The resolution of the State defense Committee 4043сс dated 4 September 1943, ordered the pilot plant No. 100 in Chelyabinsk in cooperation with the technical office of the Chief armored Directorate of the red Army until November 1, 1943 to design, manufacture and test ordamaged EC-152 on the basis of the is tank. Its immediate predecessor — the self-propelled gun SU-152 (KV-14), the basis for which was the KV-1s.
Self-propelled gun SU-152, adopted at the 14 February of 1943, was in mass production until the beginning of 1944. The appearance of these machines in the battle of Kursk was a nasty surprise for the Germans. Massive 152-mm armor-piercing projectile (48,8 kg), fired from a distance of direct shot of 700-750 m, was pulled up the tower with “Tiger”. Just then a heavy artsmode got the soldiers a respectful nickname Zveroboy.
Needless to say that the military wanted to have the same self-propelled gun on the basis of a new heavy tank, the KV-1s with the production was filmed.
The layout is-152 (object 241), later known as the ISU-152, the fundamental innovations were not different. The tank’s turret made from rolled sheets were installed in front of the body, combining in one volume the office management and combat. The thickness of its frontal armor was more than the SU-152: 60-90 mm vs. 60-75.
Howitzer-gun ML-20S 152 mm caliber mounted in a cast frame, who played the role of the upper machine guns, and defended the same cast armor mask, borrowed from the SU-152. Oscillating part of the self-propelled howitzer-guns have minor differences compared to the field, including a hinged tray for ease of loading and flap with the trigger mechanism, the handle flywheels lifting and rotary mechanisms were the gunner on the left while the machine axle is brought forward for a natural balance.
Ammunition consisted of 20 rounds of separate loading ammunition, half of which — armor-piercing-tracer shells BR-545 weight 48,78 kg and half — high-explosive grenades and cannon OF 545 weight of 43.56 kg. For direct fire served as a telescopic sight ST-10, for firing from concealed positions — panoramic sight with independent or semi-independent line of sight from field howitzer-gun ML-20. Maximum elevation guns was +20°, declination -3°. At a distance of 1000 m armor-piercing shell penetrated a 123-mm armor.
For machines parts for anti-aircraft turret commander’s hatch mounted 12.7-mm DShK model 1938.
Powerplant and transmission were borrowed from the tank is-2 and included a 12-cylinder four-stroke the demon-compressor diesel liquid-cooled IN-2ИС (- 2-10) capacity of 520 HP at 2000 Rev/min., multi-disc main clutch dry friction (steel on ferrodo), vosmichastny four-way gear box with dual, two-stage planetary rotation mechanism with locking frictions and two final drives with planetary.
Suspension of ACS in relation to the same Board consisted of six double cast rollers with a diameter of 550 mm and three support rollers. Drive wheels rear layout had two removable ring gear with 14 teeth each. Guide wheels — alloy, with a crank mechanism for track tensioning.
Suspension — personal torsion.
Caterpillar steel melkopilchatye, 86 odnoklubnik tracks each. Truckee stamped, with a width of 650 mm and a step 162 mm cycloid Gearing.
The combat weight of the ISU-152 was 46 so
The maximum speed reached 35 km/h, cruising range is 220 km On machines installed radio 10P or 10РК and intercom TPU-4-bisf.
The crew consisted of five people: commander, gunner, loader, breech operator and driver.
In early 1944, the production of ISU-152 was constrained by the lack of guns ML-20. To get out of this situation, the artillery plant No. 9 in Sverdlovsk, put the barrel of the 122 mm corps gun A-19 in the cradle guns ML-20S and the result was heavy hartswood the ISU-122 (object 242), which is due to the greater initial velocity armor — piercing projectile- 781 m/s represented an even more effective antitank weapon. than the ISU-152. Ammunition of the machine increased to 30 rounds.
Since the second half of 1944, some ISU-122 began to set the gun D-25S wedge semi-automatic breech and muzzle brake. These machines were designated ISU-122-2 (site 249) or ISU-122C. They differed from the recoil system, cradle and a number of other elements, in particular, the new cast resin mask with a thickness of 120-150 mm. gun Sights — telescopic TS-17 and the panorama of Hertz. The convenient location of the crew in the fighting compartment and semi-automatic guns has contributed to increasing the rate of fire of 3-4 rounds/min, compared to 2 RDS/min on a tank is-2 and self-propelled guns ISU-122.
