HEAT WITHOUT FLAMEDrivers know: after long Parking of the car in the cold to start the engine. At low temperatures freeze even antifreeze! And those who use it for cooling water and drains it at night, lose the opportunity to fill the radiator with hot water — burst frozen in the cold of the cylinder head and the block, and the boiling water almost immediately freezes, forming ice plugs.
Sometimes because of this the driver has the clock not to turn off the engine, which leads to wasteful consumption of fuel, reduction of engine life. However, in the morning, the driver still has to warm up the transmission, spreading and sometimes under machine a fire.
The situation is much easier when using the heaters, which with a small flow of fuel supports the engine temperature at a level necessary for its launch.
This flameless combustion heaters.
Their principle of operation is that a pair of liquid fuel — gasoline or alcohol — are oxidized with air oxygen in the presence of a catalyst directly on the surface of the heating element; the heat is generated not by combustion, but by a chemical reaction.
The scheme of this “stove” is shown in Fig. It consists of a fuel reservoir with the neck and stopper; a burner in which is embedded a heating element, a frame and two metal mesh with a lining of asbestos wool impregnated with the catalyst; asbestos or cloth wick, which is fed from fuel tank to the burner (cotton wick and lower brackets of the heating element for protection from the erosion of the parts a layer of asbestos wool, not impregnated catalyst).
The upper part of the wick of a cord of asbestos expanded uniformly under the net, the lower part should be located on the bottom of the tank. The free space in the tank can be filled with cotton wool.
When you install the heating element in the burner housing between the frame and its seat is placed a gasket of 5 mm of wire wrapped Shnurov asbestos.
1 — tube-skid, 2 — body of the tank, a 3 — latch tension lock, 4 — axle clips, 5 — stand with ears for a castle, 6 — a tension clip, 7 — cover, 8 stud, 9 — stick, 10 — nichrome wire, 11 — asbestos wool impregnated catalyst 12 — presser frame 13 is a metal mesh, a 14 — frame of the heating element, 15 — gasket 16 — tube neck tank, 17 — neck 18 — asbestos wool, 19 wick, 20 — internal bulkhead, a 21 — torch body.
A mirror heating element (b*e).

The heater should have a metal cover, which is worn on top of the burner, stopping her work.
Filling fuel in the tank, make sure it does not fall on its external surface, carefully wipe the tank.
“Start up” the heater should be carried out away from the machine, at a distance of not less than 25 metres. To ignite his need in the following way. The mesh heating element is filled with 50-100 ml of fuel and ignited with a match. Soon the flame goes out, the heated surface starts a leak of fuel vapor from the tank, which matured under the influence of air oxygen in the presence of a catalyst to oxidize, gradually increasing the temperature of the flameless combustion occurs.
It is usually immediately covers the working area of the burner: heating the lesions grow gradually with increasing temperature. If you do not interrupt the process, it will last until then, until you develop all the fuel.
The performance of the heater depends on the composition of the catalyst and the area of the burner and can range from 1800 to 10 thousand kcal/hour. The working surface thus heats up to 400…800°C With fuel consumption 0.25 l/h per 0.1 m2 area of the heating element. Despite such a high temperature, the heater is fireproof, and even getting to the burner of a gasoline or oil does not cause their ignition. But when installing the heater under the engine, covered with a warm cover, make sure that the case or its mounting straps do not fall on a heated surface.
For the manufacture of the heating element is used long-fibre asbestos. He soaked for one hour with a solution of cobalt-chromium catalyst containing: 27,3% Soo; 72.1% Of Cr2O3 and 0.6% MnO2 or, much better, with a solution of chloride of platinum (though it is an expensive reagent). The first is made of pure reagent dvuhromovokislyj ammonium, nitrate manganese, cobalt and concentrated ammonia. 100 g of asbestos need 1000 cm3 of solution. In this case, the asbestos is deposited chromate cobalt. The mass is dried at 100-120°, teasing and calcined for 3 hours at a temperature of 350…400°C. the result is a crumbly, dark mass of asbestos. It is placed a uniform layer between wire meshes of 0.3 g/cm2. To the burner surface 10 DTS2 you need about 300 g of the catalyst.
During operation of the heater and the work surface is protected from the ingress of water, oil and dirt. The technology in the manufacture of the heating element and careful handling will ensure reliable operation of the device during several seasons.
I. USENALIEV, engineer

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