“HALF-TRACK” SNOWMOBILE GMV-2

The construction of any improvised apparatus – be it a car, a snowmobile or even a plane always starts with a dream. Dreams of a person capable and motivated. Despite popular opinion that handmade are built from lack of money, the real motive is creative grain and desire of expression. In addition, active people are annoyed by the fact that in our country carelessly throw away and destroy still usable machines and equipment. Why not give them a second life?

So it was this time. The idea of a large snowmobile GMV-2 came to a head in 1970 Hundino Michael – 39-year-old Orenburg, who was then working at Kumertau plant engineering head of the Central measuring laboratory. The name of this design stands for the initials of the surname and names: and his son Vsevolod. But why is index “2”? Because at that moment Mikhail Filippovich already had experience building a similar machine, which he considered a test model on the way to the point their offspring.
 
The first snowmobile was built in 1968 – 1969 and consists of a small two-seater car with four leading ski and one caterpillar on the back in the middle. Overall dimensions of the sample, let’s call it GMI-1, was 5x2x1,7 (length, width, height) meters. The power unit was used from the ZAZ-966. Him the torque transmitted through the drive gear on the sprocket attached to the flanges of the axle shafts shortened rear axle, and with them, through the chain – drive sprocket original crawler unit.
 
Steering is used on its motorized, SZA. The body was made from aluminium and the design was similar to a small truck. Despite the apparent naivety of GMV-1, it was based on the basic technical ideas that are promoted in the second model, such as: basic structure -4 skis and caterpillar Central rear longitudinal position of the motor; a shortened automotive rear axle with two-way chain transmission to drive the tracks, the ski design.
Since 1970, work has begun on a new model ATV -GM-2.
 
As the power unit was chosen as a more powerful gasoline engine ZMZ-451М, interlocked with the transmission of the GAZ-21. This motor was put on the car UAZ-469 and had a number of valuable qualities: high torque at low rpm, maintainability, prevalence, possible to refuel gasoline And-76 and And-72. From the gearbox the torque is transmitted from the short cardan shaft GAZ-69 to a shortened rear axle UAZ-451 (GAZ-69). Further, through the double asterisk attached to the flanges of the axle shafts, the torque is transmitted by chains to sprockets, caterpillar tracks.
 
Clutch dry single plate with mechanical and hydraulic drive and gear shift – from the GAZ-21 “Volga”.
 
All the snowmobile was mounted on a tubular steel frame of the original design. It consists of pipes of various diameter (20 – 60 mm) with reinforcement at the mounting locations of the track and trapezoids rear cylinders additional parts. Overall the frame is simple and has a size of approximately 4500×1200 mm (length x width).
 
But perhaps the most eye-catching, this snowmobile is the case is the forward fuselage of a decommissioned training Sukhoi Il-28U. At the same time, like most of his brethren, he was in good condition, are quite suitable for further use.
 
Snowmobile GMV-2
 
Snowmobile GMV-2:
 
1 – cabin (forward fuselage of the Il-28U); 2 – fold access door (2 PCs); 3 – stand-stairs; 4 – caterpillar engine; 5 – drive chain mover; 6 – hydraulic lift adjust the position of the rear legs relative to the mover (2); 7 – wishbone rear suspension (2 PCs); 8 – spring cushioning of the front caterpillar tracks; 9 – reference of the rear ski (2); 10 – controlled front ski (2 PCs.); 11 – front suspension (from the car “Lada”, 2); 12 – apron (from the car GAS-52); 13 – travel light (from the GAZ-52,2 piece); 14 – rear tail and turn lights (GAZ-52,2 piece); 15 – front spot light (2 pieces); 16 — rear spot light; 17 – door of the engine compartment; 18 – reflector (2); 19 – rear lamp-marker, turn lights and brake (2 PCs.)
 
