete the work.
 
Quite traditional remained the complaint of the sailors on fast enough filling the ballast tanks by gravity and fragility of periscopes in a fully released state. These shortcomings had to be addressed on already-built units, and to revise drawings for another build. Deck tank made more robust and supplied them huge (diameter 250 mm) valves flooding – Kingston. Gravity feed is now supplemented by four powerful centrifugal pumps, able to pump more than 150 tons of water per minute. The result was to reduce the sink rate with nearly 3 minutes to 2, but there appeared new bad luck. The water displaced when submerged tank air raised a huge water fountains for a dozen meters, which did not contribute to the main characteristics of the submarine – stealth. Had to alter and drainage air. It was also found that the pride of Russian engineers and sailors – decent habitability – remained so only during the warmer months. The harsh Russian winter makes staying in a bare metal enclosure, from which the people dripping ice water is unbearable. And here was the solution: boats equipped with steam heating and the inner case is sheathed by the tube emerging from the cold drippings. But with the design to do anything was impossible monohull boats without a single watertight bulkheads had, to put it mildly, is low vitality.
A curious thing happened with the artillery weapons of the Baltic boats. The original project was supposed to install them one by one 57-mm and 37-mm gun and machine gun. However, staffing the “battery” got lead “bars” and “Cheetah”. Later units had a more substantial pair of 57-millimetrovogo, and “Tiger” and “Lion” received 37-mm antiaircraft gun on a special curved pedestal. Placed directly in the fence cutting, antiaircraft guns quickly brought to combat condition and could open fire on a rather unwieldy then airplanes. Despite the absence of any of the instrument itself, the opportunity to shoot at becoming extremely unpleasant for boats air the enemy contributed to the acquisition of confidence in the team. But this improvement in artillery is not over. At the end of 1916, the Navy considered it possible for all “are weak” units (respectively, took some stock load), numbering as many as 13 pieces, to install a 75-mm gun. In the end, they had to have one 75-mm, 57-mm and 37-mm gun and machine gun – a whole collection of light artillery. However, the onset of the revolution gave complete conceived; 75-graph paper received only a “Panther”, “Leopard” and “Lynx”. Already the Provisional government of the four units got a couple trehdyuymovok (the second replaced the more modest 57-mm gun), becoming among the most heavily armed submarines in the world.
 
That emerged in the course of the war the prospect of using submarines for mine productions brought to life the attempts to adapt for this purpose and representatives of the Baltic “versawet”. As the first victim has chosen “wild Boar”, which established the traditional surface ships equipment: rail “track” mines on deck. However, when you reset the deadly “balls” (very heavy Russian mines had very good characteristics that affected their weight) revealed that the boat itself was very unstable, and in setting it was barely able to hold in a horizontal position. Had from the “ship” for the mines to be abandoned. More successful was the use of makeshift “cells” on either side of the wheelhouse, which is located in 8 min. Reset special levers from the bridge, respectively, only on the surface. So equipped “Leopard”, “Lion” and “Tiger”, but in reality, this setting method has not found practical application in war.
 
Beginning of combat activities of Russian submarines in the Baltic have been disastrous: in the campaign of 1915 they released 50 torpedoes, none of which hit the target. The reasons are enough. This low level of training of the crews has just come into operation units, and possible damage of torpedoes in Drzewiecki devices, and then the methods of shooting: when a powerful armament it was made by only one torpedo. However, during the First world war were shot at the boats of all countries.
 