From 1944 to 1947 was made 2790 self-propelled ISU-152, 1735 — the ISU-122 and 675 ISU-122C. Thus, total production of heavy Artamonov — 5200 pieces — exceeded the number of manufactured heavy tanks is — 4499 units. It should be noted that, as in the case of IP-2, self-propelled guns on its basis was to connect the Leningrad Kirov plant. To 9 may 1945 there were collected the first five ISU-152, and by the end of the year the next hundred. In 1946 and 1947, production of the ISU-152 carried only on the LB.
In the spring of 1944, heavy samomoderirovanie regiments SU-152 rearming installations ISU-152 and ISU-122. They were transferred to the new States and all were awarded the title of guards. By the end of the war was formed of 56 regiments such, each was in machine 21 ISU-152 or ISU-122 (part of these regiments had a mixed composition of machines). In March 1945, formed the 66th guards heavy self-propelled artillery brigade trehosnovnogo composition (1804 person, 65 ISU-122, 3 SU-76).
Heavy self-propelled artillery regiments imparted to tank and infantry units and formations, primarily used to support infantry and tanks in the attack. Following in their combat formations, self-propelled guns destroyed the enemy firing points and provided the infantry and tanks a successful promotion. In this phase of the onset of ACS has become one of the main means of reflection Panzer counterattacks. In some cases, they had to get ahead of the combat formations of his troops and take the hit, thus ensuring the freedom of maneuver of the supported tanks.
Self-propelled artillery installation ISU-152:
1 — 152 mm howitzer-gun ML-20S; 2 — combat tower; 3 — 12.7 mm anti-aircraft DShK machine gun; 4 — external fuel tanks; 5 — hatch commander; 6 — antenna input 7 — fan cover; 8 — hatch gunner; 9 — planting the hatch; 10 — hatch-stopper of the driver; 11 — 122-mm gun A-19; 12 — 122-mm gun D-25S. On the top view, front and rear DShK conventionally not shown
For example, on 15 January 1945 in East Prussia, near the Hog, the Germans force up to one regiment of infantry supported by tanks and self-propelled guns, counterattacked our combat formations of the advancing infantry, with which acted the 390th guards independent heavy self-propelled artillery regiment. Infantry under the pressure of superior enemy forces retreated behind the battle formations of gunners, who met the attack of the Germans concentrated fire and cover support unit. The counterattack was repulsed, and infantry again had the opportunity to continue their offensive.
Heavy self-propelled guns were sometimes involved in artpodgotovok. The fire was as direct fire and from the closed position. In particular, on 12 January 1945 during the Sandomierz-Silesian operation 368-th guards regiment ISU-152 1-St Ukrainian front for 107 minutes fired at a strong point and four artillery and mortar batteries of the enemy. Releasing 980 shells, the regiment suppressed two mortar batteries, destroyed eight guns and one battalion of soldiers and officers. It is interesting to note that the extra ammo in advance laid out in firing positions, but first spent shells that were in combat vehicles, or would be much reduced rate of fire. For subsequent replenishments heavy self-propelled guns sleep-radmi it took up to 40 minutes, so they stopped the fire in advance of the attack.
Very effective heavy artillery was used against enemy tanks. For example, in the Berlin operation April 19, 360 guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment supported the attack 388-th infantry division. The division took possession of one of the groves to the East of Lichtenberg, where entrenched. The next day the enemy force to one regiment of infantry supported by 15 tanks began to counterattack. In repelling the attack during the day fire heavy artillery destroyed 10 German tanks and 300 soldiers and officers.
In the fighting on the Samland Peninsula in the East Prussian operation, 378 guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment in repelling counterattacks successfully applied the construction of military order regiment fan. This provided the shelf fire in the sector of 180° or more, and facilitated the fight against the enemy tanks, attacking from different directions.
One of the batteries ISU-152, building its order of battle a fan at the front length of 250 m, succeeded April 7, 1945 counterattack 30 enemy tanks knocked out six of them. The battery suffered no losses. Only two cars received minor damage to the undercarriage.
