CONCRETE WELLSThe concrete wells are strong and durable. They are relatively simple to manufacture, is relatively easy and their installation.
Mount wells from concrete rings of any size and weight. If the ground allows, we can arrange a monolithic body of water. This made the one ring, it is placed in water-bearing ground, and then lowered into the formwork of the concrete weight — it turns out almost solid cylinder.
Concrete rings for the well can be without a lock (simple) and with a lock. To the first when mounting has not moved, they are fastened among themselves in four to six places with steel clamps. To this end, the rings leave holes, and the ends of the staples bend and sealed with cement or painted with oil paints.
Depending on the depth of the well is changed and the height of its constituent modules: 400 to 1000 mm with Ø 800-1000 mm. wall Thickness can vary from 90 to 120 mm When using a metal reinforcement ring is made thinner from 50 to 90 mm.
Weight of each module is very large, so choose their size based on carrying capacity of the available funds or the presence of assistants. For example, reinforced concrete ring Ø 1000 mm and the same height and thickness of 50 mm and weighs 380 kg. For ease of installation and are preferable to elements with a smaller mass with a height of from 300 to 500 mm.
Reinforced concrete rings reinforced with steel reinforcing wire. For the vertical rods (they put 4 to 6 pieces per module) use wire Ø 8-12 mm, and for horizontal interlacing Ø 6-8 mm. Reinforcing rings have indented from each other by 50-80 mm. In each intersection of the frame is sealed with a soft (annealed) wire with a thickness of 2 mm.
Two diametrically opposite vertical valve stem to form lugs, which module raise to be installed. These rods are not withdrawn under the weight of the goods, their lower ends curved to the letter G. After installing the rings in place of the lugs cut down.
Wire armature ring.
Wire reinforcement ring:
1 — the vertical rod, 2 horizontal ring 3 — ears.
Rings of all types are made in the form (formwork), consisting of two cylinders — external and internal. They are usually harvested from the boards. The diameters of them are interdependent, so as to determine the thickness of the ring. For example, if the diameter of the outer cylinder of 1000 mm, and the inner 900 mm, the thickness of the concrete ring is 100 mm.
Ring lock.
Ring lock:
top ledge, bottom — notch.
Concrete well:
1 — concrete ring, 2 — connecting strap, 3 — ears.
Formwork for casting the rings.
Formwork for casting rings:
A — dvuhkletevoj, B — odnoralova.
The form is detachable and is made up of three or four parts or pieces.
First, you must put together a wooden ring: two for the Assembly of the outer cylinder and two inner. While a solid wooden form is not necessary: boards can be nailed with gaps, and then sheathing roofing sheet, plastic, dense cardboard, water-resistant or regular plywood. Cardboard and plywood, it is recommended to paint with oil paint and dry well. To form more easily removed from products, they are coated with a spongy layer of grease or bleach.
After lubricating the walls, facing each other, parts of the outer cylinder is mounted on a wooden Board and firmly bonded to strips on the nails.
In the outer cylinder exactly in the center of the inner insert. In the space between the cylinders, complying with the same gap between the walls, injected reinforcing cage, if the product of concrete, or the lugs of the reinforcing wire (in the concrete). Between the frame and the cylinders are placed the four wedge — their task is to hold rebar in position.
Then prepare an aqueous solution of cement, sand and gravel. To 1 volume part cement (grade 400) take 2-3 volumetric parts sand, and 4-5 pieces of gravel (or crushed stone). First, cement is recommended to be mixed with sand and then gravel or crushed stone. More homogeneous the mixture, the stronger will the concrete mass. Mixing — gartsovku — you need to perform on the striker, that is on a wooden Board. After gartsovka the mixture is moistened with water, and again carefully mix as necessary, add water to the concrete mass took the form of a thick dough. The resulting solution is placed in the space between the cylinder layers is not more than 100 mm and thoroughly compacted with a steel pin Ø 10-15 mm. After laying the layer of wedges raise to 150-200 mm. It is necessary that the place which they occupied, it was also filled with concrete and sealed. In this way, called weaning, gradually fill in the entire form. Used for the same purposes and the solution of creamy consistency, it is also compacted. This process is called casting. We must remember that the thicker the concrete mass, the faster it hardens.
The resulting spacing of the product to release from the mold after 3-4 days; cast — in 6-7 days. In recent shells is usually less than repulsed. Shell definitely daubed with cement mortar. After removing the shaped workpiece is kept on the shield 3-5 days, wetting with water three or four times a day. Due to such processing, the concrete acquires increased strength. If the forms were oiled with machine oil or grease, the grease must be carefully removed from the entire surface of the workpiece.
It is preferable to make the ring with the lock. But this requires two additional wooden ring — to necking and lip. The ring thus formed, are not displaced. The seams between them coat cement mortar: 1 part cement and 2-3 parts of sand.
And a few passing tips. One of the rings, the bottom to do with the broadening of the bottom: to arrange outside the second ring with a height of 150-200 mm with a knife from sheet steel or other. The knife is manufactured separately and articulate with pins, which he zamonolichivat in the concrete under the padding or casting billet.
Of course, you can execute this feature without the steel of the knife, leaving it concrete, but then the strength of the material should be improved by increasing the amount of binder on a piece of concrete or by using higher grade of cement, not less than 500. The ring you have to make a bracket, that is to cut off the end of the “whisker”, having thus the knife.
Set the rings so. First of all, dig on the possible depth of shaft, wider than the external diameter of the ring. The pit walls are strengthened, the bottom leveled. Lowering the first ring vertically, poured soil and compacted it. On the first ring and put the second and so on.
A. SHEPELEV, civil engineer

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