But domestic submarine gradually gained experience, and the next year things went much better. In 1916 the actions of the Baltic boats began only in early may, when together with the British boats in the sea came a Wolf. He received the status of “free hand” with permission to attack any target. Its commander, senior Lieutenant I. V. Messer already had considerable experience of underwater voyages and sent his submarine in Norcheping Bay – a place that could not pass the transports carrying high-quality Swedish iron ore to Germany. Careful the commander of all the daytime kept his ship at periscope depth and just making sure that it is “German”, and that it is not visible cannons, popped a few back from my goal (not to get hit by a battering RAM). And soon followed the first success. The German steamer Gera, with a capacity of 2800 BRT first tried to leave, but after a few shots, the team chose to leave the ship and Board the boat. After firing a stern torpedo tube “Hera” sank. While “Wolf” has a new goal – the steamer “Bremen”, discovered very close – just 4 – 5 miles. However, there has been problems with the engines: low-power diesels are not allowed to catch up the transport, which went about the same 10 – 11-node speed boat. But this fruitful day, may 4, has not yet ended. Several hours later, “Wolf” surfaced to attack a ship “Kolga”, transporting the cargo (coal briquettes) in the opposite direction, from Germany to Sweden. The captain behaved very valiantly, trying to get away even when the case began to get Russian missiles (however, the 57-mm ammunition resembled the grains in the body of the elephant). “Kolga” more and managed to Dodge one torpedo, but the second hit the target, sending it to the bottom.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Narwhal”
 
Submarine
 
The submarine “Lioness”
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Panther”
 
Just over an hour in the field of view seemed another Swedish transport the same load. Followed by another warning shots, stop the capture of the captain and the sinking ship. So “Wolf” has set a record for the Russian boats sent to the bottom during the day 3 of the vessel. His progress was interrupted only by the coming darkness. However, this is truly a brilliant success nor the most “Wolf” or his “sisters” to repeat already failed. The Germans responded quickly, organizing convoys and their escorts. German destroyers and planes made our submarines to stay under water, pursuing a rare attack from a comfortable position. Boat commanders continued to aggressively look for the enemy, stopping single ships, but all of them were neutral Danish or Swedish. A convoy or slipping on the horizon, or safely avoided released, in fact, almost at random torpedoes. The results did not reach any “Lion” or “Tiger” or “Cheetah” (fell under the ramming attack of the convoy and barely wisnowski from the scene), or “Panther”. Even the “bars”, which is a record among domestic large boats, number of trips and conducted in time (almost 50 days) couldn’t get any torpedo released a dozen of them. (Perhaps there has been problems with the devices Drzewiecki, “port” their content.) Nevertheless, skillful and valiant Messer on his “Wolf” managed to get another win, sinking “Dorita” pretty solid for a Baltic ship with a capacity of almost 3,700 BRT with iron ore. Scored “Vepr”, sink to the bottom “Syria” with the same load, despite the fact that the transport was guarded by several Swedish ships. In General the Swedes were more than aggressive: these “neutrals” instead of stay on demand of the commanders of the submarines tried to RAM. Wolf barely dodged such “acceptance”, escaped with mutilated periscopes.
 
Next, 1917-th year, the division of submarines significantly increased in part due to the part structure of the new “beasts”. It seemed that the next success is not far off, but then “intervened” historical process. Revolution inflicted irreparable damage to the fleet, sending in “scrap” and discipline. Although commanders made every effort to withdraw their submarines at sea, the results can be called except that overwhelms. Boats made 76 combat exits, but sank only one small German steamer scored with “a proven fighter” “Vepr”. For this modest success came at a price: from the Crusades never returned 3 units: head of “leopard”, “Lion” and “Cheetah”. The circumstances of their deaths are vague; if the first two boats may have been attacked by German anti-submarine ships, “Cheetah”, most likely died in the mines.
 
Added joy and subsequent events. When leaving the Baltic fleet from revel to Helsingfors divers were missing the “Unicorn” not sustained transition through the ice. It’s amazing how generally managed to smuggle the remaining submarines with their fragile bodies. And then had less severe transition to Kronstadt.
 
