Don’t want to impose on the automakers-lovers their opinion and taste. Allow only yourself to dream about what will be the car in three to five years. I should note here that the volume of the body gives greater freedom of placement of sensors and mechanisms, as the place for the largest car Assembly — engine — and Luggage gesto is not defined. It is only important to observe the following:
— comfortable fit and visibility for the driver and passengers access their seats;
— optimal load distribution on the wheels;
— access to mechanisms for their maintenance;
— pleasant climate and low noise in the back.
Notice that to comply with the above do not tan that easy, and details about all of this was at one time extensively described in a series of articles “Building a car”. Here, however, limited to considerations that relate specifically to a hypothetical car of the near future, which was discussed above.
On most modern machines with a one-volume body are applied su-personalproperty tires, and on cars with a rear engine and different outer diameter tires front and rear wheels. On some mini-vans using such konstruktorska solutions as raised floors and located in the middle of the steering column. All of this is a desire of designers to use the area well call given the close proximity of the driver’s seat and the wheel casing; can reduce the length and therefore weight of the vehicle; to reduce fuel consumption and harmful emissions of the engine. At the same time to improve the view of the road and streamlining the front end, to facilitate the access of n seats. And about the layout with the Central location of the steering column: it is not necessary to install it strictly on the axis of symmetry of the machine — better still a bit to shift it to the left to improve visibility when overtaking. Do not have to move the column too far forward — is enough to move its 250…300 mm, to provide favorable for the stability of the car and to grip the mass distribution as in front and at the back of the engine.
As experience shows, the homebrew mainly use series motors. And, choosing a power unit for your car, we thereby predetermine its favorable location in one neobyatnoy the body and, therefore, the layout in General.
Tang, engines from models from ZAZ-965 to ZAZ-969, complete with clutch, gearbox and main gear should be placed behind the base of “Zaporozhets”. Place it in front, as Luisa, Monovolume car unprofitable — in this overloaded tires of the front wheels, which leads to an increase in their diameter, increasing the front overhang of the body and can be broken it myself obnovljena form.
The use of motorcycle engines entails blocking their transmission units ZAZ with transitional plates, as it had to do when creating a power unit for “Whites”.
The engines of cars VAZ models from 2101 to 2107 well linked back, if you place them transversely, as was done in its time by taxi VNIITE and how it is done on many modern coaches. It uses a shortened driveshaft associated with a pair of helical spur gears with the output shaft of the box and bevel gear — main gear axle. It is very important to ensure a minimum (not more than 7…10 degrees) angles of the gimbal work. You can certainly do without the extra pair of gears, replacing the conical crown gear is cylindrical, however, this will entail the production of a complex crankcase the main transfer.
And, of course, for the rear location is fully suitable powertrain of front wheel drive cars Volzhsky, Zaporozhye and Kama automobile plants. In principle, well linked and the whole drive axle, provided you adapt to the rear suspension of the car.
At first glance it may seem that
“monocab” the easiest way to do front-wheel drive, using the mechanisms of transmission and suspension. Do many designers with the aim of unifying the new model with two – and three-box, front-wheel drive cars in production.
Of course, I could be accused of partiality to the layout with a rear engine. However, there are objective considerations.
First, practice has repeatedly confirmed that RWD cars are more simple in manufacture and operation than FWD in the same class, and hence this arrangement is particularly suitable for a cheap small car. That’s why RWD is so actively produced in petite-tenths-sixties when the world was overcome post-war economic difficulties very similar to those that now face our country.
Second, the undeniable advantages and widespread front-wheel drive cars not excluded from the production of cars of small and very small class with rear-wheel drive — quite successfully continues the production of such machines at the enterprises of FIAT, Volkswagen, Subaru and others. And most sports cars that have always been harbingers of most promising design solutions, the motor is installed either behind, or in front of the rear axle.
Thirdly, the background and the average location of the engine used in the latest mini-vans, a BMW and “Toyota”.
Fourth, rear-wheel drive seemed to be especially suited for a one-volume car, which is inevitable more than any other machines, the load of the front wheels due to the forward displacement of the mass body and passengers. In cars with rear wheel drive a more uniform mass distribution, which is optimal for the clutch wheel with the road in almost all situations.
Fifth, the initial submission about the lack of security cars car layout has undergone significant changes. In particular, the statistics clearly showed that under identical conditions of operation of the RAF minivans and cars “Volga” has undergone the first one-third fewer accidents than the other— primarily due to better maneuverability and excellent visibility of the road.
Sixthly, it is impossible not to take into account the impact on the layout of the car such “non-transport” processes and phenomena, as demand, fashion, advertising, profit, prestige of the owner, etc. Along with technical progress and the development of operational requirements, “non-transport” factors play a significant role in the spread of the cars. At the time, found application in construction vehicles, pneumatic tires and powerful engines, closed and all-metal body, and then the body with an increasingly streamlined shape, electric start and automatic transmission, and much more. And in our days it is because of this “non-transport” factors took a massive shift to front-wheel drive cars. I believe that if not for the influence of “non-transport” processes and phenomena, the monocab quite able to spread earlier and in the near future surely be able to take a rightful place in the objective of their qualities and clearly emerging trends in the global automotive.
Yuri DOLMATOVSKY, candidate of technical Sciences