THE BEST TANK IN 1940

THE BEST TANK IN 1940August 11, 1933, adopted the worker-Peasant red Army adopted a new medium tank T-28. Production began at the Leningrad plant “Red Putilovets”, one of the oldest and most experienced companies in the production of artillery, tractors, locomotives.

 
It was the classic tank while three-towered layout with bunk location posicionamento weapons. Purpose it as a breakthrough tank, it was believed to support the infantry in the attack, as well as direct interaction with tank and infantry units.
 
None of the tank at the time, no country could compare with him and maneuverability, armor protection, firepower. So, England only in 1937, began producing an 11-ton tank Matilda I with a 70-horsepower engine, armed with one 7.7 mm machine gun. However, by 1939, its army had a 27-ton machine, the Matilda II, but it was 40-mm gun, and the engines were two diesel engines with a total capacity of 190 HP
 
France in 1936 had the medium tank Char de bataille D2 weight of 19 tons, with a 47 mm cannon and 7.5 mm machine gun, 150-horsepower engine. In the same year released “cavalry” tank SOMUA S35, literally with the same characteristics and the same armament.
 
The us army only in 1939, got their 16-ton M2 and 17-ton М2А1 with really powerful engines on the 350 and 400 HP But their armament was a 37 mm cannon, but they were oversaturated of 7.72 mm machine guns: M2 they were eight, in М2А1 – six.
 
Tank T-28 OBR. 1936 a classic three-towered layout with bunk location of the cannon and machine gun armament. Parade armor in Leningrad
 
T-28 OBR. 1936 a classic three-towered layout with bunk location of the cannon and machine gun armament. Parade armor in Leningrad
 
In Germany in 1937 began to produce tanks PzKpfw IVA. Their combat weight was equal to 17,3 t, they were 250-strong engine Maybach HL. Tanks had a 75-mm cannon KwK 37 with a barrel length of l / 24 and two 7.92-mm machine gun MG; thickness of armor was 8-20 mm. later began manufacturing upgraded PzKpfw IVB was increased to 30 mm armor of the frontal parts of the hull and turret, the power of the engine is brought up to 300 HP
 
Our T-28 issue 1933, i.e., several years before the start of production of the same Matilda, M2, D2, Panzer IV, had nearly the same tactical and technical characteristics: weight of 17.5 tons, the engine -360 horsepower, the gun – 37-mm PS-2, the thickness of the armor – 8 – 20 mm. But in 1936 these figures as a result of modernization has changed significantly for the better. Engine power increased to 450 HP, armor increased to 20 – 30 mm, although at the same time increased the mass of the tank to 25.2 t Then replaced the gun on the 76.2 mm KT-28 OBR. 1927/32 with barrel length of 16.5 klb and a muzzle velocity of 381 m/s At ranges of 500 meters the projectile pierced the armor thickness of 30 mm. on any other tanks at this time, there were no such powerful engine and guns.
 
In 1938 the T-28 has a new 76.2 mm gun L-10 superior design with a barrel length of 26 klb, which further increased the muzzle velocity of the projectile, making it equal to 555 m/s. the power of the gun was such that at a distance of 0.5 km shell weighing 6.3 kg fired a 60-mm armor, and at 1.0 km thickness of 50 mm.
 
TACTICAL and TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS of TANKS of the LATE 1930s – EARLY 1940s.
 
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS of TANKS of the LATE 1930s - EARLY 1940s.
 
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TANK GUNS
 
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TANK GUNS
 
Recall that in the spring of 1941, German Panzer IV F-series began to put the armor thickness of 50 mm on the frontal part of the hull and turret, and till that time produced in five series A – E of these tanks, there were only 30-mm armor.
 
