FROM Article with a similar title, published in No. 10 of 1993, caused, as we expected, the increased interest of readers. And it caught the interest of car designers-the homebrew, discovered many useful principles in the design and development of the author by Y. Dolmatovsky. That’s why we asked him to tell the magazine about a later project cars railroad layout, created not without influence of the famous “Whites” and to share with automodellini of experience in the design of vehicles of this class.

The launch failure in the series of the car “the Squirrel”, who is still in a certain stage in the development of cars of especially small class, had as the next, Tang and the long term effects.

As it turned out, we, the designers of this little micro-car, was, in fact, in the same direction as our Western colleagues. A characteristic example is the release by the American firm Chrysler “Formobile” — farmer machines, strikingly similar to the agricultural variant “Proteins”.
It turned out that did not come down to the production of “Protein” accelerated however, the decision on the launch of a series of the first “Zaporozhets” ZAZ-965. After “Brokeback” as “Protein,” was rear-engined, air-cooled engine and with wheels of relatively small diameter. And don’t be ready as a “temporary” engines from “Whites”, the mock-up specimens would be at least six months later. Yes and a new engine would not have appeared so soon, if he did not take irbitskiy designers, which at the time was making engines for our little micro-car.
With regard to the development of passenger cars wagon — mini-vans, in the fifties and sixties of professional automakers seemed to have forgotten about them. Only the Assembly line of Fiat from 1957 to 1970, went mini-van “Multiple”, which then changed the same “Familiale”. As for the issue mentioned in the previous article overly simplified and cheap micro cars on the basis of motor units, it was short-lived — two to four years: with the growing prosperity evropeyskih consumers such avtokraski seemed already far not prestigious neighborhood of “complete” cars.
A one-volume cars of the 50's-60-ies of the: FIAT
Volume cars of the 50’s-60-ies of the: FIAT “Multipla” and “Zundapp-Janus”.
Table this gives you the opportunity to see the main trends in the development of cars of small and extra small class. It is possible to determine the place that was the world of “car society” compact cars “Protein” and “Mansi”, and that could take a homemade mini-van.
Note, in particular, note that the average operating pokazateli early cars to osemide-satim-nineties years has increased significantly. Tan, maximum speed and specific power increased almost twice, the specific fuel consumption decreased by 10…30%, mainly due to the increase in engine power, and the transition from a racer-tion units to the car.
Then came the period of stabilization indicators: growth in capacity has slowed, and the weight, despite the available to the designers of new ideas, materials and technologies, have increased due to the increase in equipment designed to ensure safety, sustainability and comfort of the car. However, the reduction in fuel consumption and hence emissions of harmful exhaust gases was not radikalnye.
Comparison of the technical characteristics of foreign and domestic vehicles shows that our experimental compact machine fit into the world of “car society”. Besides, our early experimental models was something that was completely absent from any of the members of the international “automotive society” — a small length of the machine without compromising size and comfort of the cabin. This is what you must first take into account the automakers, because that’s exactly the factor that allows you to place units of the vehicle advantageously.

So sliding door on the pilot
So arranged the sliding door on the pilot “Maxi”.
“Maxi” provided an adjustable pedal unit.
The increase in comfort has contributed to the
The upgrade contributed to the “Maxi” swivel seat.
Volume car
Monovolume car “Maxi”.
In the late sixties, the calm was disturbed by the development of the all-Union scientific issledovatelskiy Institute of the technical aesthetics of the car-cab car type, in which participated designers “Proteins”. Designed another interesting little micro-car design which was tested on ispolzovalis such taxi-like elements. stekloplastikovyh body, sliding doors, anatomic seat, adjustable pedals, and original drive of the steering mechanism.
In Zaporizhia “Kommunar” meanwhile, started production of “hunchback”… Two of the first model of this car (ZAZ-965 and ZAZ-965A) proved to be a cost, navigable and maneuverable, though not to satisfy the consumers with cramped interior, small trunk capacity, lack of comfort, low dynamics and unsightly appearance. All this was the reason that instead of these models has begun urgent preparation machine with a more modern look.
