“We need to get for air defense missile within a year” — this phrase, uttered by Stalin in early August 1950, defined the ways and approaches to solving complex military-technical problem — the creation of anti-aircraft missile system for air defense of Moscow, called “Berkut”.
Designing anti-aircraft guided missiles (AAGM) for “Eagle” in September 1950 was entrusted to OKB-301 Lavochkin, famous for its fighters. Taken from the first months the pace of work was extremely high — in the middle of March 1951 to KB-1 became the Prime developer of the system, the defense of the conceptual design In the SAM-300 (factory designation “205”), based its design was based on the ideas implemented in the years of the war the German designers when creating missiles “Wasserfall”. As the latest In-300 was made single-stage, with an estimated mass of about 3500 kg, and her start had to be made vertically with a special launch pad. The propulsion system of the “205” was a worked on the two-component fuel four-chamber rocket engine ESR-29, developed in OKB-2 NII-88 under the leadership of A. M. Isayev.
In the summer of 1951 were initiated flight tests In a-300 at Kapustin Yar. A year later we began testing the missiles in a closed loop control, and on 26 APR 1953 In-300 in the sky over Kapustin Yar for the first time destroyed an aerial target, the aircraft target, the bomber Tu-4.
However, the rocket at the Lavochkin turned out almost three times heavier than the American counterpart — anti-aircraft missile complex “Nike-Ajax” reports of the launches which began to appear regularly in the autumn of 1951.
Steps to remedy this drawback, the OKB-301 was made of course but not the most effective For radical measures paired with significant technical risk, he could not refuse Stalin’s formula — “for air defense missile create in the course of the year”: to replace year two, and then three… it Should be noted that this “three year” scheme in the Lavochkin design Bureau also conducted — these missiles received the designation At-500 and At-600
V-500 (factory index “220”) was intended to defeat aircraft flying at a speed of 1,000 km/hour at altitudes of up to 20-25 km In accordance with the mission, the rocket was supposed to have a slant range of 30 km to reach a height of 20 km for 60 sec and maneuver at this altitude, with overload up to 2 units. The starting weight of 500 was assumed in 1300 kg, warhead weight of cumulative effects is 100 kg.
The prospect of developing missiles in July 1951 was properly evaluated, and soon, this work has connected extra strength. However, in connection with the change of KB-1 requirements on length of the active portion of the missile OKB-301 was asked to develop a missile with fully active the flight to the target. This work continued until April 1952, when KB-1 has achieved greater success, where the same requirements were developed missile 32B (SB) Since that time, the OKB-301 began designing In zour-600 of the planned launch mass of 1600 kg and warhead weight 120 kg But by the end of 1952, the work was also suspended
In parallel with the OKB-301 all this time its anti-aircraft missile was created in KB-1, where b-300 with the start of the project was not perceived as the last word in technology. To create a new anti-aircraft missiles in KB-1, before the first start-300, set up a special design Department No. 32. The leading role in the new Department was assigned by the former employees of the Polikarpov design Bureau Dmitry Tomashevich and Nicholas Zirino. The leadership of KB-1 has provided significant support to the new Department from certain organizations, they were referred to the technical documentation on missiles for various purposes, samples already manufactured missiles: the staff is constantly present when testing In-300 in Kapustin Yar. The result of this support has affected quickly. By the end of 1951 to KB-1 in full swing, work was conducted to develop two new missiles — anti-aircraft 32B (SB) and air K-5 (CMM), or, as they called themselves developers, “W — large and W — small.”
SB is not officially stated as a competitor In-300 in the system of “Berkut”, although the estimated range of 30 to 32 km and altitude of 20-21 km were fully integrated into the technical characteristics of this system. The first time it was said only as a rocket of the future — after all, that anti-aircraft missiles still have a doubt, no one was. Therefore, in this work at KB-1 employees were not bound hand and foot, as the creators of the V-300, “hourly” charts the development testing and deployment of serial production of missiles
Initially, SB was designed as a two— stage rocket, the booster and the sustainer stage. The use of such schemes allowed the rocket to start with the inclined rail launchers and to significantly reduce the loss of energy of the rocket compared to vertical launch acceleration and turn towards goal. To implement the inclined launch has been designed in a special rotary launcher 140Е variable angle guide.