Our T-28 could compete successfully with any of the tanks of the period, including German. The penetration of the gun L-10 was much stronger than other tank guns. Only in 1942, German designers put on your Pz.Kpfw IVF cannon KWK.40 which could penetrate the shells of the armor thickness of 60 mm at a distance of 1000 m. But our artillery was not asleep and by that time had prepared tank gun with even greater possibilities of defeat. So, 76-mm gun f-34 mod. 1940, mounted on the T-34, a guaranteed shot at a distance of 500 m armor thickness of 75 mm, and 1000 m – 68 mm.
 
The first serial T-28 in the main tower was a gun KT-28 OBR. 1927/32 (“Kirov tank”) 76,2 mm caliber. It was designed in 1927 on the basis of 76-mm regimental gun mod. 1927 by the design Bureau of the Kirov factory and modernized in 1932. the rollback of the gun was reduced twice – from 1000 mm to 500 mm, which allowed to place it in the tank turret.
 
The gun was on pins in the mask front portion; a lifting mechanism of the sector type manually it is possible to impart the angles of elevation from – 5° to +25° . She had a reciprocating shutter, of a hydraulic recoil brake, hydropneumatic lakatnik.
 
In addition to the T-28, a gun was still set on serial tanks BT-7A, T-35.
 
In 1938, CT-28 was replaced by a new gun L-10 mod. 1938 with a vertical wedge semi-automatic breech. It was created at the Kirov factory under the direction of I. makhanova. The fundamental difference between guns, and the subsequent development of this design was the original wheel device in which the fluid compressor is in direct contact with the air nachalnika. L-10 was much more powerful than the KT-28.
 
Tank crew: driver, gunner and two small towers, gunner (pictured on the right in the turret), commander Ganka (pictured on the left in the tower) and, in addition, loader (radio operator)
 
Tank crew: driver, gunner and two small towers, gunner (pictured on the right in the turret), commander Ganka (pictured on the left in the tower) and, in addition, loader (radio operator)
 
T-28 overcomes the ditch on maneuvers in the Belorussian military district. 1936
 
T-28 overcomes the ditch on maneuvers in the Belorussian military district. 1936
 
Multi-turret tanks T-35 (front) and the T-28 on field trials. July 1932
 
Multi-turret tanks T-35 (front) and the T-28 on field trials. July 1932
 
For shooting from CT-28 was used shrapnel shells UO-353А (material – steel-cast iron), high-explosive UOF-353 (steel), as well as explosive old model UV-353М. The mass of these shells was approximately 6.2 kg, the mass of the explosive -0,540, and 0,710 0,815 kg, respectively.
 
For cannon L-10 and added armor-piercing projectile UBR-353А -slow-witted tracer with a ballistic tip; its weight is 6.3 kg (amount of explosive -0,155 kg), range – 4000 m. Increased ability to more successfully hit enemy armored vehicles, including tanks.
 
In small towers housed a 7.62 mm machine-guns. The same gun was in the embrasure of the right side of the main tower, and he has not been paired with a gun, which gave the opportunity to conduct, if necessary, a separate fire on the approaching enemy. Four of them were installed in the rear recess for the firing in the rear sector. Tanks, the latest release has added another DT for combating air targets, placing it in turret P-40 on the hatch gunner.
 
Ammunition of the tank consisted of 69 unitary shots and 7938 rounds. 49 shots were located on the sides of the hull, 8 – in stand on the floor of the tower, the remaining 12 were drum units under the seats the commander and gunner. The cartridges were placed in the disk 136 stores on the sides of the right and left of the driver.
 
Gun equipped with a telescopic sight TOP 1- he was left of the gun and periscope PT-1-on the roof of the tower on the left; next to her – on the right side established a commanding panorama of PTK.
 
Vertical angles pointing guns from – 3° to +25°, horizontal guidance – circular. Machine guns in small turrets able to fire horizontal in the range of 165°.
 
For smoke-screens on both sides of the tank had smoke devices TPD-3, located in armored boxes. The duration of continuous smoke of two composite cylinders with a capacity of 40 l filled with spetsmenyu – up to 3 minutes of Their work was governed by the commander of the machine directly from the fighting compartment by using the leverage associated with instrument cables.
 