And this time it managed to make all 12 boats “Barsova” series, and almost without any serious damage! Seven of them joined the Current Squad of the Soviet Baltic fleet (DOT), becoming hardly probable not its main strength in the face unceremoniously flooded the Gulf of Finland in the British Navy. And former allies, now supporting intervention and the advance of white troops, paid for their insolence and carelessness. Old honored fighter “Wolf” and “Panther” several times he released a torpedo at the British. And 31 Aug 1919 “Panther” was able to open his personal account and the account of the Soviet submariners. The newest British destroyer “Vittoria”, without any precautions standing near the island Seskar was a torpedo and quickly sank. The commander of the boat A. N. Bakhtin was awarded the highest award of the Soviet Republic – the Order of the red banner, and a good half of the crew received the award less than high, but useful -personalized pocket watch, very prestigious at the time, “divays”.
 
It became famous in the Soviet Navy “Panther” was chosen as the head of the subject of serious refurbishment, which was to provide the first native boats, to preserve his body in good condition, a kind of second life. Inside installed 2 bulkheads, finally divided the submarine into 3 isolated compartments, which significantly increased its survivability. New, more modern and reliable engines – Diesel power 685 HP provided almost design surface course 15.5 site. (Positive impact, not only increase the power of engines, but higher quality contours: in addition to the removal of vehicles Drzewiecki completely rebuilt the wheelhouse and the bridge and installed 45-mm cannon instead of the nominally more powerful, but outdated “artillery”. Significant “shake-up” held equipment and devices. So, the boat has completely replaced the battery and screws, and for loading replacement torpedoes taken instead of “disposable” devices Drzewiecki, there is a convenient loading hatches. In General, “Commissioner”, after 1921 called the former “Panther”, rename in a modest “B-2” and quite successfully transformed into a fairly modern submarine. However, the conversion of “a pretty penny”, and the experience was not repeated. However, the very “B-2” served for a long time, although it had to withdraw from the battle fleet to the beginning of the great Patriotic war, in 1940. The rest of the unit left the combat ranks even earlier, in the 1930s. But some representatives of the former “beasts”, as, for example, the same “Panther”, “B-2” continued to serve as auxiliary vessels, mostly as a floating station for charging military boats, finally ending my career in the 1950-ies.
 
Soviet fleet to the beginning of world war II had samples of its new submarines. But along with them in the fighting line was still “colleagues” “bars”, mostly “imported”.
 
Going back to the previous one, the First world war. It is easy to see the submarine forces of Russia was the beginning in a very difficult position. It seems there was own, and obviously a good type of the submarine, but the “front line” they are clearly late, and by themselves, the prospects for construction remain unclear. It is therefore not surprising that the eyes of the Naval Ministry and MTC turned to one of the most established suppliers of submarines, has a powerful industry and also held favorable to the allies, the neutrality of the United States. And there, the counterparty was obvious – well known to our seamen firm “electric boat”. Especially because she is already actively started the construction of units for more than a solid ally of England, and indeed drew attention to a new and large market for their products. Already a well-known plant “Noblessner” received from overseas offer to put some of the modern submarines of the project “602F” disassembled in order to assemble them in Russia.
 
Interested in our Marine Department, but, due to the fact that “Amateurs” from revel could not cope with their own order, passed the Assembly checked the Baltic factory. Was supposed to get 5 units, which was truly a trip around the world. Their corps was collected on the Pacific coast of America, there are then dismantled and shipped to American and Japanese vehicles. They crossed the ocean, unloaded the cargo in Vladivostok, where it was placed in wagons and drove the only single-track railway across Russia, to the capital. In Petrograd components and assemblies finally came to the Baltic plant, which was their installation under the supervision of specialists from the “electric boat”. The most interesting that such a “roundabout way” was even faster than build your own “bars,” although our workers and engineers had to sweat: it seems to be fitting in USA part bad stykovanii each other, and besides a trivial Assembly needed to further customize the frames and the plates, that is, in fact, lead a full of the shipbuilding work. However, just a year after the conclusion of the contract (!) the first unit was able to lower the water. The tests were quite satisfactory, although “American” was not without drawbacks. So, after the release of the torpedo boats tried to escape to the surface, habitability is clearly inferior to our representatives of the “animal world”, and some of the equipment wasn’t very reliable. But overall the transition was quite efficient. Funny their marking: the submarine was called the letters “AG” and a number (starting with 11). “AG” meant “American Holland” – so strong was the prestige and the memory of one of the pioneers of underwater shipbuilding, because John Holland was dismissed from the creation of submarines with their “partners” for more than 10 years ago.
 
