TANK, WHOSE “SWINGING” TOWER

TANK, WHICH Oscillating turret French light tank AMX-13 was only one of the features of this machine. Another feature is a violation of the creators of the familiar classic layout, when the power plant took a normal time for the location of offices in the front of the case, the working place of the driver with the control organs of the tank shifted to the left side, moreover, the fighting compartment was placed in the aft.

 
Strikes and the number of issued AMX-13 – more than 7700 units; half of them France exported to 25 countries. And longevity of service since the beginning of production in 1952 until now, many machines are in service with the armies of some States. So, according to media reports, as of recent years, Argentina has 105 tanks AMX-13, Venezuela – 31 units, Indonesia – 275 units, côte d’ivoire -5 units, Morocco – 5 units., Peru – 96 units, Ecuador – 24 units, most located in Singapore – 350 machines. In France, India, Israel, Egypt and other countries although the tanks taken out of service, but preserved and stored at the arsenals and bases.
 
While in the armies of various countries, the AMX-13 had to participate in wars, both international and local, and in armed conflict. The first baptism they have already taken in 1953 – 1954 in Vietnam, the military operations of the French colonial troops against the guerrilla forces of the United national front in this country. Then the fighting in the Suez crisis of 1956, also known as the Second Arab-Israeli war. Further, the Second Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, where Indian tanks AMX-13 in the decisive battle of ASAL-Uttar in Punjab defeated the Pakistani M47/48 “Patton”. After that – the six day war of 1967, or Third Arab-Israeli war. Showed itself now the Israeli AMX-13, completely destroying the Nablus area and the Jordan tank battalion, which consisted of “Patton”. However, their 75-mm guns were not nearly as effective in meetings with Egyptian T-54 in the area of Ismailia.
 
Then the protracted Civil war in Lebanon 1975 – 1990, which interfered with Syria, on the one hand, and Israel in 1982 – on the other, in the army which, again, were the AMX-13.
 
Light tank AMX-13 is armed with four missile launchers and two turret guns
 
Light tank AMX-13 is armed with four missile launchers and two turret guns

 
But in absolutely other end of the globe, fought the French tanks, however, very long. It was during the short – lived- within a month – a local conflict between Ecuador and Peru over a disputed district on the border of the two States in January-February 1995 And they had weapons such tanks, however, official information about their actions has not been made public.
 
Had AMX-13 to war in Africa during the First Ivorian war -civil war in côte d’ivoire between 2002 and 2007 to Intervene French forces of occupation had a military aid to President Gbagbo against the rebels. A significant role is played by tanks.
 
Thus, during half a century of the AMX-13 was involved in combat operations around the world, leaving a significant mark on the military history of the actions of the tank units and formations.
 
Development of a light tank AMX-13 began in 1946, when the French military leadership decided to create its own domestic tank and to supply their army. The project brief had specified the need for the development of an air transportable tank easy machines weighing up to 13 tons. construction work designated one of the state enterprises in Issy-Les-Moulineaux, an industrial suburb of Paris. Three years later was made a prototype, and in another two established production in Rouen at the state Arsenal ARE in, and then the company’s Loire Creusot (“Creusot-Loire”) in Saint-Chamond, Loire. So, in just five years, the French designers and manufacturers have gone the way of the project of the tank to the series.
 
AMX-13 army of Peru in the street of the capital Lima. Parade in honor of the 190th anniversary of the independence of the country 2011
 
AMX-13 army of Peru in the street of the capital Lima. Parade in honor of the 190th anniversary of independence, 2011
 
Light tank AMX-13
 
Light tank AMX-13:
 
1 – the muzzle brake of the gun; 2 – 90-mm gun D-960; 3 – oscillating turret; 4 – a niche of the tower with the loading mechanism; 5 – output gear; 6 – support roller; 7 – supporting roller; 8 – driving wheel; 9 – the hatch of the engine compartment; 10 – shutters; 11 – Luke gunner; 12 – commander’s cupola; 13 – driver’s hatch; 14 – viewing device driver; 15 – antenna; 16 – unit smoke grenades; 17 – viewing device commander

 
AMX-13 equipped with a long feed niche containing the automatic loader of ammunition and shells
 
AMX-13 equipped with a long feed niche containing the automatic loader of ammunition and shells
 
First of all, the AMX-13 tanks differ from other oscillating turret FL-10 (later FL-12). The fact that it consists of two parts – upper and lower. The first of them made the cast, standing on a tower chasing hull and can rotate 360°. The upper part is connected with the axles and has the ability to change the angle.
 
The cannon in the tower is rigidly connected with the upper part. It is so forward that the tower left only breech; protivooterne is located in the so-called “trunk” -in front of the tower.
 