Prototype snowmobile GMV-2

 
Prototype snowmobile GMV-2
 
Frame
 
Frame:
 
1 – longitudinal (pipe Ø50,2); 2 – ridge (pipe Ø40); 3 – anterior arch (pipe Ø40); 4 – crossbar front rollbar (pipe Ø40); 5 – brace (pipe Ø40,2); 6 – back arc; 7 – Board niche mover (pipe Ø40,2); 8 – hanger (pipe Ø40, 3 pieces); 9 console mounting of propulsion (tube Ø40, 2 PCs.)

 
Tracked propulsion
 
Caterpillar mover:
 
1 – caterpillar (belt 315×13); 2 – Trak-sagaseta (steel sheet s2,5, kit – across the length of the belt); 3 – roller dlinnozvennye chain t=44,45 with restrictive corners throughout the length of the belt; 4 – guiding star tracks (z=33, t=44,45) with a pair of sprockets; 5 – maintaining-tensioning sprocket caterpillar (2); 6 – bracket fastenings of caterpillar tracks to the frame; 7 – frame caterpillar tracks (trumpet 080, 2 PCs.); 8 – spacer star tracks (z=33, t=44,45); 9 – support roller (3). 10 – base-tensioning sprocket (2); 11 – the mold frame (pipe 030, 4 pieces); 12 – drive shaft caterpillar tracks with a couple of stars; 13 – drive chain.
 
Tracked propulsion

 
Caterpillar mover.
 
 
Ski
 
Ski:
 
1 – snake (stainless steel, sheet s2); 2 – ridge (steel pipe Ø65, cut in half lengthwise); 3 – arc (steel pipe Ø40); 4 – brace poles (steel tube Ø30); 5 – solitaire (steel sheet s2, 3 PCs.)
 
Лыжа2

 
Ski.
 
The Il-28U was produced in 1950 and was in service until 1980.
 
M. F. Gundry bought a fuselage of the aircraft. Cutting off his bow, and began to fit it to your snowmobile as a cab. This had to change. In the first place has been removed the upper superstructure – speakers lantern of the instructor – it was not needed. Next, cut off the bottom of the fuselage to install it on the frame. At the rear of the snowmobile where it was assumed the location of the engine made by General narrowing of the fuselage to the centerline. The former inside the fuselage equipped cabin for four people (driver and three passengers) and a compartment for carrying up to 400 kg of cargo. Is the airplane instrument Board placed a panel with two circular instruments and the few necessary signs from the car “Victory”.
 
The frame of the snowmobile rather complex configuration, welded, made of steel pipes of various diameters.
 
A snowmobile operated by using the steering mechanism and a steering drive cars through a small steering wheel from the sidecar of SZA. Managed is the front of the skis (or wheels depending on the version).
 
The original is the shift linkage transmission. By car GAZ-21 engine was in the front, the gear lever was located on the steering wheel and pull through included transfer directly in the box. Now transmission is not located ahead of the driver, and 2.5 metres behind, in the engine compartment. Logical decision: to leave the aircraft the drive control mechanization of the wing! Under the right hand is the brake lever and lever mechanism hydropathy rear supports (ski or wheels) at the 3-position. Otherwise, the control is performed as in a normal car: the usual three pedals (gas, brake, clutch). Starting the engine – with ignition GAZ-21.
 
Because the machine was designed primarily for winter operation, the cabin was equipped with powerful heating system operating on diesel fuel with two radiators under the instrument panel, at the feet of the front crew members. The fuel tank for the heater located in the engine compartment and has a capacity of 27 liters. Hot air from the heater can be directed through a special five-foot sleeve in any part of the cabin and through the hole in the bulkhead on the engine to warm up before starting in cold weather. Even the motor can be heated by electric Heater, embedded in the oil pan of the engine.
 
Embarkation and disembarkation of the driver and passengers was made through the hatch in the roof from the left side on the special ladder, remove after planting rope from the driver’s seat. Also the roof on the right side was provided inside a lockable escape hatch for emergency escape from the car. Were studied and one emergency hatch in the floor, but it did not cut through.
 