Overseas boats, despite their small size and seems to be rather modest characteristics, had a number of valuable service properties. In contrast to the more modern “leopards”, they had three watertight bulkheads, which undoubtedly greatly increased the survivability: in case of flooding of one compartment of the four has preserved the ability to rise to the surface. A kind of additional “means of salvation” was… combat tower that took two sealed hatch at the top and bottom. In case of emergency it can be used as airlock crew could “a La carte” stay in the cabin that was filled with water, equalizing the pressure and releasing people to the surface. Then the water suction in the wheelhouse was part of another group, and the process repeated. A more rational location of ballast tanks (not only in the extremities but in the middle of the body) has reduced the dive time. Special “bonus” was an equipment reliability, many components of which served for several decades.
 
The first success of such emergency purchases consisted primarily in speed of construction-build, inspired by the Naval Ministry on additional orders. Followed by another 3 contracts, only 12 units, 6 of which was earmarked for the black sea fleet and 3 for the Baltic and fundamentally new theatre – established in the North of the private fleet. Project change was minimal (it was doubling the capacity of diesel engines for surface speed is from 240 HP to 480 HP each). But technically, they had different symbols – 602GF, 602L and 602R, whereas the first order consistent with the option 602F. And again, at the forefront was the pace of construction of contracts concluded in late 1916 and early 1917, and already autumn was supposed to complete the Assembly! And, lo and behold! at the end of August, the first 3 of the black sea “agesci”, the Assembly of which began in April, joined the fleet. And this despite the fact that U.S. experts one after the other left our country in the period of dual power between the revolutions. No less surprising fact is that even after the October Revolution, the Civil war, the process of commissioning on the Black sea simple and technologically advanced boats have not stopped. One unit was demolished in 1918 and 1919, and “AG-23” left the factory in Mykolaiv already in the end of October 1920, in the midst of fratricidal events in Russia.
 
But the whole series to finish in the original version never had. The remaining 3 units completed already in a ruin, when the plants are being stolen each new “power” irretrievable loss of units, submarines and machines. However, engineers-enthusiasts, such as J. S. Soldatov and P. I. Serdyuk, managed to finish it. However, on each of the “agecheck” at numbers 24, 25 and 26 had only one periscope, and even a shortened and “last -” “AH-26” did not get regular diesel, which is set to “toy” with 120 HP. However, unpretentious boats, and our experts got a rare for the experience of time, which Serdyuk used later when creating the famous “little ones” 12-series.
 
Diagram type submarines
 
Diagram of the submarine type “AG”, 1941:
 
1 – 450-mm torpedo tubes; 2 – bow tank main ballast; 3 – anchor; 4 – torpedo room; 5 – bow hatch; 6 – torpedonoscy Luke; 7 – bow differenta tank; 8 – fuel tank; 9 – spare torpedoes; 10 – tank system high pressure air; 11 – nasal rechargeable (residential) compartment; 12 – rechargeable battery; 13 – middle group ballast tanks; 14 – way bridge; 15 – periscope attack; 16 – anti-aircraft periscope; The 17 – strong cutting; 18 – the Central compartment; 19 – Central office; 20 helm control bow and stern horizontal rudders; 21 – average hatch; 22 – feed battery compartment; 23 – the aft hatch; 24 – engine compartment; 25 – diesel; 26 – main propeller motor with razobschitelny coupling; 27 – thrust bearing; 28 – vertical drive vehicles; 29 – differentia feed tank; 30 – aft main ballast tank
 
*The circuit is made by V. Y. Apalikova based on the original drawings.
 