Accelerator SB was a solid-propellant motor PRD-10, which was to accelerate the missile to supersonic speed and to be separated after completion of the work. Accelerator thrust of which was about 20 TS, was created under the guidance of Ivan Kartukov in KB-2 of plant № 81. Pope of the rocket after separation of the accelerator was provided sustainer LRE S2.168Б, which broke up the missile to a maximum speed of about 800 m/s the development of the engine was carried out under the leadership of Alexey Isayev OKB-2 NII-88.
The use of two-stage circuits of the missile will significantly reduce the requirements for its main engine. Due to the fact that he had to tear the missile from the ground, respectively, it could be not so greater thrust — enough value 1300 instead of 9000 kgf kgf for 300. The result has been to significantly reduce the weight of the propulsion system. Additional reduction of the weight of the rocket was facilitated by the location of the equipment compartment between the tanks and main engines and the execution of the block “B” (control unit, autopilot, radio control units and radioveshaniya and power supply) in the form of a “monoblock”. Another innovation was the use of rocket multicultural warhead, weighed 118 kg and consisted of 108 shaped charges. Taken together, this has enabled some to reduce on the rocket stocks of fuel components, which were used TG-02 “thin” and nitric acid AK-a 20ft, when enforcing the requirements on the ranges and altitudes of intercept targets.
As a result of adopting SB in the development of progressive design solutions was the reduction of its starting weight of up to 1354 kg, almost equal to the mass of American SAM “Nike-Ajax”. At the same time, SB had some similarities with the At-300: both missiles used the aerodynamic scheme “duck”, and for feeding fuel components in the engine used a pressure system with compressed air. Although it should be noted that in the early stages of the design of SB for her in the OKB-2 NII-88 was considered more advanced turbopump feed system.
In the spring of 1952, the status of work on SB was considerably raised — thanks to the active influence of the curator of the creation process of “Berkut” Lavrenty Beria. On his orders the production of the first missiles for SB tests at Kapustin Yar was assigned to one of the best at that time in the country’s missile plants — pilot plant No. 88 in Podlipki. The priority of this work for the plant was so significant that affected the production time here, the first ballistic missiles. This speed allowed the summer of 1952 to begin bench testing the booster SB, and by the end of the year to start flight tests of missiles. From that moment In 300, and has a serious competitor.
For the first Autonomous launches in KB-1 were prepared two options SB denoting B-44 and B-45. Option B-44 was equipped with an autopilot, flight recorders and was intended to examine the behavior of the rocket during launch and free flight. It was also planned to investigate the aspects of the accelerator operation and the process of its separation from the sustainer stage. Option B-45 was planned for the next phase of testing — the study of the behavior of the rocket in a controlled flight. B-45 had on Board radio equipment, telemetry hardware and software mechanism for issuing flight control commands.
Rockets SB first options was made in late 1952, and was involved in the Central radar of “Berkut”, taking and accompanying the missiles reflected their body signal.
However, by this time it was decided to start serial production In-300 in several plants. For the creators of SB was the last chance to prepare your rocket to the testing phase to intercept air targets at the same time with 300. Taken in those months, additional measures to further accelerate the work on SB differed radicalism. Among other things, management of KB-1 has shown interest in dealing with rocket theme Khimki OKB-293 M. R. Bisnovatyi: 19 Feb 1953, was issued a government decree in accordance with which OKB-293 was part of KB-1. In the CB-1 all units engaged in the development of onboard equipment of rocket and guidance system a target has been merged into one. The task that was set before them, to decide promptly all questions regarding social security-cookies test SB in the composition of the prototype of “Berkut”.
