IN THE SKY — WITH THE ENGINE BEHIND

IN THE SKY WITH A MOTOR.In the late 80-ies of the family of light vehicles with a mechanical drive (from motorcycles and snowmobiles to ALS) enriched by a new species ultralight aircraft, received the official (according to the classification of the FAI) the name of the paraglider. However, in colloquial speech it is often called a paramotor (PM), implying underneath the whole apparatus. The word itself was born out of the brand one of the European firms.

Structurally, the paramotor is a self-contained unit with engine and propeller in a protective enclosure, with built-in fuel system having a device for starting and motor control.
 
Functionally the same — it’s the power plant for the glider, which allows him to fly horizontally more or less flat ground without the use of air flow.
The unique properties of PM — small flight speed, easy to control, easy landing sites, the lowest among all motor LA noise — best reveals when air walks in good weather. In this regard, in recent years, Europe has witnessed a real boom paramotor. To a much lesser extent (due to the high cost of foreign satellites: 6-16 thousand dollars for a set), but nevertheless evident interest in the PM and in the post-Soviet space.
 
Multiple winner of the CIS Cup paragliding Makarov with paramotor
 
Multiple winner of the CIS Cup paragliding Makarov with paramotor “TATUS 120”.
 
Paramotor
 
A Paramotor “TATUS 120”:
 
1 —arcs are removable (AMg6, tube 26×2), 2 — section collapsible fencing propeller (AMg6, pipe 12×1), 3 — belts, tensioning (tape LTK-44-1600, clasp type “burdock”), 4 — damper, 5 — frame, 6 — motor, 7 — carburetor, 8 — fuel tank (canister), 9 — carabiners attaching the free ends of the glider and harness of the pilot, 10 — screw air 11 — system of a suspended pilot, 12 — lever engine control (ORES), 13 — belay loop (tape LTCP-26-600), 14 — pin engine mount, 15 — bracket (45 steel, angle 50x50x5), 16 — shock 17 — bolt M8 18 — bolt M6, 19 — basket gas tank (D16T, strip 20×2), 20 pin removable arcs and fencing (Х18Н9Т, rod Ø5), 21 — ring, spring, 22 — the line.
 

 
 
The power plant (propeller and fuel tank is not shown)
 
The power plant (propeller and fuel tank is not shown):
 
1 —engine, 2 — bracket of the driven pulley (D16T, stove sl8), 3 — upper bracket attachment points of the engine to the frame (steel 45, a 32×32 area), 4 — shock absorber (3 PCs), 5 — starter 6 — the case of the ignition unit, 7 —damper, 8 — starter handle, 9 — pulley driven, 10 — a pulley is a leading, 11 — carburetor (right side not shown), 12 — stud M10 engine mounts (steel 45,4 PCs.) 13 — support bracket (45 steel, strip 15×1,5).
 
Reducer propeller

 
Gearbox propeller:
 
1 — air screw, 2 — washers (ХІ8Н9Т, sheet s1 ,5), 3 — bolt М8х20,4 — bushing spacer (steel 45), 5 — bearing 180204 (2 piece), 6 — М8х70 screw (4 PCs), 7,13,15 — washer grower 8 — pulley driven, 9 — strap 0-670,10 — a pulley is a leading, 11 split cone (steel 45), 12 — washer 14 — bolt M 10×20, 16 —bolt М8х55 (4 PCs.) 17 — bracket, 18,19 — М8х35 bolt and washer grower 20 to the axis of the propeller 21, the shaft of the motor, 22 — motor housing.

 
Arm motor control
 
Handle the engine control:
 
1 — switch nut, 2 — top cover, 3 — motor breaker (KM1-8), 4 — wire PVC-0,5 (L1700), 5 — wire PVC-0,5 (L100, attach to ground screw М3х6 with nut), 6 — film, self-adhesive, 7 — belt ORE on hand (a band LTCP-26-600), 8 — arm (AMg6, pipe 10×1,5), 9 — bracket (AMg6, sheet s2), 10 — stud (D16,Ø3. 5,2 PCs), 11 —the lever axle (bolt М4х18 with self-locking nut), 12 — case (AMg6, pipe 22×2, L155), 13 — sealing of cable 14 cover, lower 15 — bushing crimp, 16 — additional sheath (PVC, tube Ø0,8, L50), 17 — shell top (heat shrink tape or insulating tape), 18 — termination of the cable and the shell regular, 19 — battery, 20 — the conduit(from the carb К65Д, L1350)A 21 —rope (steel or copper wire Ø0,8, L1450).
 
Muffler (all parts made of steel 08KP)

 
Silencer (all parts made of steel 08KP):
 
1 — partition (s1), 2 — nozzle output (tube 20×1), 3 — housing (sheet 1 s), 4 — input pipe (pipe 48×5), 5 — flange (sheet s4).
 
Frame

 
Frame:
 
1 — front (tube 26×2), 2 — pin-retainer fence screws 3 insert the coupling (tube 22×2), 4 — cross member (tube 18×1.5), 5,6 — crossmember engine mounts (D16T, strip s8), 7,11 — arcs and cross fencing screw (tube 12×1), 8 — base (tube 26×2), 9 — stopper, 10 — strut (tube 22×2).

 
Our team, bringing together enthusiasts of ALS and later named Arey, started PM in 1992. The first prototype unit was tested in a year, but, despite the huge amount of rework, its performance sexploitation features were completely unusable. It was followed by a series of two devices with the already improved performance, but still did not meet us consumer properties. However, in 1994, the work was awarded a diploma of all-Russian festival of ALS.
 
