ORLOV WALERYSZAK

ORLOV VALORISAThe laboratory experimental machines Orlowski city Palace of pioneers named after Yuri Gagarin a lot of interesting and original works. At the regional exhibitions NTTM they attract the attention of visitors of all ages. And no wonder! The search range of the young designers wide: training glider and walking robot, a flying car and microtracker. With every new car the guys are in the way of true researchers: outlining the purpose, carefully studying the existing experience, then, given their own capabilities, define the technical requirements to future design and finally design and build it. So was born a twin recumbent LEM-05 (laboratory of experimental machines, 5-I model), the creation of the device, which says the head of the laboratory of engineer V. I. Borodec.
On the idea of building the velomobile guys got the message about the creation of such machines by the Vilnius enthusiasts. Began to collect information, charts, drawings, built the breadboard. So gradually formed the idea of how to be our recumbent. Decided to make it double and four-wheel. The body, though not as streamlined as drop-shaped cabin sports pedal cars must be roomy enough for a bench seat car. Sedentary fit chosen not only as the most usual and convenient: it allows better use of muscle strength. A number of requirements for powertrain were forced to abandon conventional veloplivd — rotary pedals with a chain drive. The choice fell on ratchet suspension pedals> which has no dead spots, and, most importantly, allows due to this emphasis in the seatback developing force in 1,5—2 times more than on the bike. Connecting each pedal with his hepatica, you can do all drives are independent. This will allow you to operate the pedals alternately and at once. In addition, the drive easily translated to “manual traction”: the pedals are replaced and supplemented by an oscillating hand levers. This will serve as a recumbent and Bicycle, and vehicle for disabled people.
 
Fig. 1. The dimensions and the overall layout of the velomobile
Fig. 1. The dimensions and the overall layout of the velomobile:
1 — body, 2 — windshield 3 — steering arm, 4 — levers brakes, 5 — beam, 0 — turn signal, 7 — rearview mirror 0 — recoil, 9 — rear window, 10 — brake light 11 ratchet clutch, a 12 — seat 13 — way cable, 14 — pedal, 15 — tie rod, 10 — fork swivel front wheel.

 
The design of our LAM-05, despite the original drive is simple. Of standard parts used wheels and front forks of a Bicycle “Desna-2”, and not scarce bearings. The rest is produced using simple equipment and tools from the materials available. During Assembly you can do without welding.
 
Frame of the velomobile has a U-shape. Its side rails and two front crossmember — dural corners 40X40 mm. Bushing forks of the front wheels, if they are not used from Bicycle frames, machined from steel pipe and have internal ø 30 mm with a length of 200 mm. They are strengthened in the front corners of the frame are strictly parallel to each other. The stiffness of the Assembly attach longitudinal and transverse braces of the sleeves, and a Wide seat base, cut from a sheet of plywood 10 mm thick and mounted on the bolts between the side rails. Spinal beam — a wooden block section 25×50 mm — carries two brackets p/left stick and the support of the semi-shafts of the rear wheels.
 
Fig. 2. The chassis of the velomobile (body shot)
Fig. 2. The chassis of the velomobile (body shot):
1 — fork of the front wheel, a 2 — frame. 3 — rocking steering, 4 — tie rod 5 — pedal (passenger side not shown) in the steering arm, 7 — longitudinal pivot arm fork, 8 — polyval rear wheel, 9 — seat 10 — frame body.

 
Steering control is installed horizontally in the brackets steering arm. Rocking chair on its front end connected by a pair of tie rods — steel rods ø 8 mm with longitudinal levers forks wheels. Each one is a M10 bolt with a length of 120 mm, screwed in the plug hole reamed, previously served for attachment of the front wing. We think the most optimal ratio of the shoulders, wherein the tilt steering lever by 60° leads to rotation of the wheel at 20-25°. Fixing the forks of the front wheels in sleeves frame the same as on the bike.
 
Rear-wheel — drive, installed each on their polumalu of the dural tube with an outer d of 35 mm and a length of about 470 mm. as the inner diameter of the wheel hub 34 mm, and the connection with the shaft for torque transmission must be very dense, the shank of the last grind on a very flat cone: approximately 1 : 100. Then when tightening the axle bolt hub wheels are pressed onto the shank of at least 2/3 of its length. The connection is so strong that dismantling it will be possible only with a special puller.
 