Rocket SB (option B-80):
1 — PVD: 2 hatch cover of the compartment attack (PB); 3 — transmit antenna RV; 4 — rudder; 5 — cover of the compartment of the warhead (warhead); 6 — prima antenna RV; 7 — front support bracket; 8 — wing; 9 — lock mounting of the accelerator DWP-10; 10 — electrogoth start of the DWP-10; 11 manhole cover of the instrument compartment; 12 — thrust cone of the accelerator; 13 — cover for installation of the squibs of the accelerator; 14 — rear bracket; 15 — pull Aileron stabilizer; 16 — antenna radiovision; 17th — PB; 18 — axle vehicles; 19 — pneumatic servo; 20 — warhead; 21 — drain valve fuel tank; 22 — intake fuel; 23 — fuel tank; 24 — drainage neck of the oxidizing agent; 25 — fuel filler oxidizer; 26 — intake of oxidizer 27 — the valve of the air pressure accumulator (WADE); 28 farm mount WADE; 29 — VAD; 30 — portesham; 31—: battery; 32 — DC / DC Converter; 33, the starter valves LRE S2.168A; 34 — antenna radio; 35 — igniter accelerator; 36 — Aileron stabilizer; 37 — roller support; 38 plug; 39 — interchangeable insert nozzles; a 40 — aperture; 41 — a fuel block; a 42 — igniter; 43 — LRE S2.168A; 44 — pneumatic servo; 45 — monoblock control
However, neither the shooting angle of the reflectors, nor to the final stage of test — firing at the planes target rocket KB-1 did not. Finally, the fate of SB, fulfilled by mid-June 1953 15 starts, predetermined political events of the spring and summer of 1953 — death of Stalin, the arrest of Beria and his son. The balance of power in the creation of missile defense in a few weeks radically changed…
After a number of reshuffles in the leadership of KB-1 in September 1953 was formed the new structure of the enterprise, which were again divided, those who SB. However work on her was continued, and its chief designer was appointed Dmitry Tomashevich. In the fall of 1953 took place last launches of missiles with a full set of equipment, and by the end of the year the total number of launches of different variants of SB (already known B-44 and B-45 and telemetry B-75, B-115 and battle B-80 and B-120) has reached 35.
Further work on SB was closely associated with the creation of 20 November 1953, Special design Bureau No. 2 (MKB Fakel), which was prepared by specialists of KB-1 and OKB-293. Tomashevich was the head of the brigade projects of OKB-2, Siren — head of the design Department, and led a new organization Peter Grushin, who worked up to the time the first Deputy Lavochkin.
Having inherited from the KB-1 is almost ready missile Grushin decided to dispose of it prudently, since that time in various stages of production at plant No. 88 was nearly fifty copies of different variants of SB. Of course, the use of SB in the “Eagle” of speech does not go — by the time the plants had to produce several thousand To-300, and at OKB-301 was the end of work on the implementation of its modernization. SB is not suited for use in transportable anti-aircraft missile system s-75, a missile for which, under the designation 1D had to develop OKB-2.
In the first weeks of the work of OKB-2 Grushin thoroughly studied all possible aspects of further use of the SB and decided to “flying laboratory”. This term is applied usually in relation to the aircraft that best characterizes challenges placed on the SB. The decision taken by Gruzinim, was the most efficient — the designers of OKB-2 in a few months began to receive answers to their questions, the designers on their own. Also in their experiments were involved in the experimental production and testing services of OKB-2.
A series of experimental works carried out with SB allowed the specialists of OKB-2 in order to avoid many mistakes. So, on SB was first tested in flight, the mechanism of change of gear ratio (iidh), which was consistent deflection angles of control surfaces of the rocket with the variables acting on it in flight velocity head. This problem arose in connection with the achievement of aircraft and missiles high supersonic flight speeds. It was turned out that the handlebars, is designed for supersonic missiles, is not effective enough to control its motion at subsonic speed and Vice versa, which significantly reduces the accuracy of missile control. Harmony in the management of missile and was intended to make iidh And in SB was first tested this rather complex mechanism, found in the future, a place in 1D and all subsequent versions of the missiles used in the composition C-75.
Another study carried out with the help of SB become flight experiments to identify the advantages and disadvantages selected for 1D normal aerodynamic scheme. To this end, one of the options SB in addition to the wings were installed as front control surfaces (canard) and the rear (“normal” scheme). It turned out a kind of rocket-Triplane. In the conducted experimental launches of the missile control when the accelerator was carried out the front wheels, and then reset it back. These launches were proven stability and control of rockets like the aerodynamic scheme, the impact on its flight disturbing moments in roll. This phenomenon, then received the designation of “oblique blasting” and is associated with a bevel for the first thread gets to it aerodynamic surfaces, in those years, is just starting to be explored.
In a number of experimental launches on SB installed special sensors destined for temperature measurements of its body in the process of relatively short supersonic flight.
Tests were conducted SB and redesigned the booster. The original version of the DWP-10 for work in the temperature range from minus to plus 50°C should have been completed deployme ear buds in four sizes. Design change made in the OKB-2 was installed in the engine nozzle by a special device, “pears”, a movement which easily adjust the size of the critical section of the nozzle without time-consuming change of inserts. This allowed for greater consistency of operation of the accelerator under different environmental conditions. For the first time this design was successfully flight tested on April 5, 1955, during the 71st start SB. After carrying out two more similar launches road “pears” on the missile Grushin was open. Further this device was used on a modification of the missile system s-75 and missile system s-125.
