“DRAGON” TANK DESTROYER

Designers Uralvagonzavod im. Dzerzhinsky, overcoming many difficulties, has created an entirely new fighting machine of the it-1 was the first domestic tank with high-precision weapons. The tank destroyer was a closed military tracked machine, having a powerful missile weapons, reliable armor protection and high mobility, designed to destroy enemy tanks and other moving and stationary armored targets potential enemy at ranges up to 3 km.

 
Layout of machines — a classic. The crew consisted of three people: a tank commander, gunner and driver-mechanic. The crew, armament, equipment, and assemblies of the tank was placed in the hull and turret in three sections: control, combat and logistics.
 
The office was located in the forward part of the vehicle body. In it, the right of the driver, there were three fuel tank capacity adjustable (without slots for artillery shots): front tank, right tank and left tank-rack. Unlike the T-62, the average fuel tank the it-1 was not installed. In the left tank-the rack was placed the battery. Over the right fuel tank to the rear of the hull is attached to the blower of the filtration system installation GROOVE. The down sides took place thrust actuators.
 
Above the seat on the roof of the housing had a driver’s hatch, skryvavsheysya turning the armor cap. Front hatch equipped with two prismatic observation of the surveillance device. For night driving a tank could be installed podsvetochnogo night’s observation device TVN-2 in two positions: on the March or in combat (instead of the left device 54-36-5сб-BM).
 
Behind the seat of the driver on the bottom of the case is a tool box and was the emergency exit on top of which were mounted infantry shovel. The bottom compartment held the torsion bars of the suspension.
 
The fighting compartment of the tank destroyer was in the middle of the hull and turret of the machine. Its layout and the equipment was radically different from the fighting compartment of the T-62. Inside the tower in the center was the system loader and start (NWP), consisting of a loading mechanism (mechanized rack with TOURS) and PU with electrical equipment and circuits start-up. On the frame of the loading mechanism, to the left, it was found the commander’s seat, right — seat gunner. On the outer sides of the frame were attached some of the blocks of the guidance station, stabilizer and sights. In front of the tower, in the box base, established guidance station, under it — her com. Front of the seat of the commander on the frame of the loading mechanism mounted: the power supply of the projectile, block the reconciliation run, the distribution panel. Ahead on the left of this seat mounted machine gun PKT and cylinders of the system to clean the protective glass entrance Windows of the sights. To the left of the commander was the radio station R-123 and above it — the unit No. 1 tank intercom (TPU).
 
Ahead of the operator, to the right of the rack, mounted day sight. To the right of night sight units generate device commands and encoder, remote gunner, and three dissecting block device removal of coordinates. The right of the operator in the tower is attached to the operator panel and above — index position of the turret. To the left of day sight mounted reducer stabilizer arms vertically with the Executive motor. The back seat of the operator-gunner was located blocks forming control voltages to the device of removal of coordinates (UCSC) control station 1S7 and the stopper of the tower.
 
Outside to the front of the turret, above the transmitter antenna was mounted control station, and on the back of the tower (on the machines of the first releases) is installed sensing element of the wind sensor. On the left in the turret roof was the commander’s cupola with the hatch system commander’s targeting four prismatic observation devices L-36.65 SB-2B and combined for day and night observation device TKN-3, on which was mounted illuminator AW-ZKG.
 
Right in the roof of the tower housed the Luke gunner; before him was set one prism surveillance device L-36.65 SB-2B. The hatch was located behind a hatch for pipe OPVT the hatches Between the commander and gunner-operator was Luke the issuance of the PU. On the left, on the front of the tower is installed illuminator L-2G a night sight and headlight f-125.
 
On the bottom of the hull of the fighter tanks, the axis of rotation of the tower was mounted a rotating contact device VKU-330 and running the device of the loading mechanism.
 
At the left side of the building housed the heater. On this Board were spare heads day and night sights, spare prism of the device of the commander, the button manually enable the NGOs and the reservoir for drinking water.
 
On the starboard side was fastened: crate stacking device ТВН2, AK-47, box offline degassing kit, fire extinguisher OU-2, a flare gun, the front frame of the illuminator AW-ZKG.
 
