THE CREATORS OF “FIRE ARROWS” (PART 2)

Fighting vehicle BM-31 on the chassis ZIS-151 in the open area of the technical Museum TogliattiReactive BM-8-24. In August 1941, took arms 82-mm rocket M-8. It was a modification of the aviation RS-82 for use in the field artillery, which had almost twice the mass of the explosive. Creating launchers for M-8 instructed SLE Moscow plant № 733 “Compressor” with the participation of the Bureau of plant No. 37. Led the development of V. A. Timofeyev, a leading designer of chassis D. I. Sazonov. In machine design engineers used a series of nodes from the BM-13, as well as guides such as “flute” used in aviation.

Two new rocket launchers on the chassis of the ZIS-5 and ZIS-6, which had 38 of the guides, went on trial in July 1941 and showed generally positive results. For serial production of military experts have selected the sample on the triaxial chassis of the truck ZIS-6 because of its better patency. In addition, it is possible to borrow many items of equipment and tools issued from the BM-13 on the basis of the same ZIS-6. Produced under the symbol BM-8-36 serial machine bore 36 of the guides.
Until the end of August 1941, Moscow plant “Compressor” and “Krasnaya Presnya” produced the first series of the 72 units, and by November shop left 270 machines.
 
With the evacuation of the Plant. Stalin issue a three-axle truck stopped. Therefore in October of 1941 it had formed the task to develop a 24-charging launcher for rockets M-8 on the chassis of light tanks T-40. The work was carried out with the participation of teams of designers Jet research Institute. In a new installation for the first time, for firing missiles M-8 was applied guides of the type “beam” made of I-beams.
 
Restored installation of M-13 on the chassis of the tractor STZ-NATI (STZ-5) near the building of the Museum historyorderstotal Novomoskovsk (Tula oblast). The car sank 14.12.1941 raised ten meters depth Sadovskogo reservoir 25 November 1988 by divers groups the
 
Recovered setting M-13 on the chassis of the tractor STZ-NATI (STZ-5) near the building of the Museum historyorderstotal Novomoskovsk (Tula oblast). The car sank 14.12.1941 raised ten meters depth Sadovskogo reservoir 25 November 1988 by divers groups the “Search” Moscow plant GPP-1
 
The car has received index of the BM-8-24. BM-8-24 successfully participated in the battles in 1942 and 1943 and was well received in the armed forces for better security and patency, compared to the “Katyusha” on the basis of trucks.
 
Installation of BM-8-24 were also made on the chassis of tank T-60, and after the termination of production of the two tanks was used to create more powerful machines BM-8-48 on the basis of cars “Studebaker” and “Ford-Marmon”.
 
Chassis for “Katyusha”
 
In the early 1930s, the domestic auto industry began to develop for the army three-axle vehicles with two rear drive axles (6×4) on the basis of only what is mastered in mass production two-axle trucks. Adding another rear axle and a half times increased capacity and throughput, reducing the load on the wheels.
 
In 1931 to 1932 by the design Bureau of the Moscow plant AMO under the direction of E. I. Vazhinsky design was conducted triaxial truck AMO-6, along with other new vehicles, Amos-5, Amos-7, AMO-8 their unification. Prototypes for lovskih of trehanoc was the English trucks WD (War Department), as well as domestic development AMO-Z-NATI. In particular, the ZIS-5 was a further development of this 2.5-ton machine.
 
The first two test cars AMO-6 in June – July, 1933, made a test run Moscow – Minsk – Moscow. In December of the following year, the plant started serial production of these machines, called the ZIS-6. In 1933 he produced only 20 units.
 
After reconstruction of the factory production of the ZIS-6 has increased. The most productive was 1939, when released 4460 three-axle vehicles, but only until the day of the evacuation of the plant in October 1941-21 239.
 
Soviet missiles during the great Patriotic war
 
Soviet missiles during the great Patriotic war
 
The technical characteristics of Soviet rockets
 
Technical characteristics of the Soviet rockets
 
The car was maximally unified with the base model ZIS-5. It was the same 6-cylinder petrol engine producing 73 horsepower, the same clutch, gearbox, front axle, front suspension, wheels, steering, cab, fenders, hood, running boards. Was different frame, rear suspension, rear axles, brakes. Compared to the base ZIS-5, ZIS-6 was reinforced radiator of the cooling system, generator, has two batteries and two fuel tanks (total of 105 liters of fuel).
 