On virgin snow, the car was quite comfortable. In no small part due to the independent front suspension borrowed together with the front subframe from the production car VAZ-2101. In 1930-50-ies in the sled depreciation was carried out at the expense of miestnosti
 
the elements of the case, or by installing between the frame and suspension ski shock-absorbing elements, springs, coil springs, hydraulic shock absorbers.
 
Virgin snow is considered a smoother and softer surface than the road, the depreciation needs to a lesser extent. Automotive suspension were installed with an eye on conversion for driving on the roads.
 
To the steering knuckles of “Zhiguli” was fixed landing gear aircraft type (initially only for the installation of the ski). In the original version, the width at the edges of the front ski was 2 meters, and back – 2.4 metres, however, later to reduce resistance to movement is the same width – 2.4 meters. While there’s still the option of rotation of the wheels.
 
The skis of the snowmobile are made of stainless steel sheet. This material is poorly to treatment, but it has a large margin of safety and withstands corrosion. By design, all skis are the same, open, almost flat. For increased durability reinforced welded longitudinal (spinal) pipe and piped on the perimeter of the top steel tube. The edges of the skis, rolled, and throughout their length on both sides is made of two laminated groove. The front ends of the skis are equipped with cables with springs that prevent them from burrowing into the snow. Size of the ski 1,9×0,26 meters.
 
The main driver of the vehicle is a tracked unit. It is located in the rear of the machine in the middle and is fastened rigidly to the frame. Caterpillar mover has an original design and is comprised of drive sprocket, idler wheel with a pair of springs (both sides), three pairs of rollers and two pairs of supporting rollers. Front shoulder of a caterpillar equipped with a pair of spring-loaded shock absorbers. The intermediate mechanism located on the axis of balance of the suspension with the possibility of free rotation, made in the form of a block of sprockets, chain gear associated with the power plant and the driving wheel caterpillar tracks. The caterpillar itself consists of a cloth rubber 10 mm thickness bolted thereto throughout the length of the transverse metal tracks-negoziazione. Caterpillar mover is protected by a patent, and it is not possible to give a detailed drawing, so we give only the scheme and photo.
For the installation of lighting was implemented the original idea of using parts of the front apron of the early GAZ-52. The wings were neatly trimmed and the grille, deprived of the Central part, connected by edges. It turned out very funny. That’s just the lighting, namely the dimensions and turns contrary to the rules is located not on the sides of the machine. But it was useless – after all, he thought, as a conqueror of the snowy virgin land, and there is no oncoming traffic, and headlights with tail lights is enough. But no spotlight in a snow storm and the dark night wasn’t enough, so snowmobiles are three things: turning two 100-watt spotlight (spotlight-seeker) are above the cabin, illuminating the path in the direction of motion, and one aft for the backlight behind the snowmobile.
 
Original can accept the idea of lifting-lowering of the rear of the ski. The process is carried out from the driver’s seat. The main cylinder creates pressure which is transmitted to the two small cylinders on the edges of the engine compartment. Those, in turn, lift or lower trapezoidal wishbone rear suspension attached to them ski. The purpose of this mechanism is the increased permeability and manoeuvrability of the machine. And this is achieved by the regulation of the specific pressure under the track (or sprocket) in the range from 0.01 MPa to
 
0.04 MPa using a hydraulic system propulsion in deep snow or muddy ground, creating maximum traction force when the optimum operating pressure. Due to the splines axle supports (rear and front) in the Parking lot of a snowmobile you can additionally change the ride height.
 
Ski option:
 
a) front suspension – from 185 to 490 mm;
 
b) rear suspension – from 205 to 540 mm.
 
Wheel stroke:
 
a) front suspension – from 173 to 450 mm;
 
b) rear suspension range from 190 to 465 mm.
 