Thus, it was found that the tip horizontally carried by the lower part of the tower, and the vertically – yourself gun at the top.
 
Such tower design allowed to install it in the original mechanism of the automatic loader guns, which were placed in the rear recess long. This machine consists of drum type, located on both sides of the gun. In each fit six shells. When you roll back the gun after the shooting shop, spinning, puts the shell on the tray, which is then chambered, and closes the shutter. Then you can make a shot.
 
The automatic loader has enabled to increase the rate of fire the tank to 10 to 12 RDS./min., and most importantly, to reduce the crew to one person – secession of charging. This, in turn, reduced the turret, turret ring, and hence the width of the hull.
 
Thus, in the crew there are only three: commander, driver and gunner. The commander takes his place in the tower left of the gun, under the commander’s cupola; the gunner on the right.
 
Oscillating tower this original design aroused great interest of specialists. In many tank companies began to create similar designs. However, the possibility of coordination of the autoloader with the very gun caused significant difficulties for most proved insurmountable. AMX-13 has remained almost the only one of this design.
 
The mass of a tower – 4500 kg.
 
The armament of the AMX-13 was changed due to its modernization. Until 1964 it housed a 75-mm cannon. It was made about 2000 of these towers. Later in the same tower FL-10 has placed the 90-mm rifled gun D-960. It has a muzzle brake and heat-insulating casing, however, not provided with stabilizer arms. The angle of elevation of the gun – only to +12°; it is limited by the thrust of the roof of the machine housing of the turret rear bin. Angle of approach, -8°, allowing fire and encroaching a small distance goals.
 
Drives turret rotation – hydraulically. Pay attention to the speed with which it is pivot guns: the horizon is 30°/s, vertical 5°/s.
 
Gun ammunition is 32 shots: 21 housed in the tower and 11 in the body. There are five types of ammunition: APFSDS armor-piercing sabot feathered with ready submunitions CANISTER, NOT high-explosive, cumulative HEAT, smoke.
 
Pointing a gun and the commander and gunner.
 
The commander uses a telescopic sight L961 with 1.5 and 6-fold magnification, the gunner telescopic sight L862 with magnification of 7.5 x; the sight linked to a laser rangefinder-type ТСV-107, which outputs data to both crew members. The accuracy of the measurement distances in the range of 400 -10 000 m is 5 m.
Observation devices commander is located at the base of his hatch seven prismatic L794В – provide all-round visibility; the gunner – two prismatic L794D.
 
On the tank there are also two 7.62 mm machine guns – one coaxial gun, another Zenith. They have the ammunition in the amount of 3,600 rounds. In addition, on the sides of the tower blocks smoke grenade launchers.
 
On the part of the machine has been installed on four anti-tank missiles of the first generation SS-11 controlled by wire; weight – 30 kg, has a range of 3000 m, the mass of the warhead -6,8 kg – was able to penetrate the armor thickness up to 600 mm.
 
In the late 1970s, the French developed the modified tower LF-12, 105-mm gun CN-105F1, which had a muzzle brake. Her cumulative projectile with an initial velocity of 800 m/s could penetrate the armor thickness to 400 mm. Tower, such a sample was also installed on wheeled armored Swiss machine “shark” light tank, the Austrian SK-105, the prototype of the BMP “Marder” and some others.
 
Tank AMX-13 has the thickness of the frontal armor of the hull is 15 mm, sides – 20 mm, roof and bottom – 10 mm. Thickness of the tower of 10-25 mm. Tank can withstand small-caliber projectiles. However, the firm “Creusot-Loire” has developed additional reservation of blocks of 50 kg. They are placed in the frontal parts of hull and turret, as well as its sides, which strengthened the protection even against 20-mm armor-piercing shells at ranges of over 100 m in the sector of 180°. The mass of the equipment is 650 kg.
 
Engine-transmission compartment of the tank is in the front. Here petrol 8-cylinder engine SOFAM 8Gxb liquid-cooled 250 HP Transmission – automatic, manual control with five forward gears and one reverse. The rotation mechanism is differential. The drive wheels are in front.
 
The specific capacity of the tank of-16,7 HP/t Suspension torsion – bar with hydraulic shock absorbers on the first and last nodes. In the chassis five rubber rollers single and three supports on each side. The track consists of 85 trucks with a width of 350 mm.
 
Oscillating turret. It has rocket launchers, machine guns and smoke grenades blocks
 
Oscillating turret. It has rocket launchers, machine guns and smoke grenades blocks
 
The crew consists of three people. In the left part of the turret - the commander on the right from gun - gunner, mechanic-the driver on the left in the Department of management
 
The crew consists of three people. In the left part of the turret – the commander on the right from gun – gunner, mechanic-the driver on the left in the Department of management
 
AMX-13 of the Israeli army in the fighting. The six-day war, 1967
 
The AMX-13 of the Israeli army in the fighting. The six-day war, 1967
 
The tank is capable of speeds up to 60 km/h Capacity of fuel tanks is 480 liters, which allows you to have a power reserve of up to 350 – 400 km.
 