The own weight of the ZIS-6 was 4230 lbs. On good roads it could carry up to 4 tons of cargo, bad – 2.5 t Maximum speed – 50 – 55 km/h, average speed on the road -10 km/h. the Car could climb to 20° and a Ford deep up to 0,65 m. due to the small capacity of the overloaded engine ZIS-6 had poor dynamics, high fuel consumption (highway 40 – 41 liters per 100 km, the lane – 70 l) and poor permeability.
 
In the army ZIS-6 is mainly used as a tractor for pieces of artillery. At its base were built repair of the briefing, fuel tankers, fire escapes, cranes, armored vehicles. On the same chassis mounted rocket launchers BM-13 and 82-mm launchers BM-8-36.
 
However, for the “Katyusha” soon became insufficient self-propelled chassis. Tried to organize the production of the ZIS-6 in Ulyanovsk, where in October 1941 was evacuated Moscow ZIS, but the lack of specialized equipment for the manufacture of not allowed to do it.
 
Experimental setup M-8 tank
 
Experimental setup the M-8 tank
 
Installation of BM-8-36 on the chassis ZIS-6
 
Installation of BM-8-36 on the chassis ZIS-6
 
Installation of BM-8-24 on the T-40
 
Installation of BM-8-24 on the T-40
 
T-60 with the launcher BM-8-24
 
T-60 with the launcher BM-8-24
 
BM-8-48 with two packages of rails-based Chevrolet truck S-7107. 1943.
 
BM-8-48 with two packages of rails-based Chevrolet truck S-7107. 1943
 
BM-8-48 on the chassis
BM-8-48 on the chassis “Studebaker” CX 31
 
Diagram of the BM-13 on the chassis ZIS-6
 
Diagram of the BM-13 on the chassis ZIS-6

 
Performance characteristics of BM-8-24 based on the T-60
 
The performance characteristics of the BM-8-24 based on the T-60
 
In this situation, missile launchers M-8 and M-13 were mounted on anything. So, on the machines from a machine gun “Maxim” on motorcycles, sleds and snowmobiles, tanks T-40 and T-604 has established guides for shells M-8; armored rail cars, river and sea boats placed BM-8-48, BM-8-72, BM-13-16.
 
In 1942 – 1943 launchers were mounted on vehicles obtained under lend-lease. For this example, allocated 1845 vehicles “Studebaker”, 1157 units of other brands and only 372 – ZIS-6.
 
In March 1944, the armament was adopted by the self-propelled launcher for projectiles of M-13 on the chassis “Studebaker” BM-31-12.
 
Genuine BM-13-16 on chassis ZIS-6 is only preserved in the Artillery Museum in St. Petersburg.
 
Jet launchers were equipped also receive lend-lease vehicles: “Ford-Marmon”, OMC 6×6, “Austin”, “Chevrolet” and others.
 
Installation M-30 “Bow”
 
8 June 1942 after successful field tests, the State Committee of defence (GKO) issued a decree on adopting the new rocket M-30 and the beginning of its serial production.
 
Launcher M-30 was in service formed mid-1942 guards mortar divisions, in each of which there were three brigade chetyrehvetvevogo composition. Volley brigade was 1152 of the projectile with a total weight of more than 106 tons. In total, the division had 864 launchers, which can produce 3456 shells of M-30.
 
The formation of these divisions was attached exceptional importance,
 
on the evidence of the order Rates as of June 27, 1942, which required all heads of the Central departments of the people’s Commissariat of defense to provide guards mortar division M-30 personnel, weapons and vehicles out of the lineup.
Beginning in April 1943, two artillery division breakthrough (estiblishing composition) and one guards mortar division was in the artillery corps breakthrough (by the end of 1943 there were 6 shells), in each of which there were 712 guns and mortars, and 864 launcher. Enter into battle such a large artillery groupings in a limited area of the front, as a rule, ensured a breakthrough of enemy defenses.
 