In December 1943, given that in the future the enemy can appear new tanks with more powerful armor, t-bills a special decree ordered to design and produce by April of 1944 self-propelled artillery guns with high capacity:
— with a 122 mm cannon with initial velocity of 1000 m/s weight of shell 25 kg;
— with 130-mm cannon with an initial speed of 900 m/s if the mass of the projectile in
— with 152-mm cannon with initial velocity of 880 m/s weight of projectile in
All of these guns pierced the armor thickness of 200 mm at a distance of 1500-2000 m
During the execution of this decree was created in 1944-1945 tested artsmode: ISU-122-1 (object 243) with a 122 mm gun BL-9, ISU-122-3 (object 251) with a 122-mm gun S-26-1, ISU-130 (object 250) with a 130-mm gun S-26; ISU-152-1 (object 246) with 152-mm gun BL-8 and ISU-152-2 (object 247) with 152-mm gun BL-10.
Gun S-26 and S-26-1 was designed in cacb under the leadership of V. G. grabina, With a-26-1 differed from S-26 only gauge pipe. Gun S-26 130mm had ballistics and ammunition from the naval gun B-13, but had a number of fundamental design differences, as it was equipped with a muzzle brake, a horizontal wedge gate. the self-propelled guns ISU-130 and ISU-122-1 produced at plant No. 100, and they have been tested from 30 June to 4 August 1945. Later testing continued, but on the arms of both ACS were not accepted and the series was not run.
Guns BL-8, BL-9 and BL-10 was developed by OKB-172 (not to be confused with the plant number 172), all constructors of which were prisoners. The first prototype of the BL-9 was manufactured in may 1944, the plant № 172, and in June installed on the ISU-122-1. Field testing it was conducted in September 1944, and the state in may 1945. At the latest when the shooting occurred, the rupture of the barrel due to defective metal. Guns BL-8 and BL-10 caliber 15 mm had ballistics, ballistics significantly higher than the ML-20, and tested in 1944.
Self-propelled guns with prototypes of the guns were characteristic of the same disadvantages as other ACS on the chassis is: long reach barrel forward, reducing maneuverability in narrow aisles; small angles horizontal guidance tools and the complexity of its guidance, which made it difficult to fire on moving targets; low military rate because of the relatively small dimensions of the fighting compartment, the large mass of the shots separately-tubular loader and the presence of a number of guns of the piston stopper; poor visibility from vehicles; small ammunition, and the complexity of its replenishment during the battle.
However, a good cannon-proof resistance of the hull and superstructure of ACS, achieved through the installation of powerful armor plates under rational angles, it was possible to use them at a distance and direct shot efficiently enough to hit any target.
Self-propelled artillery installation ISU-152 was in service with the Soviet Army until the late 70-ies until the beginning of the influx of troops in ACS a new generation. While ISU-152 were modernized twice. For the first time in 1956, when the ACS was designated ISU-152К. On the coach roof mounted commander’s cupola with the instrument TPKU and family observation units of consumer goods; ammunition howitzer-cannon ML-20S has increased to 30 shots, which required changing the location of the internal equipment of the fighting compartment and the additional combat pack; sight instead of CT-10 was installed an improved telescopic sight PS-10. All machines have mounted anti-aircraft gun Dshkm with an ammunition load of 300 rounds.
On the ACS put the engine b-54K power 520 HP with ejector cooling system. Fuel capacity was increased to 1280 L. was improved lubrication system, the design of the radiators is different. In connection with the ejection-type cooling system of the engine changed and mount external fuel tanks.
Machines equipped with radio 10-RT and TPU-47.
Mass self-propelled guns had risen to 47.2 tonnes, however, the dynamic characteristics remain the same. The cruising range increased to 360 km.
The second variant of modernization were designated ISU-152М. On the machine I installed the modified units of the tank is-2M anti-aircraft machine gun DSHKM with ammunition 250 rounds of ammunition and night vision devices.
In the course of the overhaul, some alterations were subjected to the self-propelled gun ISU-122. Since the 1958 regular radio and TPU replaced at the radio station “borough” TPU P-120.
In addition to the Soviet Army, ISU-152 and ISU-122 were in service with the Polish army. Consisting of the 13th and 25th regiments of self-propelled artillery, they took part in the final battles of 1945. Shortly after the war ISU-152 received and the Czechoslovak people’s army. In the early 60s, one regiment of the army of Egypt also was armed with ISU-152.