Depending on weather conditions and the operation of the machine can be manufactured in the following variants:
 
1. snowmobile – on four skis (two in the front steer) and with a crawler gear. Speeds of up to 70 km/h;
 
2. Rover – on-four team pneumatomach (two front – driven) with pneumatic propulsion. Speed up to 80 km/h.
 
As the snowmobile machine was built in 1985 and this year were able to pass their first kilometers in the snow. It would seem that the dream is carried out, but as often happens with creative people, they can not stop and continue to improve his creation. And Mikhail Filippovich continued improving his snowmobile, having decided to make it a versatile machine, suitable for public roads, with the installation of wheels instead of skis.
 
This idea has been included in the terms of reference in the design and production of the postwar snowmobile “North-2” and Ka-30. Here only the diameter of the propeller was too big – and 2,93 2,73 meter, respectively. After the signing, the Soviet Union Vienna Convention on road traffic, 1968, which sets forth the vehicle width is not more than 2.5 meters, the roads to them were closed, as well as for a number of interesting and advanced domestic machines (as, for example, long-distance bus ZIL-127). There was another limitation for the snowmobiles, they were forbidden to move with a rotating screw in the settlements. Both the ban did not apply to the snowmobile GMV-2, it had a width of 2.4 metres on skis and had no screws, as it was driven by caterpillar. Therefore, an old idea was quite logical after the end of the main part of the work. It would seem that is easier – take off the ski and install on the axle the wheel, only the aircraft stands and car rims will deliver. Remake stand? Or… set the airplane wheels. So the snowmobile got brand new wheels with magnesium collapsible discs, rubber and drum brakes ВР600-00 of lightweight and durable alloy with hydraulic drive Czechoslovak production of “Vagit” dimension 600×180 from training aircraft L-29. Brakes designed to operate efficiently up to a speed of 165 km/h, stopping a multi-ton plane. And this is quite enough: according to the calculations of the speed of a snowmobile on wheels was not supposed to exceed 100 km/h and a weight of 1 ton. The complex and heavy track took one of the Central driving wheel of the plane Tu-134 size 930×305 mm and weight 350, and only 37 kg, without brakes. To improve the adhesion of the drive wheel with a dirt road in the offseason provided for the installation of snow chains. Direct replacement for the managed ski wheels excluded their turn. Because the front set of the extension shafts.
 
Had to work with lights: without signal lights on the road are not enough. To this end, over steered wheels wings were installed on which set blocks light “envelope-turn” in front and even brake in the back, and triangular reflectors on the back of the body.
 
So was solved the main tasks for the seasonal conversion of the snowmobile into the car. Search solutions and the realization of this ambitious task took 5 years. And finally, on 19 September 1990 snowmobile GMV-2 has successfully passed all tests and got the conclusion of the control and technical Commission, and was then registered in the traffic police with the receipt of the state rooms. And on 10 October 1990 was the conclusion of VOIR (all-Union society of inventors and innovators) with the rating of the machine 30, OOO rubles, and was insured in Gosstrakh this amount. So the snowmobile received official registration in Orenburg and became a full participant of traffic.
 
When designing snowmobile M. F., Gendrin and his son, V. M., Gendrin used 200 finished products from planes, helicopters and other decommissioned aircraft. The collapse of the Soviet Union, the resolution on business and trade, creation of numerous joint-stock companies and joint ventures has opened new opportunities to promote Hunting and create a series similar to his snowmobile machines.
 
Technical characteristics of the snowmobile
 
Length, m………………………………….. …….4,9*
Width, m……………………………….. …….2,4*
Height, m………………………………… …….2,1*
Engine………………………….ZMZ-451М**
Power, HP………………………….. …72 HP
The outer marker
turning radius, m…………………… ………6,5
Braking distance
at a speed of 40 km/h, m……………. …………8
(wheeled version)
Ground clearance, mm……………………….400 -600***
Weight, kg:
empty…………………….. ……1200
trailer………………………………… ……..900
Maximum speed, km/h:
on wheels……………………………… ……….80
skiing………………………………. ……….70
Gradeability, %……… ……….58
Volume of two fuel tanks, l…………. ……..150
The volume of the tank with diesel fuel, l……. ……….27
Fuel consumption per 100 km, l …….15,5
 
‘Skiing. On wheels – 4,72 m, 2.22 m and 2 m, respectively.
 