The feature of this 300-mm rocket launchers in the fact that the shells were produced directly from a wooden packing box in which they were delivered from the factories, he only filmed the front cover. Four, and later eight of these boxes were placed on a special frame, the result of which was a simple launcher.
 
The exceptional effect of “arasou” was achieved by salvo firing. When simultaneous or almost simultaneous explosion of the whole group of shells came into force the law of addition of pulses from shock waves.
 
The main disadvantage of the projectile was a small range caused by using a low-power engine from the M-13 and M-30 possessed great destructive power, with a weight of 72 kg 28,9 kg of explosive. The shells were equipped with explosive, chemical and incendiary warheads.
 
MLRS M-13 on the chassis of the STZ-5
 
MLRS M-13 on the chassis of the STZ-5
 
MLRS M-13 on the chassis of the STZ-5
 
Powerful head part M-30 had a bad aerodynamic shape, and accuracy was 2.5 times worse than M-13. Therefore, the shells of M-30 was only used EN masse, on 1 km front breakthrough was necessary to concentrate at least three battalions of M-30.
 
Significant disadvantages of the launchers frame type M-30 was their low mobility and long time required to bring them from marching to combat position. For example, the team was able to give a volley of 1152 rounds in five minutes, but the preparation for it took about six to eight hours. When doing agile fighting of the ability of such teams to follow fast-moving troops and give them fire support was very limited.
 
In order to increase the maneuverability of the compounds guards mortar in March 1944, it was developed and in June of the same year adopted by the red Army 12-charging a self-propelled launcher on truck chassis “Studebaker” for launching rockets M-31 combat vehicle BM-31-12. Each guide cell of the launcher consisted of four pipes with a diameter of 32 mm and a length of 3 m, inside linking their octahedral cages. Pipe cell was located relative to each other so that in cross-section forms a square, which fits a circle with a diameter of 306 mm. Thus, cells were trunks, giving the projectiles direction of flight. Twelve sections of the guides were combined in a package consisting of two tiers of six cells each. The basic chassis was equipped with jacks to increase stability of the installation during shooting.
 
With a reliable device for locking the shells in the rails of the launcher could be charged in the original district, be nominated to the firing position, fire and leave before the enemy strike.
 
The cab car was fitted with a hinged protective metal shields. Start shells could be made from it, and with a remote control.
 
With the adoption into service of combat vehicles BM-31-12 dramatically increased the mobility and rate of fire of heavy rocket artillery. For their mobility, maneuverability and rate of fire BM-31-12 was not inferior launchers BM-13 and BM-8-48, and had even less weight in the stowed position. Thus, part of the armed BM-31-12, had the opportunity to accompany the infantry and tanks by fire and wheels in all phases of military operations.
 
A direct hit to the M-30 destroyed any field fortifications, even mnogoletnie bunkers; concrete structures have survived, but land scored slits and embrasures, and soldiers of the garrison had a stroke. However, the firing range of the M-30 does not exceed 2.8 km, accuracy was worse than the BM-13, a lot of time was spent on the preparation for the shooting.
 
Advanced M-31 had improved aerodynamics and more propellant, which increased the range up to 4.2 km.
 
Several times increased the accuracy in the modification of the projectile M-31 of the criminal code, introducing l-shaped fittings, which created the torque due to the lateral outflow of the propellant gases.
 
Serial production
 
In October 1941, Moscow plant “Compressor”, which only began to establish production of BM-13, were evacuated to the Urals. The evacuation was not completed, and in the empty shops created a repair coming from the front damaged in the fighting “Katyusha”.
 
