BEAT WELLNot yet available in all villages and towns there is a water supply and country and garden plots, it is often not at all — water should be taken from the wells. As a rule, mine waters, and not always they are close to home. What if the well to build on the property? However, to dig the mine — a very laborious process, you will have to shovel a lot of earth. More affordable tubewell. Will there be enough water in it? The production rate of a well is usually small depends on the size of its cross section. Therefore, the tubular source, if it is correctly constructed and properly maintained, will provide the needs of the infield is not worse than mine and not give him durability. Besides, he does not pass the surface contamination and thus the most safe in hygienic respect.
Getting to the construction of the well, it is necessary to collect more complete information on the nature of rocks to the aquifer. This should take into account that solid stone layers and boulder-pebble deposits to go with a homemade tool it is difficult. If an aquifer is composed of unconsolidated granular rocks (sand, mixture of sand with pebbles), it is easiest to make so-called Abyssinian driven wells.
Very useful information about it contained in ancient literature.
In Russia, the sources of this type was tested in 1869 in a few places near Tsarskoye Selo. Despite the contents in the surface layers of limestone, managed to get fresh and cold water. In 10 minutes the well was driven to a depth of about 3 m and half an hour later the pump is screwed onto the pipe end, gave quite pure water — the one bucket per minute.
The device of the Abyssinian well is easy. Description K. I. Maslennikova relating to 1889, the design consists of a pipe with holes is provided at the end of the spear tip. Inside the valve ball. The following accessories in Koper (light metal tripod) and grandmother. To get the water set the tripod, screwed the tip on the gas pipe and grandmother nailed it into the ground.
Fig. 1. Abyssinian driven wells.
Fig. 1. Abyssinian driven well:
1 — spear tip, 2 — rainwater rough with sediment bowl, 3 — grid, 4 — wire, 5 — clutch, 6 — valve.
Fig. 2. Pile Abyssinian wells.
Fig. 2. Pile Abyssinian well:
1 — tank, 2 — strainer, 3 — clutch with valve, 4 — podbabac, 5 — grandmother 6 — power lifting grandmother, 7 — clamp with blocks.
In the form in which the source of water supply described by I. K. Maslennikovym, it has several disadvantages, but they are currently relatively easy to fix. Primitive filter is just a perforated pipe. The greatest depth of water rise of 7 m. the Latter is due to the use of the suction pump in force due to atmospheric pressure. The device can be upgraded — to make the filter mesh, and water lift with a small submersible pump.
Water of this well is a tube with holes for the passage of water, equipped with a mesh filter, a disc valve and spear tip. Planting density of the valve is provided with a rubber gasket.
Spear tip is made of solid steel. Wire (stainless steel, copper or its alloys, nichrome) is needed in order to move the mesh from the openings in the pipe, thereby increasing the “duty cycle” — capacity water filter. Therefore, the wire is wound with a gap between the coils, securing it in several places along the length of the pipe by welding or soldering copper. On top of the spiral is a mesh filter. Mesh (brass or stainless steel) can be salonnogo or a simple square weave. Prefer the former — it wire foundations of a more thick and located at a distance from one another, and the weft wire is thin and adheres closely to each other. Galanoy holes in the mesh have a slit-like shape and therefore less clogged than usual.
Mesh fixed to the pipe by welding, soldering or stitching. In the application of welding or soldering first, grab one end, then pulling on the tube, fix the second. The stitching are so. Before close-fitting measure the circumference of the pipe. Based on the measurements you cut the mesh, leaving allowance for refueling. They are bent inward in the bending of wire rods inserted 0 2.5—3.0 mm and the stitch wire. The upper and lower edge welded or soldered to the tube. The water intake portion located below the filter must have a remote reservoir: it will serve as a collection of sand and silt that have penetrated through the filter. To strive to ensure that the filter was detained smallest fraction of sand, do not — they are, after passing through the mesh, or make the flow of water to the surface by pumping or settle in the sump. Around the pipe in the aquifer forming the environment of the larger particles of sand or gravel, which later will play the role of a natural filter.
Before plugging the well dig a hole 800X800X1000 mm. Then by appending to the filter extension tube on it at a distance of 1000-1500 mm from the fixed end podbabac. Putting on the pipe of the grandmother, in the upper part, fix the clamp with two blocks, to the free travel of headstock was 1000-1300 mm. the Tube is set in the center of the pit, covered with soil and tamped. Now you can score well. For this grandmother raise the ropes in a very top position and let go. Falling, she hits the bottom clamp. As the depth further screwed pipe. To determine to drive if there are any in the well water, it is periodically dipped into the cord is a thin tube of small length. When it contact with water, hear a distinctive cotton. Well bury as long as the filter is not immersed in the aquifer and the level of liquid in the pipe does not rise above the upper edge of the filter at 500-1000 mm. After that, the driving was stopped and water is pumped up to its full clarification.
If the water in the well lies no deeper than 7 m, it is possible to raise to the surface the suction pump in force due to atmospheric pressure. It is installed directly on the pipe coming from the ground, providing her with a reliable connection. With a larger depth will require a submersible pump. It is easy to do based on the underlying domestic pump, NG-1, produced by Biysk machine building plant. The pump has outer diameter of 57 mm, so set it can be used to lift water from the Abyssinian wells with an internal diameter of not less than 70 mm. For self-production it is recommended a diameter not exceeding 50 mm, which allows the use of a piston pump, NG-1, since the diameter of the cylinder of the pump is just 50 mm. If the Abyssinian well made of pipes of smaller diameter, the size of the piston should be amended accordingly.
In conclusion, recall that for the construction of the well must obtain permission from the local Council of people’s deputies, regional hydrogeological (hydrocontrolled) party and sanitation.
V. VALLEYS, Zagorsk, Moscow region.

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