Unfortunately, the main difference of “eared” ZAZ-966 from the previous models was increased by 400 mm overall length and, consequently, a large 110 ng mass. And that’s when the elongation of the salon only 195 mm! The apparent absurdity of such “modernization” has allowed designers of VNIITE to conclude that on the basis of units of the new ZAZ-966, you can create a car with the same interior and a much larger trunk, but with the size and weight of the NAS at 965. The new layout is promised a more rational distribution of mass in the but forest, making the car more stable. Besides, it reduced tyre wear and improved streamlining of the body. In short, it was about the maximum possible use of the dimensions of the basic model for a new car car layout.
It is the Tang began work on the initiative version of the “Zaporozhets”, which received the name “Mansi”. In contrast to the “Whites” from the new mini-van seat, driver and passenger have drew within the wheelbase, as close to the housings of the front wheels. Looking ahead, I draw readers ‘ attention to what tan do the many designers present mini-vans in finding solutions to complex node problem — optimal placement of the driver’s seat and mechanisms.
“Mansi” this problem was solved non-traditional: for the convenience of landing of the driver and sitting next to him a passenger seat mounted on swivel brackets. Moreover, these seats have anatomic form and was a hard fiberglass shell with a foam mattress. When turning the seat to its raised boom part was held above the wheel housings, and it was nominated in the doorway. Everything on this car is the best approached design solutions, used by taxi VNIITE — adjustable pedal unit and sliding door. The latter, along with a significant decrease in the area required for car Parking, provide a “relatively easy access n rear seats”.
The quotes in the previous sentence is not accidental, because they give you a quote from the editorial comment in the journal “Automobil-review-Directory”, dedicated to Genevskomu motor show of 1992, where he described domestic cars passenger cars 50…60 years. Here are a few excerpts from the same review: “Found to this day has not published the development dimension of the body”; “in Spite of the small ledges in front and behind, the shape of the body, called a wagon, very similar to the modern one-volume passenger cars”; “first Published in 1964 wagon project car, which provides for rotating seats”…
But let us return to the construction of “Mansi”. Among the other features of this machine include the original front suspension, steering and body structure.
To provide sufficient space for the driver, the upper torsion bar suspension and steering linkage ZAZ-966 was raised up to the windscreen. Thus, the transverse frame is formed covering the inner body panel and serving as additional protection in the event of a frontal collision. And the short steering shaft from the Pitman arm on the front end n of the trapezoid to prevent chest injuries to the driver. The front seats are moved to 345 mm forward compared to the basic “Zaporozhets”, rear — 150 mm, resulting in the promised increase of the cabin and trunk.
The body is a shell of glass reinforced plastic, only the platform of the floor was molded spinal beam and steel cross member.
Paying much attention to “Protein” and “Muncie”, I assume not only that the layout and form of these micro cars are very close n accepted today: they may be used Amateur automakers, of course, adjusted for modern components, materials and technological capacities. And those of the current saadeldin a lot — alone engines, particularly small (1 l) and small classes of not less than five. I’m not talking about a large variety of designs suspension, powertrain, controls, electrical equipment and control devices, as well as members of the body of the glass, seals, etc.
Don’t want to impose on the automakers-lovers their opinion and taste. Allow only yourself to dream about what will be the car in three to five years. I should note here that the volume of the body gives greater freedom of placement of sensors and mechanisms, as the place for the largest car Assembly — engine — and Luggage gesto is not defined. It is only important to observe the following:
comfortable fit and visibility for the driver and passengers access their seats;
optimal load distribution on the wheels;
access to mechanisms for their maintenance;
pleasant climate and low noise in the back.
Notice that to comply with the above do not tan that easy, and details about all of this was at one time extensively described in a series of articles “Building a car”. Here, however, limited to considerations that relate specifically to a hypothetical car of the near future, which was discussed above.
On most modern machines with a one-volume body are applied su-personalproperty tires, and on cars with a rear engine and different outer diameter tires front and rear wheels. On some mini-vans using such konstruktorska solutions as raised floors and located in the middle of the steering column. All of this is a desire of designers to use the area well call given the close proximity of the driver’s seat and the wheel casing; can reduce the length and therefore weight of the vehicle; to reduce fuel consumption and harmful emissions of the engine. At the same time to improve the view of the road and streamlining the front end, to facilitate the access of n seats. And about the layout with the Central location of the steering column: it is not necessary to install it strictly on the axis of symmetry of the machine — better still a bit to shift it to the left to improve visibility when overtaking. Do not have to move the column too far forward — is enough to move its 250…300 mm, to provide favorable for the stability of the car and to grip the mass distribution as in front and at the back of the engine.