Last, the 74th in a row start SB (for the program “rocket Triplane”) was made on 16 April 1955. Further experiments with this rocket devoid of meaning; on the ground were preparing for the first launch 1D — the first rocket OKB-2.
The remaining unspent SB was referred to as visual AIDS in educational institutions where they studied future engineers and rocket scientists. And stood on the ground for several years without doing a launcher 140Е in the fall of 1958 was again used for its intended purpose. In those days it was made a few launches In-600 OKB-2, intended for use in anti-aircraft missile system s-125.
The description of the rocket
In appearance rocket SB was a solid of revolution of large aspect ratio. In the nose of the rocket has four steering and in the rear four wings (scheme “duck”). Wheels located in vertical and horizontal planes, and the wings in two mutually perpendicular coils diametral planes at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizon. Two wings (#2 and # 4) equipped with ailerons.
To the front of the accelerator is attached to the thrust cone, through which the accelerator handed effort on the main stage. Two stabilizers were equipped with ailerons, which were made the mechanical connection of the ailerons of the wing.
The body of the sustainer stage was a monocoque with a working lining and consisted of five compartments, joined between themselves by bolts.
In compartment No. 1 were placed the equipment of radio controlled fuses. On the surface of the compartment has four receiving antenna of the fuse at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizon.
In the compartment No. 2 was mounted rudders. In the front part of the servos and the autopilot unit, and in the rear — combat charge. Along the body of the compartment outside installation of four transmitting antennas of radio controlled fuses. Telemetry options in the SB instead of the warhead were installed so-called “bookcase” with radio telemetry equipment.
In the compartment No. 3 is placed a tank for fuel (TG-02) and oxidizer (nitric acid AK-a 20ft), a can of compressed air (maximum working pressure 255 bar) and airborne reinforcement unit.
In the compartment No. 4 is a complete unit (control unit autopilot, blocks radio and radiovision and power supply RBU), servo control of ailerons, wing and stabilizer, side connectors, wiring and piping. On the rear bulkhead of the compartment were attached boosters.
Compartment No. 5 was a fairing for the main engine. At the rear of the compartment — ring antenna radio.
Compartment No. 6 — resistant cone of the accelerator associated with the sustainer stage with 4 locks. On the lateral surface of the cone is located the window to exit gases of the main engine.
The main materials used in the construction of the rocket; made of anodized aluminum (cladding, extruded profiles-stringers) and electron (trim, alloy frames).
Warhead missiles, the cumulative actions consisted of 108 single shaped charges: 9 rows with 12 warheads each. To ensure a uniform distribution of cumulative jets across the affected area of single charges located on the Central carrier pipe in a spiral, with an offset angle of 2.5 degrees from the direction of the axis of the rocket. At the same time the extreme series of charges had the tilt 2 degrees to the axis of the rocket toward the center of the charge. This ensured a concentrated band of lesions at a distance of 60 m. At this distance the warhead ensured the defeat aircraft armour thickness of 10 mm, the ignition of all types of liquid fuels and detonation of ammunition. Curb weight of the warhead was 118 kg.
Characteristics of the missile SB (option B-80)
Missile length, mm (without tube LDPE)………………………….7818
Length of the sustainer stage, mm…………………………………..6000
The diameter of the accelerator, mm …………………………………………….650
The diameter of the sustainer stage, mm…………………………………500
The wingspan of the sustainer stage, mm……………………1450
The magnitude of the rudders, mm……………………………………………………….860
The range of stabilizers accelerator,mm……………………..2000
Missile launch weight, kg…………………………………… 1354,4
The mass of the sustainer stage, kg………………………………………740
The maximum flight speed, m/s……………………………800
Maximum lateral overload, ed…………………….9
Maximum altitude, km…………………………….19,93
The maximum slant range, km……………………30,8
Characteristics of the accelerator DWP-10
Thrust, kgf…………………………………………………… 13 500-19 960
While working with………………………………………………….3,5—4,3
Curb weight of the accelerator, kg…………………………….525
Weight of structure, kg…………………………………………………215
Features cruise propulsion C2.168A
at the height of 4000 m, kgf……………………………………… 1250+/-70
The specific impulse of the earth, h…………………………………216
The masses of the components:
fuel TG-02, kg………………………………………………………66
oxidizer AK-a 20ft, kg………………………………………………239
While working with………………………………………………………..57