The partitions were placed MTO three TOURS ЗМ7, seven shops of boxes to the machine-gun bag with ZIP PKT machinegun
 
MTO was located in the rear of the hull was separated from the fighting compartment by a sealed bulkhead. It housed: engine, service systems, transmission units with actuators, fan cooling system, fire-fighting equipment (PPO). At the bottom of the case in MTO held the torsion bars of the suspension.
 
The tank’s armament consisted of a guided missile complex 2К4 “Dragon” (the main weapon) and 7.62 mm PKT machine-gun (secondary weapon).
 
The complex guided weapons were: SZP, day 1-OP2 and 1ПН12 night sights, guidance station, the radio-controlled TOURS ЗМ7, as well as the preparation tool and weapon control.
 
PU automatic loading mounted inside the fighting compartment and was nominated for the shot of the tower through a special hatch in the roof. The aiming angles vertical PU ranged from minus 9 to plus 17° and the coaxial machine gun from minus 6 to plus 17°. Pointing on the horizon was carried out by the rotation of the tower. The timing of the transfer of PU from the stowed position to the ready position, which was determined by the time of promotion gyroscopes, reached 1 — 1.5 min, from the position of readiness in combat — 6. Time of continuous operation was 4 h.
 
Cradle PU, day and night sights, rangefinder, aerial guidance of the projectile, machine gun PKT and illuminator night sight stabilised in the vertical plane, and the tower in the horizontal plane.
 
For tracking and missile guidance to the target and for shooting from PKC machine-gun was used periscopic monocular with stabilized field of view in two planes a day rifle scope 1-OP2, which had 8x magnification and angle of view of the visual branch of sight 9°.
 
For shooting at night used podsvetochnogo, electro optical monocular periscope with stabilization of the visual field in the vertical plane scope 1 MON, 12 with 7.3-fold magnification and a field of view of visual branches 4°. He was installed in the tower to the right of the sight 1 OP2. As the infrared light source was used searchlight L-2G with infrared filter. Illuminator L-2G, and the head mirror of the sight 1ПН12 using the leverage were associated with stable shaft.
 
It’s on target, the shot and holding the top of the aiming mark on the target was carried out using the remote control day sight 1-OP2.
 
Safety glasses sight had electrical heating.
 
The operator, by selecting a goal and retaining it in the crosshairs, pushed the button, making the start-up TOURS, and held the crosshairs on the target to hit TOURS in goal. Starting in front of the entrance window of the sight automatically for 1.5 with installed air curtain.
 
BUILD IT 1 ON THE BASIS OF
 
ISTREBITEL TANKS IT 1 (
 
Fighter-tanks it 1:
 
1 — the seat of the driver; 2 — shield driver; 3 — transmit antenna system, control TOURS “Dragon”; 4 — TURS “Dragon”; 5 mechanized rack TOURS; 6 — the mechanism of capture (deliver) TOURS; 7 — the commander’s seat of a tank; 8 — laying TOURS from partition MTO; 9 —diesel-26: 10 — transmission; 11 —water radiator of the cooling system of the engine; 12 — fan; 13 — 200 liter drums of fuel; 14 — towbar rear; 15 — planetary rotation mechanism; 16 — torsion shaft; 17 — the front mudguard; 18 — the plug lights; 19 — only shelf; 20 — turret armor plates; 21 —annular recess; 22 — the roof of the MTO; 23 — hatch access to engine; 24 – torsion roof over vodoradiatora; 25 rear mud flap; 26 — flip cover-fan; 27 — support brackets; 28 — exhaust manifold; 29 — a cover of the driver’s hatch; 30 — the tank cap observation devices; 31 — torsion bar front mud flap; 32 — kerchief; 33 — upper frontal armor plate; 34 — lower frontal armor plate; 35 — bracket-crank idler: 36 — limiter; 37 and 44 — emphasis; 38 — mounting bracket of the balance weight; 39 — the side armor plate; 40 — mount bracket shock absorber;41 — Carter side of the gear; 42 — the lever of the shock absorber; 43 — strap: 45 — buffer; 46 — axis of the rink; 47 see — saw; 48 — illuminator, L-2R; 49 antenna of the radio station R-123; 50 illuminator AW-ZKG; 51 —pipe, OPVT; 52 — external additional fuel tanks; 53 — the roof hatch to access the mounting bolts of the fan; 54 — spare tracks; 55 — the steering wheel; 56 — stabilizer; 57 — nozzle propulsion engine; 58 — the starting nozzle of the engine; 59 — the armored covers head night sight; 60 hatch cover gunner; 61 — cover issuance; 62 — the fixed bracket; 63 hatch cover on the tank commander; 64 — hook: 65 — mounting bracket illuminator L-2G: 66 — recess coaxial machine gun; 67 rail container TURS; 68 — support