 
“Katyusha” on the “Willis” MV
 
BM-13N on the chassis ZIS-151
 
BM-13H:
 
1 – boneset front glass of the cab; 2 – pack guide; 3 – rocket M-13; 4 – Jack; 5 – car chassis; 6 – subframe farm; 7 – a stopper of the rotating part; 8 – box for the spare parts; 9 – tank; 10 – a spare wheel; 11 – rail; 12 – longitudinal farm; 13 – view; 14 – arm lifting mechanism; 15 – the handle of the rotary mechanism; 16 – plate farm

 
During the war fighting machines are made in a number of enterprises, for example, at the Voronezh Plant them. Of the Comintern, Kirov. Kuibyshev, Mechanical plant in Penza, milling machines Plant in Gorky. Marx in Leningrad, them. Shevchenko in Kharkiv, the Moscow plant “Krasnaya Presnya”, in the Urals – Chelyabinsk “Chelyabkompressor” and the Sverdlovsk “Uralelektroapparat” and on the other, which allowed to completely satisfy the needs of the army in this type of weapons. Since 1941, the country produced more than ten thousand rocket launchers.
 
Release rockets were launched at many automotive, tractor and machine tool industries. They produced twelve million “arasou”.
 
Who are the creators of the legendary “Katyusha”?
 
The glory of the legendary machines are unable to separate their creators. The result of trumped-up denunciations of the Jet scientific research Institute in the fall of 1937, the NKVD arrested the chief engineer of the G. E. Langemak and Director of I. T. kleimenova. Two months later, both were sentenced to death. Rehabilitated designers was only in the 1960s.
 
However, other much earlier arrogated to themselves the glory of the founders of rocket artillery.
 
In 1944 – 1945 at NII-3 (RNII) was working Commission of experts investigating the failure of development of the rocket plane, but during the inspection the investigation concerned of the invention the BM-13, for which A. G. Kostikov and I. Gwaii was awarded the Stalin prize. Their participation in the creation of “Katyusha” were evaluated by specialists – academician S. A. Khristianovich (he had previously headed the group’s missile improved accuracy of M-13-UK), Professor A. B. cheslow and K. A. Ushakov, Deputy head of the Department of arms TSAGI L. M. Levin.
 
MLRS M-13-16 chassis
 
MLRS M-13-16 chassis
 
MLRS M-13-16 chassis “Fordson” WОТ8 30-сwt (1.5-tоn), 4×4
 
Installing the BM-13 on the chassis of the American truck military vehicle GМС ССКW-353 (2x4) on one of the parades in Germany. 1945.
 
Setup BM-13 on the chassis of the American truck military vehicle GМС ССКW-353 (2×4) on one of the parades in Germany. 1945
 
Installing the BM-13H on the chassis
 
Installing the BM-13H on the chassis “Studebaker” US6 in the Museum of military equipment in Verkhnyaya Pyshma (Sverdlovsk oblast)
 
Calculation and brought the red army soldiers charge the
 
The calculation and brought the soldiers charge the “Katyusha”. The 1st Ukrainian front, 29 June 1944
 
Guard jet mortar BM-31-12 in Berlin. Shots were fired shells 310 mm, operated with 12 guides cell type. The system is placed on the chassis of lend-lease truck
 
Guards rocket mortar BM-31-12 in Berlin. Shots were fired shells 310 mm, operated with 12 guides cell type. The system is placed on the chassis of lend-lease truck “Studebaker” US6
 
The main issue of the investigative unit for especially important cases of the people’s Commissariat of state security of the USSR on this issue was: “whether Kostikov Gwaii and Abarenkov authors M-8 and M-13 and launchers to them?”
 
Here is the answer of the experts: “Kostikov Gwaii and Abarenkov cannot be considered the authors of the M-8 and M-13 and launchers to them. Projectile M-8 has slight modifications from the shell of the RS-82, developed by NII-3 in 1934 -1938. the Projectile M-13 is a development of the shell of the RS-132, developed in 1937 – 1938 years To develop the RS-82 and RS-132 Kostikov Gwaii and Abarenkov nothing had…” And more. “The idea of creating a native installer for the conduct of a massive fire could not be ascribed to Kostikov, the Gwaii, and Abarenkova”.
 