Submarine “AG-11”, Russia, 1916
 
Built at the shipyard “Burnett Yard” in Vancouver, gathered at the Baltic shipyard in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. Surface displacement of 355 tons, scuba 435 tons Dimensions: length 4-5.8 m, width of 4.81 m, draft 3,76 m. immersion Depth: working – 45 m, maximum – up to 60 m. Engines: 2 diesel with 480 HP and 2 electric motors with a power of 300 HP Speed surface/underwater for 12.5/10.5 uz. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (8 torpedoes), one 47-mm and one 47-mm gun. The crew of 37 people. In 1916 built 5 units: “AG-11” – “AG-15”. “AG-14” died in 1917, and the rest blown up by the crew in 1916, raised by the Finns, scrapped in 1920-ies.
 
On a similar project in 1918 – 1923 in Nikolaev assembled from American parts 6 units (the”AG-21″ – “AG-26”). In addition to “AG-22”, interned in France in 1922, has been repeatedly modernized and renamed in the Soviet Navy. “AG-21” (“Metalist”, “A-3”, “CCD-Z”) sank in the result of an accident in 1931, raised. “AG-23” (“SQUARE-16″, Nezamozhne”, “miner”, “A-1” blown up by the crew, 1942 raised, “AG-25” (“to Them.tov. Trotsky”, “IL-18”, “Marxist”, “A-3”) died in October 1943, the Rest (except her) removed from the existing fleet shortly after the end of world war II and scrapped in the early 1950-ies

 
General scheme of the modernized submarine B-2 (
 
The General scheme of the modernized submarine B-2 (“bars”):
 
1 – main ballast tank; 2 – differentia tank; 3 – surge tank; 4 – deck tank; 5 – durable cutting; 6 – had; 7 – spare torpedo; 8 – periscope; 9 – diesel; 10 – main propeller motor; 11 – battery Submarine B-2 (ex-Pantera), USSR, 1935
 
Built at the shipyard Baltic shipyard in St. Petersburg in 1934 – 1935 was upgraded. Type of construction – single -. The surface displacement of 670 tons, underwater 780 tons Dimensions: length 68 m, width 4.5 m, draft 3.9 m Depth, the maximum is up to 50 m. Engines: 2 diesel with a capacity of 1370 HP and 2 electric motors with a power of 900 HP Speed surface/underwater 15,5/8.5 uz. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes (2 in nose and 2 aft) (6 torpedoes), two 57-mm and one 45-mm gun, two machine guns. Crew: 46 people In 1949, renamed the “CCD-1” was used for charging batteries military boats. In 1955, scrapped

 
Much less fortunate, the Baltic and North sea submarines. They have built a factory around Vancouver (that’s in Canada, “electric boat” is specially launched a work for ease of delivery of the product to Russia via far East – rest of the path did not exist), dismantled and ready to load for transport. However broke “the Bolshevik revolution”, and feel wrong representation of Russia in USA hastily canceled the contract. The advance is gone, and the boat in 6 pieces remained in the ownership of the firm. Its owners tried to sell their wares for the second time, now Britain. However, the Admiralty refused; as we will see later, by the time the problem with submarines managed to solve on their own, and very successfully, so that the legacy project has not attracted “mistress of the Seas”. In the end, the “victim” was own fleet, to which was attached the latest “American Holland”. There “N-4” – “N-9” is no glory earned. Entering service in 1918 (now they had to drive in the US!), these submarines effectively served in the Pacific only three years. They were then transferred on the Atlantic coast, as ships of coastal defense and soon took in reserve as unnecessary, and in 1931 was sent to a breaker.
 