 
Optical sighting device, provided the maximum firing range of day — 3 km, night, 1 — 1.5 km (minimum of 400 — 600 m). Minimum firing range day was 300 m.
 
Guidance stable PU (the tower) was implemented in conjunction with the guidance line of sight (LP) the day sight with the remote control. The guided LP was performed in the vertical plane by turning the handle of the control panel relative to the horizontal axis in the horizontal plane — rotation of the body panel around a vertical axis. The required value of the velocity pointing up or down, right or left is achieved by rotating the knob of controller at a certain angle from the neutral position. The greater the angle of deflection of the arms, the greater was the speed guidance.
 
After leaving the rocket the CP is automatically retracted into the tower.
 
A PKT machine gun mounted in the left side of the tower. Loading a machine gun was carried out only with an elevation angle of more than 3° the commander of the machine. Unaffected space in front of the tank when the gun was 25 m.
 
Semi-automatic radio system control TOURS provided guidance on one of the 14 combinations of the seven frequencies and two codes, allowing simultaneous firing of several fighter tanks at all distances, as for a night, so even with the move — in daytime conditions. As an alternate option guidance provided for manual operation by visual observation by the operator of the purpose and TOURS.
 
Eat the coordinates of the projectile is provided with channels A and B by day and In at night.
 
Channel A (rough maintenance) to ensure the capture, tracking of the projectile at close range (500 m) and enter it in the area of channel B. Channel B (accurate support) to ensure capture and tracking of the projectile at long range (300 m and more). Channel provided In the capture and tracking of the projectile throughout the race. Each channel used one dissection unit. Three channel device removal of coordinates, there were two unit generating control voltages. One of the blocks worked on two channels: either A — (day) or (night). The other unit worked only in B.
 
Radiation microwave signals of control commands in the direction of TOURS produced flat front antenna. It was mounted on the frontal slope of the turret, and the direction of its radiation is stabilized in two planes: horizontal — along with the tower and vertical — with a special device. The antenna was made in the form of guide system, consisting of steel plate with the emitters and movable plates between which was retarding plate, which reduced the phase velocity of high frequency oscillations in the rail system. Steel plate thickness of 20 mm was emitting holes 7 mm diameter, inside of which was soldered the twist. To increase the electrical size of the holes, and also for sealing the orifice plate was covered with dielectric.
 
The direction of descent of TOURS at the start differed from the line of sight in vertical plane 3°20′, in the horizontal plane is dependent on wind speed. The first 0.5 s of TOURS ruled. The wind (for sail tail TOURS) and the force of gravity of the projectile bring him to the line of sight.
 
After 1.5 s after the start of the TOURS got into the field of view of the television tube input block into the beam. By radio, the shell began to approach the line of the optical sight and at a distance of about 300 m from the it-1 got into the field of view vidiko-on unit guidance. While now and then the automatic capture and management of flight TOURS are automatically passed to the block pointing to the end of the flight.
 
Shooting could be performed in two modes: no overshoot, when the TOURS moved along the aiming line, and exceeding, when he was flying above the line of sight of 1.5 m before the target is automatically displayed on the line of sight. Shooting with the excess conducted into the case, if the direction of the target speakers were local objects.
 
Through 25.5 C. after gathering TOURS the control system is returned to its original position, and it was possible to make the loading and launching of the next projectile. In the case of hitting the target before this time provided a mode of accelerated training of the control equipment to restore the following TOURS in the process of issuing it in a combat situation. To defeat the purpose spent one or two TOURS.
 