R and p. 3. The drive wheels
R and S. 3. The drive wheels:
1 — spinal beam frame, wooden bar 25X X50 mm, 2 — support bracket, 3 — bolt MB, 4 —the Central pillar of the semi-shafts, 5 — bearing No. 200, 6 — polyval, dural tube d 35 mm, 7 — pulley, 8 — bearing No. 207, 9 — axle dogs, a 10 ratchet wheel 11 the ratchet casing, 12 — tapered shaft with nut, 13 — side frame spar, dural area 40X40 mm, 14 — Podshipnik No. 207, 15 — bearing, 16 bearing bracket, angle steel 40X40 mm, 17 — stupica rear wheel, 18 — tube pauwela, 19 — bolt M10 mounting wheels, 20 — spring dog 21 dog, 22 — bolt M8 bracket.

 
Every polyval freely set the frame on two bearings No. 207 and N2, 200. First worn its inner ring on polyval near the hubs. Clip it to the outer ring through the bracket (bracket) is bolted to side frame spar. A lower bearing is mounted inside the opposite end of pauwela and rests with its inner ring on the axle-a support sill of the frame.
 
Drive each pauwela in rotation is provided by two hrapovic mechanism. Double ratchet clutch is fixed on polumalu a tapered pin with a nut. Its pulley is a spring-dog on the end planes mounted on bearings 207 N2. Steel cable d 2 mm, fixed on the end of a rocking pedal, three times around the pulley, is connected via the return spring with a maximum force of 4-5 kg to the seat frame. With each pedal forward, the rope turns the pulley. One of the dogs, coupled with a ratchet wheel transmits the rotation of the wheel drive shaft” as two dogs on one pulley due to inaccuracies of manufacture and Assembly at the same time can not work, their axes offset from each other by half a tooth pitch of the ratchet wheel. This helps reduce the idling the pedal twice.
 
During the return stroke the return spring causes the pulley against rotation of the shaft. According to the principle of the ratchet clutch similar to the roller or ball overrunning. If you have ready, it can be used in this node. If to make this item yourself, it is better to stay on the ratchet, as the most simple. The ratchet wheel of such a clutch is easy to make from steel plate, drill and respectively processed by the file teeth. Even the blunt disc cutter can turn into a ratchet, if it’s a little doubtabout after a deep home— heating up to 1100-1200° C and cooling together with the furnace. Load meshed parts of the mechanism is small, so that the subsequent heat treatment is not required. Spring, biasing the pawl to the ratchet, should provide only a continuous contact of the parts — the more powerful will increase the noise of operation and wear.
 
Brakes — mechanical; levers mounted on both sides of the body near the seat, act directly on the rear wheels. If necessary, and can be equipped with front brakes from a sport bike, endure the handle of management on the steering arm.
 
Fig. 4. Frame of the velomobile
Fig. 4. Frame of the velomobile:
1 — longitudinal swivel lever (bolt M10), 2 —axles, 3 — rocking the steering lever. 4 — bushing front fork, 5 — longitudinal strut, 6 — steering arm, 7 — bracket steering arm, 8—side longitudinal frame, 9 — seat (base — plywood with a thickness of 10 mm), 10 — bracket bearing pauwela, 11 — upper cross beam, dural area 40X40 mm 12 — cross brace, 13 — ninjaa cross beam, dural area 40X40 mm, 14 — connecting rod, 15 — foot, 16 — spinal beam frame wooden block 25X50 mm, 17 — the Central pillar of the semi-shafts, 18 — bearing, 19 — shaft connecting rod 20 to the nut M10. 21 —rod 22 — bearing.

 
An undoubted and very important for the velomobile advantage of veloplivd with a ratchet or other one-way clutch is a smooth change of the transmission ratio. This is enough for running cable to connect the pedal through the yoke. If the control cable to pull the rocker closer to the axis of swing of the pedal force transmitted by the clutch will increase, and decrease.
 
Completes the construction of the velomobile manufacturer of light plywood or plastic body. He enclosed aluminum corners and decorative moldings. Good visibility and protection from the wind provide a windshield and rear window from plexiglass, comfort — seat with foam cushions upholstered in artificial leather. Additional equipment will be useful: flashlight, light turn signals, brake light-powered battery or Wellenreiter, reflectors, velocitometer, in the rear view mirror.
 
In our machine the convenience and comfort combined with good handling characteristics: moving recumbent smoothly, without jerks, noise from the operation of the ratchets is almost inaudible. The ability to change the gear ratio and work at the same time “in four legs” provides excellent throttle response, makes it easy to climb to 15° and accelerate to a speed of 35 km/h! The guys that made the velomobile, happy to ride it even in winter, assuring that no half-meter snowdrifts, nor ice, their car is not terrible.

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