As experience shows, the homebrew mainly use series motors. And, choosing a power unit for your car, we thereby predetermine its favorable location in one neobyatnoy the body and, therefore, the layout in General.
Tang, engines from models from ZAZ-965 to ZAZ-969, complete with clutch, gearbox and main gear should be placed behind the base of “Zaporozhets”. Place it in front, as Luisa, Monovolume car unprofitable — in this overloaded tires of the front wheels, which leads to an increase in their diameter, increasing the front overhang of the body and can be broken it myself obnovljena form.
The use of motorcycle engines entails blocking their transmission units ZAZ with transitional plates, as it had to do when creating a power unit for “Whites”.
The engines of cars VAZ models from 2101 to 2107 well linked back, if you place them transversely, as was done in its time by taxi VNIITE and how it is done on many modern coaches. It uses a shortened driveshaft associated with a pair of helical spur gears with the output shaft of the box and bevel gear — main gear axle. It is very important to ensure a minimum (not more than 7…10 degrees) angles of the gimbal work. You can certainly do without the extra pair of gears, replacing the conical crown gear is cylindrical, however, this will entail the production of a complex crankcase the main transfer.
And, of course, for the rear location is fully suitable powertrain of front wheel drive cars Volzhsky, Zaporozhye and Kama automobile plants. In principle, well linked and the whole drive axle, provided you adapt to the rear suspension of the car.
At first glance it may seem that
“monocab” the easiest way to do front-wheel drive, using the mechanisms of transmission and suspension. Do many designers with the aim of unifying the new model with two – and three-box, front-wheel drive cars in production.
Of course, I could be accused of partiality to the layout with a rear engine. However, there are objective considerations.
First, practice has repeatedly confirmed that RWD cars are more simple in manufacture and operation than FWD in the same class, and hence this arrangement is particularly suitable for a cheap small car. That’s why RWD is so actively produced in petite-tenths-sixties when the world was overcome post-war economic difficulties very similar to those that now face our country.
Second, the undeniable advantages and widespread front-wheel drive cars not excluded from the production of cars of small and very small class with rear-wheel drive — quite successfully continues the production of such machines at the enterprises of FIAT, Volkswagen, Subaru and others. And most sports cars that have always been harbingers of most promising design solutions, the motor is installed either behind, or in front of the rear axle.
Thirdly, the background and the average location of the engine used in the latest mini-vans, a BMW and “Toyota”.
Fourth, rear-wheel drive seemed to be especially suited for a one-volume car, which is inevitable more than any other machines, the load of the front wheels due to the forward displacement of the mass body and passengers. In cars with rear wheel drive a more uniform mass distribution, which is optimal for the clutch wheel with the road in almost all situations.
Fifth, the initial submission about the lack of security cars car layout has undergone significant changes. In particular, the statistics clearly showed that under identical conditions of operation of the RAF minivans and cars “Volga” has undergone the first one-third fewer accidents than the other— primarily due to better maneuverability and excellent visibility of the road.
Sixthly, it is impossible not to take into account the impact on the layout of the car such “non-transport” processes and phenomena, as demand, fashion, advertising, profit, prestige of the owner, etc. Along with technical progress and the development of operational requirements, “non-transport” factors play a significant role in the spread of the cars. At the time, found application in construction vehicles, pneumatic tires and powerful engines, closed and all-metal body, and then the body with an increasingly streamlined shape, electric start and automatic transmission, and much more. And in our days it is because of this “non-transport” factors took a massive shift to front-wheel drive cars. I believe that if not for the influence of “non-transport” processes and phenomena, the monocab quite able to spread earlier and in the near future surely be able to take a rightful place in the objective of their qualities and clearly emerging trends in the global automotive.
Yuri DOLMATOVSKY, candidate of technical Sciences

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