TOURS ЗМ7 “Dragon” (caliber 180 mm, length 1250 mm, weight 50 kg, maximum flight speed of 200 m/s). It KBC punched 250 mm of armour plate set at an angle of 30° from the vertical. For transportation and TOURS in the combat pack his feathers were folded and worn mounts. In this state, its cross section is fit into the square 230×230 mm. Mechanized rack TOURS consisted of three quadruple mines (first on the right located under PU) and had mechanisms for vertical and lateral movement in the top row.
 
The automatic system of loading the PU operated by pressing the button “Load” on the daily sight 1-OP2 and provided training TOURS to the first shot after 6 — 7 after pressing the button. To tone the upper right TOURS with a rail container was raised to install, and a locking mechanism fixed on PU. Automation of loading provided technical rate of fire up to 5 RDS./min and the sighting rate of fire when shooting at a distance of 3000 m and 2.5 RDS./min.
 
Ammunition for the machine gun of PKT was 2000 rounds, which fit into eight stores-boxes. In addition, fighting compartment was located: 7.62 mm AK-47 in the bag, bags stores (600 rounds); 12 hand grenades f-1 in five bags, a flare gun and 20 rounds of ammunition
 
The armor protection of the tank destroyer cannon-proof. The machine body is welded together from rolled armor sheets with thickness of 20, 30, 40, 80 and 100 mm, installed with rational angles, and slightly different from the body of the T-62. The cutout on the upper sloping plate on the left, at the junction of it with the front roof sheet, variuos the basis of the observation devices of the driver, closed the armoured covers.
 
The side of the hull vertical armor sheets. In front of them outside and to the inclined sheets of the bow and the sloping part of the bottom was welded to the brackets cranks idler. At the bottom of each Board is welded at the five stops of the rocker rollers that have limited their progress. Back, to each side was welded to a pneumatic fist to plugging fingers of the tracks during movement of the machine. To the top of the sides welded turret armor strips over the tracks of shelves, protecting the hull and turret from splashing mud while driving. Over guiding and driving wheels was located mud flaps. In the lowered position of the hinged front mud flaps fastened by latches only to the shelves. To prevent the breakage of the rear mud flaps the lower part, made of rubber, kept from sagging wire tor-Sion, located on the inner side of the flap.
 
The aft part of the hull consisted of two armor plates: upper and lower. To the armor plate and the flanges was welded to the crankcase final drives.
 
At the top the rear was located the hatch to access the mounting bolts of the fan. The hatch was covered with a lid with a rubber gasket. Outside to the stern sheet was welded to the upper and lower brackets for mounting the logs, and on some of the tanks were mounted rail for mounting equipment of the trawl.
 
In the upper part of the upper aft sheet was welded to the four brackets for mounting of additional fuel drums. At the junction of the upper and lower feed sheets have two welded tow hook with latches. At the bottom of the aft sheet warivilca sheet niche of the cooling fan.
 
The roof consisted of front and rear sheets, a removable roof over engine, flip the covers over the radiators and a fan. In the front and rear sheets and in turret docks were made annular groove with holes for installation and fastening of the turret. To protect the turret from a direct bullet hit to the hull was welded armor plate strap. In the front sheet to the left over the seat of the driver was located a hatch, skryvavsheysya turning the armor cap, and on the right was one hatch for refueling of fuel tanks and protection of the compressor system GROOVE. About of the driver’s hatch was opening for the installation of glass covering the mechanism. Nearly the entire perimeter of the hatch was welded armor plate strap prevents the ingestion of lead through the seal splashes, splinters and bullets. In the left part of the rear sheet had a hole through which the bilge pump dumped the water leaked into the machine body during underwater movements.
 
The roof over the engine is attached by bolts to the bar that is welded to the upper ends of the sides of the hull, and to the cross beam welded to the sides of the hull and the rear sheet of the roof.
 
In the roof over the engine hatch is closed by a lid on hinges that are designed to access the engine and air cleaner, and the guitar had mine for cooling, without air intake to the generator.
 
Cover over the radiator rested on the top edge of the hull and leaned on two hinges. In the open position it is held by the stopper. To facilitate its opening established a special torsion.
 
In the cover above the radiators were made shutters for the entrance of cooling air over which is installed a protective grid prevents the ingress of foreign matter inside the tank.
 