The crew of the T-28 was composed of six people. Three of them were located in the main tower: tank commander (also the gunner), gunner, radio operator (also charged); two persons – the machine gunners of the small towers, as well as the driver.
 
Tank T-28 model of 1938
 
Tank T-28 model of 1938
 
T-28 model of 1938:
 
1 – silencer; 2 – turret; 3 – us periscope sight PT-1; 4 – mask of the gun; 5 – 76 mm gun L-10; 6 – output gear; 7 – carriage with support rollers; 8 – side screen suspension; 9 – driving wheel; 10 – the left small tower; 11 – right small tower; 12 – door of the small tower; 13 – the tank commander’s hatch; 14 – aft 7.62-mm machine gun; 15 – cap of the air filter; 16 – louvers of the engine compartment; 17 – 7.62-mm machine gun right low tower; 18 – exchange rate 7.62-mm machine gun; 19 – window of the telescopic sight; 20 – cabin of the driver; 21 – 7.62-mm machine gun left small tower; 22 – Luke the engine compartment

 
Reservation scheme T-28
 
The body of the tank T-28 was manufactured from sheets of steel armor, designed for bulletproof protection. The thickness of the upper frontal plate was 15 mm, the lower pan 30 mm, side and stern – 20 mm, roof cover 10 mm.
 
The thickness of the armor the sides of the large and small towers – 20 mm, of the roof 20 and 15 mm.
 
The building itself was a simple box shape. In the early stages it was made of sheets of homogeneous armor by welding or hardened armor, using partial welding along with riveted connections. After 1938, produced only a riveted-welded body. Tower either fully welded or partially riveting.
 
The main tower had an elliptical shape with a developed stern alcove, small rounded shape. In the left and right sides of the towers were observation slit, covered with triplexes. In the frontal part of the small towers were the projections for ball joints with machine guns.
 
In 1940 the tank was produced with a conical main tower in order to improve body armor when hit by damaging elements.
 
In the front of the case was the working place of the driver, separated the two vertical armor plates – they formed a separate cabin, and served as elements of protection.
 
The tank put a 12-cylinder 450-horsepower aircraft engine M-17T with water forced cooling. The motor was equipped with two carburetors of the type KD-1. Weight of M-17-T was 553 kg of Fuel was in the two on-Board tanks with a capacity of 330 liters each; they were placed in motorradreisen compartment of the tank in the stern. Used gasoline brands KB-70 and B-70.
 
In the composition of the transmission were the main dry clutch, five-speed manual transmission, multi-disc friction clutches, two-row side of the transmission. The brakes were put belt type.
 
Suspension had twelve rollers of small diameter on each side, interlocked with the beams of six carriages, spring-mounted coil springs. Carriage, in turn, were combined into two carts, which were suspended at two points to the body. The support rollers had a diameter of 350 mm; carrier rollers – four on Board – a double. Driven wheels -rear location, with a diameter of 720 mm with 17 teeth. Track chain with a length of 15.8 m each consisted of 121 stamped Trak cycloid gear; the width of the tracks – 380 mm, length – 170 mm.
 
External connection on the tanks was maintained with the help of radio 71-TK-1 with a range of 20 km or 71-TK-Z – 25 km, the inner connection was provided to the tank by an intercom TPU-6. On the first issue on the main tower was put porucnika antenna, but then it was replaced with a whip. The radio station was located on the right side of the turret rear bin.
 
The tank was also supplied with fire-fighting equipment, including fixed fire extinguisher with carbon tetrachloride and two manual.
 
Front housing of the tank were two folding headlights, which had to cover the armor covers. They were used at night and in poor visibility. In the aft there was a tail lights with hinged lids. Installed additional lights-spotlights on the mantlet, in other cases, over the barrel; they were believed to be necessary for night shooting.
 