The AMX-13 is very stable and can overcome rises to 30° and to move on the hillside with slope of 31°.
 
In 1979, at the Exhibition of military equipment in Satori (near Paris) was presented a prototype of the tank with a diesel engine as a replacement for gasoline. Have been proposed two types: 4-cylinder 4LCS25 output of 265 HP and 280-strong “General motors”. In 1983 it was declared a 6-cylinder diesel 11SRY with a capacity of 280 HP
 
At the same show in Satori in 1987 were shown upgraded with a new sample frontal part of the hull, diesel engine, automatic transmission, hydrodynamic suspension.
 
Many countries that previously put AMX-13 on the arms of their armies, were able to significantly upgrade them. In Argentina, Venezuela, Peru on the available machines were installed 260-horsepower diesel engines KHD V-8. When Venezuela in the late 1980s has purchased another 31 machine with 90 mm gun, they were also replaced engines on American diesel 6V-53 with a capacity of 280 HP with an automatic transmission.
 
The basic chassis of the AMX-13 was used to create a whole family of different machines. So, in early 1960, on arms was adopted by the self-propelled 155-mm installation of the AMX-13 F3 AM, developed by ATS Tarbes (“Tarbes”) and Roanne ARE (“roan”), with a range of up to 20 km. the Calculation of 8 was placed in the trailer along with ammunition. SAU had 8-cylinder gasoline engine SOFAM 8Gxb 250 HP and could move at speeds up to 60 km/h. On machines later releases had a more powerful diesel 6V-53Т.
 
Self-propelled gun AMX 105 AM with a 105 mm howitzer Мк61 with an open top turret on the chassis of the AMX-13
 
Self-propelled gun AMX 105 AM with a 105 mm howitzer Мк61 with an open top turret on the chassis of the AMX-13
 
Bridge Builder on the chassis of the AMX-13
 
The bridge layer on the chassis of the AMX-13
 
Anti-aircraft self-propelled gun AMX-130СА with two 30-mm cannons. Created on the base of the tank AMX-13, adopted by the French army since 1969
 
Anti-aircraft self-propelled gun AMX-130СА with two 30-mm cannons. Created on the base of the tank AMX-13, adopted by the French army since 1969
 
Such ACS has produced about 600 units. They were exported to 10 countries, including Argentina (24 units), Morocco (100 units), Qatar (22 units), Peru (12 units), Chile (47 units), Ecuador (15 units) and others.

 
In the late 1950s, was created self-propelled gun AMX-105 AM with a 105 mm howitzer Мк61 with an open top deck. The range of fire was 15 miles with the weight of explosive shell, 16 lbs. She was also armed Israel, Morocco, the Netherlands.
 
On the basis of the AMX-13 was produced and other machines. Such as anti-aircraft self-propelled ZSU AMX-13DСА, armored personnel carrier AMX VСI, repair BREM AMX-13 ARU, 81-mm and 120-mm self-propelled mortar setting, bridge tank, etc.
 
French tank AMX-13 with a swinging battle tower has a fairly high fighting qualities, and that led to its popularity. This is one of the best scouts and tank destroyers, although it has easy booking. In some countries and the tank is now in service.
 
TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AMX-13
 
Crew…………………………………………..3
Weight, kg……………………………………….15 500
Length, mm………………………………………..4880
Length with gun forward, mm………………6360
Width, mm……………………………………..2510
Height, mm………………………………………2300
Ground clearance, mm………………………………………370
Booking, mm:
the forehead of the body………………………………………15
the housing Board……………………………………20
feed corps…………………………………..15
the bottom of the case………………………………….10
tower………………………………………..10 – 25
Weapons: rifled 90-mm gun 0-960, two 7.62-mm machine gun Ammunition… 32 shots, 3600 rounds
Engine……………………………..diesel 8-cylinder SOFAM 8Gxb liquid-cooled, 250 HP
Specific power, HP/t…………………16,7
Suspension… five rollers and three rollers on Board, drive sprocket – front
Suspension…….individual torsion bars, hydraulic shock absorbers on the first and fifth rollers
Caterpillar…………………….width – 350 mm, number of tracks – 108
Speed on highway, km/h………………………60
Tank capacity, l………………………………..480
Cruising range, km up to……………………………….400
Overcoming obstacles: wall height, m…………………………….0,65
the width of the ditch, m………………………………….1,6
fording depth, m………………………………0,8
the angle of elevation, deg…………………………….30

 
V. TALANOV

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