In the closed position the cover over the radiator kept the constipation and fastened by bolts to straps welded to the rear cross beam. When dismantling and installation works cover over the radiator was shot along with the roof over the engine.
 
Above the fan on the hinges welded to the upper aft sheet is attached to the flip cover and protective net. In closed position they rest on the cross beam and fixed with a latch. In the open position the lid is rested on a bracket welded to the upper aft sheet. Adjustable weekend the blinds were covered with protective netting. Bottom of the hull in transverse cross-section had a u-shape and consisted of four welded together armor plates.
 
Along the sides of the hull at the bottom was varibales five brackets of beams, and two brackets for mounting shock absorbers.
 
Under the focus-beam of the first track roller to the bottom on each side was welded to the limiter is intended for protection of beams the axes of the first rollers from bending.
 
On the roof of the tank destroyer on a ball bearing mounted, low profile tower, is a shaped steel casting with walls of variable thickness from 60 to 135 mm. the Frontal part of the tower had a thickness of 120 to 200 mm.
 
To ensure that the actions of the fighter tanks in terms of the use of weapons of mass destruction established system GROOVE providing sealing of the fighting compartment and the separation of control pressure and purification of air from radioactive dust using a centrifugal blower. Enabling the GROOVE is carried out automatically from gammadata RBZ-1M or manually.
 
It was equipped with 1 automatic unified system of PPO, which consisted of three two-liter bottles pozharotushenie composition of “3,5” and eight temperature sensors. She, unlike similar systems PPO on the T-62, were included from two buttons — one commander and the other the gunner-operator.
 
As a means of masking the car was being used by the TDA with the duration of continuous operation for up to 10 minutes, creating a smoke screen with a length neprosmatrivaemye my areas of 250 — 400 m and a resistance of 2 — 4 min.
 
Water obstacles to a depth of 5 m and a length up to 700 m it-1 could overcome the bottom with the help of OPVT. To withstand the specified direction of movement of the machine under water was used pyropolymer GPK-59 and radio.
 
In MTO across the body of the machine installed IN diesel-55A 580 horsepower — modification diesel-55 without a generator. Generator G-10 is not mounted on the engine, and were installed separately in the MTO. The drive to the generator is carried out from the input gear box reducer (guitar). The air for cooling the generator were taken from the fighting compartment, and its release in MTO. When triggered, the system cooling GROOVE (heated) air from the generator were directed into the crew compartment.
 
Starting the engine is carried out with compressed air from two five-liter cans, Sarajevska compressor AKA-150СВ driven from the transmission. As a backup used start engine 15 HP electric start ST-16M. To ensure engine starting in the winter on the car was installed the nozzle heater from the main electrical and emergency manual actuators.
 
The engine air included air cleaner, dual stage, VTI-4 with ejection-type removal of dust.
 
The capacity of the three main fuel tanks was 695 L. Outside the car on the right fender installed three external fuel tanks with a total capacity of 285 HP cruising on the highway on the main fuel tanks was up to 470 km, with the installation of two 200-liter extra barrels— 670 km.
 
Transmission of the tank — mechanical. Its composition was as follows: the input gearbox to drive the generator; multi-disc main clutch dry friction (steel on steel); gearbox with constant-mesh gears and install synchromesh on second to fifth gears providing five gears forward and one back; two two-stage planetary rotation mechanism with lock-up clutch and belt floating brakes; two-stage two (with cylindrical and planetary series) side gear; drives the fan and compressor.
 
The electrical equipment of the machine was performed in a single-scheme, with the exception of emergency lighting and electric motor bilge pump. The system voltage is 24 to 28 V. the source of electricity used four starter lead-acid batteries 6СТЭН-140M, connected in series-parallel, with a total capacity of 280 and h and generator G-10 with a capacity of 10 kW relay controller R-10ТМ.
 
The main consumers of electricity was the weapons system, starter ST-16M, fan motors, maslozavodska and bilge pumps, heater, systems, TDA, GROOVE and PPO, night vision devices and communications equipment, lighting equipment, light and sound alarm.
 
For radio communication between machines on the fighter tanks were installed transmitting and receiving radio station R-123 for internal communication between members of crew — tank intercom R-124.
 
M. PAVLOV, I. PAVLOV

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