In the manufacture of the T-28 was involved in several plants. On “Red proletarian” was the main Assembly. Manufacturing of hulls and towers was carried out at the Izhora plant in Leningrad, Kolpino, fuel tanks at plant No. 7 in Leningrad, the engine M-17T produced by the plant No. 26 in Rybinsk, control devices and radio – plants No. 213 and No. 203 in Moscow.
 
Making the appropriate conclusions from the actions of T-28 in the “Winter war” of 1939 – 1940., tank builders have strengthened their defence armor “firewalls”. This machine was delivered at the Kirov plant, where they welded additional sheets of armor steel. So, the main tower was added around the sheets 30 mm thick frontal armor of small towers increased also by 30 mm, back 15 mm; to the front hull plates were welded on 20 mm leaves, the stern – of a thickness of 30 mm.
 
Thus, the thickness of the front parts has increased to 50 – 80 mm, the thickness of the sides and stern up to 40 mm. Total weight of “screens” was slightly higher than 4 T.
 
Such “capacity booking” has undoubtedly increased the security of the tanks. However, it is somewhat negative impact on the dynamic characteristics of the machines, primarily for their maneuverability, because the weight of tanks has risen to 32, etc
 
A modernized version of the tank received index T-28E.
 
T-28 in an ambush on the Karelian isthmus. Winter war, 1940
 
T-28 in an ambush on the Karelian isthmus. Winter war, 1940
 
German Czech-made tank Pz.Kpfw35(t) and the T-28 (pictured right). The Eastern front, 1941
 
German Czech-made tank Pz.Kpfw35(t) and the T-28 (pictured right). The Eastern front, 1941
 
Nominal tank T-28 with the inscription
 
Nominal tank T-28 with the inscription “Stalin” at the Manege square. Parade in honor of the 23 anniversary of the October revolution. Moscow, November 7, 1940
 
In 1937, the military command invited the designers to solve the problem of conversion of the T-28 so that the tank on the bottom could overcome water obstacles depth up to 4.5 m. the Work was done in the Research Institute of armored vehicles in Kubinka. Weapon for experienced car sealed, aft was fitted with special equipment for supply of under water engine air and exhaust system. Sample received a T-28ПХ – “underwater walking”. Were achieved very encouraging results – duration of immersion – up to one hour, engine work up to 30 min. But in the end the equipment is acknowledged still not well suited.
 
Serial production of the T-28 was carried out from 1933 to 1940, during the eight years. There were produced 503 units. In the manufacturing process the tank is constantly subjected to modernization. Let us present its basic production series:
 
T-28-1 – pre-production sample 45-mm cannon OBR. 1932 and a three tank machine guns Degtyarev (DT);
 
T-28 OBR 1933 – the first production model, which had adopted 76.2 mm gun KT-28 and 4 DT machine guns, released 41 the unit;
 
T-28 OBR. 1934 – the main series of the period 1934 – 1938, the armament was a 76.2 mm KT-28, 4-5 machine-guns, released 266 units.
 
T-28 OBR 1938 – main series 1938 – 1940 Change guns in L-10; the machine-guns – 5, released 131 unit;
 
T-28 OBR. 1940 – install a new conical tower. Weapons -the same;
 
T-28E. 1940 – shielded model tank mod. 1940 the mass of the tank increased to 32 tons;
 
T-23A arr. 1936 – “speed” a modernized version of the mod. 1936;
 
T-28ПХ mod. 1937 – a variant of “tank underwater walking”.
 
Immediately after the adoption of T-28 on the arms of the mechanized units of the red army in 1933, they began to arrive in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th tank regiments, which in 1935 was transformed into the 1st, 4th, 5th and 6th heavy tank brigade.
 
They were placed in the four military districts – in the cities of Smolensk, Kiev, Kharkov and Slutsk, near Leningrad. Each brigade was in the tank 54.
 