“‘The maximum torque – 17 kgsm at 2000 rpm.
 
“‘Changeable road conditions
 
First thing in the market conditions it was necessary to consolidate the invention that they was done. In 1989 an application was submitted for the invention of “half-track vehicle”, and in 1992 already for industrial design “Snowmobile cargo”. The cargo version was due to the stretches for a few meters on to the tail of the fuselage of the plane. This gave the possibility to produce snowmobiles with passenger Seating up to 10 people without serious alterations in the design.
 
The engine compartment of a snowmobile
 
The engine compartment of a snowmobile
 
Thrust from the aircraft and used to control the clutch and gearbox
 
Thrust from the aircraft and used to control the clutch and gearbox
 
Kinematic diagram of the powertrain of the snowmobile
 
Kinematic scheme of transmission of a snowmobile:
 
1 – power unit with clutch basket and transmission (GAS-21); 2 – propeller shaft (GAZ-21, shortened); 3 – main gear (GAZ-69); 4 – axle (GAZ-69, cropped); 5 – sprocket rear axle (t=19,05, z=44, 2); 6 – chain (t=19,05, 2); 7 – outer sprocket drive shaft track mover (t=19,05, z=16, 2); 8 – driving shaft caterpillar tracks; 9, the inner sprocket of the drive shaft of caterpillar tracks (t=19,05, z=12,2 PCs); 10 – caterpillar chain (t=19,5, 2); 11 – an asterisk of a drive of the toothed wheel tracks (t=19,05, z=12, 2); 12 – gauge cog-wheel tracks (t=42, z=33); 13 – axis of drive gears and sprockets of the caterpillar; 14 – the caterpillar.
 
Of the cab of a snowmobile (driver and passenger)

 
Of the cab of a snowmobile (driver and passenger)
 
Layout scheme of a snowmobile
 
Layout scheme of a snowmobile:
 
1 – driver seat; 2 – the front seat of the Navigator (passenger); 3 – passenger seat (2); 4 – partition; 5 – the power unit; 6 – rear axle powertrain; 7 – hydraulic reference skis or wheels (2 PCs); 8 – steering.
 
Machine. Hunting wheel option

 
Machine. Hunting wheel option
 
Wheel option (snowmobile, converted into all-terrain vehicle)
 
Wheel option (snowmobile, converted into a vehicle)
 
The next step was to attract sponsor and contractor search, able to establish small-scale production of GMV-2. The phase of the “great correspondence” began in 1989, with the first display of his invention at the exhibition VOIR, held in Orenburg from 5 to 9 October 1989, where he received many good reviews of ordinary art lovers and professionals. However, manufacturers were reluctant to put the design on the stream. A dozen industrial associations and factories during this time refused to produce for various reasons. Agree succeeded only in may 1991 with a small individual enterprise “Teflon” from Orenburg. Under the contract the firm has committed to delivering products to ensure the production area, inventory, and cash for the advertising and production of technical documentation. To ensure the start of the works were purchased at the airport 40 nose parts of the fuselage of the Il-28U. However, after August 1991, everyone was not up to the snowmobile. Spent the money, and “Teflon” closed the project. Already bought 40 of the fuselage was scrapped. Further search and research sponsors have not been successful and 15 years Snowmobiling was just standing under a canopy in the yard of a house on the outskirts of Orenburg.
 
At the end of August 2011 on the snowmobile learned enthusiasts of preservation of technics and took him to Moscow for participation in the exhibition “They built a car” dedicated to self-made cars of the Soviet period, the exhibition “Oldtimer gallery of Ilya Sorokin”, held in September 2011 in the exhibition complex Crocus city. After the exhibition, the unique snowmobile had taken place in military technical Museum in Chernogolovka near Moscow.
 
A. LAZAREV

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