In its report, the expert Committee members cited the book shot G. E. Langemak and then sentenced to 8 years in the camps V. P. Glushko “Rockets, their design and use” – “the Main area of application of powder of missile – armed light combat vehicles such as airplanes, small boats, cars.” It was written in 1935
 
The number of BM during the war
 
The amount of BM during the war
 
In the course of the investigation surfaced many comprometida facts. For example, one of the “fathers Katyusha” -Vladimir Abarenkov, Deputy chief of the Main artillery Directorate of the red army, nothing to do with NII-3 had, and met it to the test. In the late 1980s will be broken a lot of copies of a newspaper about the authorship in the creation of “Katyusha”, but no one tries to rank Abarenkova sponsoring. Everyone knew that the General, who was on the post of the head of Department, GAU of the red army is unlikely to generate ideas and for Kuhlmann to translate them into drawings…
 
In 1955 V. P. Glushko wrote: “the Author of these shells is essentially Langemak. By the time of the arrest Langemak, maybe were not even documentation for the construction of these shells, but the main work was finished.”
We give the text of the letter of S. P. Korolev and V. P. Glushko to the publishers of the Great Soviet encyclopedia:
 
“In the 23rd volume of BSE (second edition) on page 126 includes an article about the Kostikov, Andrey G., marked by high awards “for his contribution in the creation of new types of weapons”. In 1937 – 1938 years, when our country was going through difficult days of mass arrests of Soviet personnel, Kostikov, who worked in the Institute as an ordinary engineer, made great efforts to achieve the arrest and conviction of the people as enemies of the main management team of our Institute, including the main author of a new type of weapons a talented scientist-designer G. E. Langemak. Thus Kostikov was the head of the Institute and the “author” of this new type of weapons, which was immediately generously rewarded at the beginning of the war.
 
The performance characteristics of the BM-31-12 on the chassis
 
 
After receiving the task to another development, Kostikov was unable to carry it out, therefore even during the war, was removed from his job and dismissed from the Institute”…
 
Date: January 15, 1957, And two labels with the same titles:
 
corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labor S. P. Korolev, V. P. Glushko.
 
Time passed, and many of the documents of the NKVD was published in the open press. Including this:
 
“I’m not a gunner, and certainly not an expert on gunpowder, but detailed acquaintance with rockets and bombs since the appointment I VREEDE, Deputy Director of NII-3 (15.11.37) gives me reasons to do certain conclusions in relation to certain persons working in a long time this branch of art… a Major role in this laboratory is ing. Pobedonostsev. In the second half of 1937, after PC and a SERVANT (going for the sake of brevity can call it rockets and rocket bombs) went to experienced gross production, as if by chance it was discovered abnormal behavior in certain conditions the powder when it burns”…
 
The author of the document was “not an expert on gunpowder” – acting Deputy Director of NII-3 A. G. Kostikov.
 
Highlight the document in the slippery phrase “accidentally on purpose”. Simple clause – and the fate of Yu. a. Pobedonostsev crossed, although he was not arrested. To explain it as impossible as to explain why he was arrested, say, Sergei Korolev. The routine then order after his detention was required to conduct a “technical expertise”. No one asked the Institute whether the enemy Queens. Once arrested, it is clear that enemy. Required specific facts of sabotage. The investigation was assigned to the engineers of M. S. Kisenko, E. S. Datenkova and F. N. . Who wrote a very vague examination report where it was noted deficiencies and failures of the Queen, but it was possible to understand that there is no malicious intent in the works of the Queen is not all its flaws are not beyond the usual failures are required in any experimental work. On two counts Metenkov even wrote down in this act “special opinion” from which it was clear that the king no not a pest.
 
This conclusion, however, does not guarantee a reliable elimination of rivals and are not satisfied with Kostikov. He headed a new Commission, and carried out a new examination. The findings were different. This act is also preserved in the archives of the NKVD. For this reason, in the same official investigation, conducted in June 1965, the Chief military Prosecutor’s office, stated:
 
“20 Jun 1938 Kostikov head of the expert Commission that gave the conclusion of the NKVD of the wrecking activities of engineers Glushko and Korolev”.
 
On June 21, 1991 by the decree of the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev designers I. T. Kleimenova, G. E. Langemak and V. N. Luzhin, B. C. Paul, B. M. Slonimer and N. And. Tikhomirov was posthumously awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.
 
Finally, the creators of the legendary weapons have become our Heroes.

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