Under the new reorganization of the army in 1939 G. T-28 was in the 14-th, 10-th, 21-th and 20-th heavy tank brigade, respectively.
 
In September 1939, tanks of the 10th brigade at the Ukrainian front and 21 in the composition of the Belarusian participated in the Polish campaign. As mentioned in the reports, during the March, with a length of 400 km the “special technical problems have been identified” – apparently, serious breakdowns and accidents occurred.
 
In the winter of 1939/40 G. T-28, composed of the 10th and 20th brigades were supported by units of the red Army in the battles on Koreiskom isthmus during the Soviet-Finnish war. Tanks proved to be quite efficient, with good permeability, effectively struggling with long-term fire points. For the successful operation of the 20 brigade was awarded the order of red banner.
 
Just participated in the battles 172 tank brigade and 67 machines, included in its composition as a refill. Irrecoverable losses amounted to 32 units.
 
In the summer of 1941 the red army units were 481 T-28 (200 units with gun L-10). It is believed that one is quite serviceable, it was 290, according to others, only about 200. Armored units by this time moved on to the divisional organization: the Panzer divisions as part of the mechanized corps had replaced the brigade.
 
In the first stage of the great Patriotic war, T-28 tanks took an active part. They were able to deal effectively with all types of armored vehicles of the German army, successfully resisted them, striking fire from a great distance. Perfectly showed itself, for example, tankers, which was part of the 9th tank regiment 5th tank division of the Baltic Special Military district (Pribovo). They first clashed with the advancing German units and took up defensive positions on the Eastern Bank of the Niemen, in two days with fire and counterattacks kept their positions, despite superior forces of the enemy.
 
Worked well as the tanks of the 15th Panzer division 16th mechanized corps of the southwestern front. During a counterattack in the direction of Zhitomir, a platoon of T-28 under the command of Lieutenant V. Sumtsova “knocked out three German tanks, crushed two anti-tank guns, seven vehicles, destroyed several dozen infantry soldiers”.
 
The T-28 tank gun L-10. 1938 Tank Museum in parola, Finland
 
The T-28 tank gun L-10. 1938 Tank Museum in parola, Finland
 
Tank T-28 with 76-mm cannon. Central Armed forces Museum, Moscow
 
Tank T-28 with 76-mm cannon. Central Armed forces Museum, Moscow

 
In the Western Special Military district T-28 under the command of major Vasechkina, driven by a mechanic Malko, made a sudden RAID on the Germans captured Minsk, ramming cars and trucks, consuming fire of guns and machine guns, battling soldiers.
 
Latest information about participation in the fighting of tanks T-28 belong to the period of the defense of Moscow in winter 1941/42 and the city of Leningrad in 1942 where they were used primarily as a “dead tanks” (combat machine located in the tank trench).
 
Army General Dmitry Lelyushenko, commander of the 30th army near Moscow, testifies to the actions of tankers: “for the fourth tank in focus shot from a stationary gun emplacements -T-28 – Sergeant Serebryakov; three tanks were burning from the gun of Sergeant Korneev”.
 
Such exploits of tank crews could be a lot. They were committed not only with the incomparable bravery of our soldiers, but also perfect for that time, military technology, created by our tank builders.
 
However, many T-28 “due to irrational use of tanks, lack of fuel and ammunition, as well as technical deterioration and a complete lack of spare parts” in the first months of the war were lost.
 
Production of the T-28 was discontinued in 1940, despite the great constructive reserve. So, the tank was very successfully tested with 85-mm gun f-39 with a barrel length of 52 PBC. Its chassis was created prototypes of self-propelled artillery su-14 and SU-14-1 with the 203 mm and 152-mm cannons, experienced of 152.4 mm self-propelled mortar, a 76-mm antiaircraft self-propelled gun SU-8, tank-electrothermic, bridge tank it-28.
 
However, as time went on, and replace the T-28 tank factories began to produce new famous tanks T-34 and KV.
 
V. TALANOV

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