But the Russian submarine type “AG” were long and active. Although the beginning of their careers looked truly tragic: the first Baltic series were killed at full strength. “AG-14”, released in its fourth war patrol under the command of the son of Admiral Essen, who led the Baltic fleet early in the war, never returned to the base. Killing all 34 members of the crew. Only in 2003 the Swedish newspaper reported that a half-century ago (!), when you search for the missing in 1953 aircraft, divers and at the same time discovered an unknown submarine, probably a type of “AG”. It had already gone pretty deep in the mud: over the bottom remained about ten meters of the hull. It is clear that the years could only worsen the situation and raise a purely historical boat from a depth of about hundreds of meters, no one was going. The other four Baltic “agesci” could not go along with a fleet of Helsingfors in 1918: their fate was unenviable, the ice become impassable, and the icebreaker was not able to wait. Crews had to blow up their boats. In the 1920-ies they raised is “free” Finns dismantled and sent to the metal.
 
But the black sea, “American” survived not only the Civil war, during which passed from one hand to another. The strange legacy of these “procedures” was an amazing variety of unexpected artillery systems, small-caliber and 37-mm and 47-mm. (by the Way, the original draft no guns “602” to have not expected.) Already in Soviet times, the weapons somehow systematized, leaving at all one 47-graph paper Hotchkiss, fortunately, the supply of these old guns still the end of the nineteenth century seemed inexhaustible. However, the close arrangement of very small 350-ton submarines no artillery cellar, not included, so the ammunition for them was stored in the boxes that the Parking lot was … the whole head. But in the campaign the premises was absolutely necessary, and ammunition were transferred to a Central post (CPU). Only at the end of 1930-ies on arms “AG” received a relatively modern semi-automatic “sorokopyatka”, for the increased ammunition which has carved out a special little store in the hold under the CPU. The shells still had to submit to the instrument manually in the boxes through this the main organ of control boat. In the conning tower was kept still and the Maxim machine gun, installed during the shooting on the swivel in the manner of an aircraft. But during the war it was supplemented and 7.62-mm machine gun DP. All of this enabled the boats to somehow deal with enemy aircraft. And no wonder: the ancient submarines during the great Patriotic war came for real combat missions and even sank the transports of the enemy! So, the former “AG-25” in June of 1942, a torpedo sank the Romanian steamer “Sulina”, transporting more than 5,000 tons of food and military cargo. And next month she needed and machine guns: the balaclavas boat attacked an enemy plane that left several bullet holes in the fence cutting. However, the submarine managed to fight back and escape. Almost a year later, “the old lady” has achieved another victory, sinking the German large landing barge type МFР. And shortly before the Soviet counteroffensive honored the boat returned to base. The cause of death remains unknown: it was initially supposed that it is guilty of sinking the German ships, ASW capability, but the comparison of the documents revealed that they were “stoked something” in the wrong place and a day later. So the fate of the submarine was able to solve mine, and the abandonment of old equipment, and crew error.
 
It should be noted that “AG-25” by that time, have long had another name. And not the second. All completed “agesci” for the story of his service have been a real flurry of renaming. Thus, the “AG-25” in 1920 called “Them. tov. Trotsky,” not only peculiar, but, as it is easy to understand, short-lived. The following year it was renamed to the humble “SQUARE-18”, and a year later she was awarded with the honorary order of time, the name “Marxist.” In this guise, the boat lasted until 1934, when followed by the issuance of a final title, again modest – “A-3”. The same transformation passed and other units, which by 1934 th year remained just four, from “A-1” to “A-4”. The longest was “in active service” “AG-24”, awarded in 1949, another rename – in “M-52” in connection with moving to the class of small submarines. And only in the following year served for almost 30 years and past the war submarine – the former “to Them. tov. Lunacharsky,” “PL-17”, “Communist”, “A-2” is sent for dismantling on the metal. Slightly less than served and its “sister” – “AG-26”. But to put the record “agesca” at number 21, also deduced from fighting structure of the Navy in 1949, but left in service as a floating power station to charge the batteries under the designation “CCD 8”. And only in 1955 the latest “American of Holland” finished his career spanning 38 years, on the Black sea.
 
V. KOFMAN

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