First PM with acceptable consumer properties were constructed in 1995 under the name “TATOOSH 1.2”. His improvement continued, after a series of major improvements the new variant is called “TATUS 120”. Thus, to make a good paramotor, it took four years and several unsuccessful samples!
 
And Samodelkin, who expect from one time to build something to fly, drive and swim, you can only sympathize.
 
“TATUS 120” — the third generation of paramotors, the main parameters which were defined when creating the experimental sample. Specifications and properties allow to use it for pleasure flights. It is also well suited for competition and training flights.
The defining characteristic of the series is the diameter of the propeller is 1.2 m. Using a propeller of such a large size increases the thrust of the device (with the same power engine) that significantly reduces the run-up to increase the climb rate. And due to the fact that at cruising the engine runs on less power, reduces noise and fuel consumption, increasing the resource. This diameter is optimal for multi-purpose paramotor. A further increase of the propeller gives only a small increase in traction, but the fence begins to interfere with the filling of the dome of the glider, increasing the weight and torque. Apparently, the 1.3 m — a reasonable limit for the propeller. Not very promising and paramotors with a smaller diameter: the experimental sample with the screw 1 m were not used because reduction in weight of 1 kg is not compensated for the drop pull 5 kg and increase of noise level.
 
Parameters “TATUS 120” correspond to the most popular foreign PM. Typically this single device weighing 18 — 25 kg two-stroke single-cylinder engine of air cooling with the capacity of 15-18 HP, belt drive gearbox, fuel capacity 5 — 10 l and screw diameter 1 — 1.3 m. This paramotor develops a static thrust of 40 — 60 kg and is focused on entertaining the pilots by weight 60 – 100 kg.
 
Unified under engine frame and fence provides installation of the paramotor engines of different types that allows you to create a range of vehicles close to the destination, but with the characteristics, best corresponding to the requests of individual pilots. Currently, the main motor is A-170 (capacity — 15 HP, weight —
 
13.3 kg). Good examples are the option most common worldwide SOLO 210 engine (18 HP, 10.2 kg).
 
We would not make a good paramotor, without solving the problem of the engine — right Patriotic as there was no and no. The only real way out was to manufacture their own. But if designing and making a motor from scratch, the problems related to this will destroy idea. Therefore, A-170 are completely original, only Carter and the body of the plug. Cylinder-piston group with some boost and a crankshaft borrowed from a motorcycle “IZH-Ju-5”. The advantages of the details of “Jupiter” should include high and stable quality and also relatively low cost and wide availability. Disadvantages — relatively large for such a cubic mass, reduced cooling efficiency of the cylinder head due to the location of the ribs transversely to the axis of the crankshaft and the main for batch production disadvantage — the “pairing” of these parts. Which is why half of our paramotors muffler is located on the right tank and the carburetor on the left and the other half Vice versa. The recoil starter and electronic ignition — chainsaw “URAL”. All purchased parts used in the engine, are checked for compliance with higher requirements for high-loaded aircraft engine.
 
Currently the engine is fully communicated. It can be installed on any vehicle with aerodiesel. Despite nevadalas specific parameters, the range of indicators it is just great. However, the underlying model is constantly being improved, there are various equipment options. Design allows you how to install the screw directly on the crankshaft, and the use of gearboxes with different ratios.
 
To the frame of the paramotor engine is mounted on three shock absorbers, made in the form of rubber bushes. Well-matched the scheme of fastening of motor and damping allow you to completely get rid of the vibration transmission from the engine to the pilot.
 
To reduce engine noise utilizes efficient dual chamber muffler directly to the exhaust pipe. This seemingly simple element is subjected to large thermal and vibration loads, and its design and manufacturing technology demanded a thorough debugging. Because of its small weight and dimensions of the silencers of this type are installed on most foreign paramotors. But there are some models with tuned exhaust systems that significantly improve Modesto-economic indicators two-stroke engines. The same system will be used for the future model, as first experienced a sample of that increased static thrust of 2 kg and significantly reduced noise.
 
The large diameter screw requires a lower speed. To do this, most foreign firms use the reducer with a poly-V belt which has high efficiency and service life, but is expensive and requires very high precision and purity of manufacture of the pulleys. A-170 is equipped with a traditional 3-strand V-belt gear with domestic belts. Gear ratio of 1:2.5 is optimal for matching screw with a diameter of 1.2 m with a motor that develops maximum power with 6 — 7 thousand rpm, providing the speed of the end blades not more than 170 m/s and at a maximum cruising speed of 100— 120 m/s. the Influence of this parameter on the magnitude of noise generated by paramotor, large. So, already mentioned a paramotor with the meter screw gear ratio 1:1.7 and the same motor was more noisy just due to the large peripheral speed and unit load for sweeping the area.
 
“TATUS 120” tank is installed at the side of the engine directly above the carburetor, and the fuel is fed by gravity, which allowed to refuse from expensive and unreliable fuel pump Tickler pear, reducing due to this mass. Fire gravity schemes (by the way, widespread abroad), greatly exaggerated, as no detail of the engine is not heated to the ignition temperature of gasoline (630°C). In addition, the location of the tank allows to control the amount of fuel in flight (a rarity for paramotors), and an internal crane to remove it when transporting the PM and adjust the carb without having to drain the fuel (which is gasoline with an octane number not lower than 91 mixed with oil is SUPER-2T in the ratio of 50:1).
 
There are high demands for oil; they are related to the working conditions of indigenous bearings of the crankshaft and the bottom location of the spark plug, the spark gap which can be closed by coke particles or filled with sediment after Parking. Now good oil is not a deficiency, but rather the high cost of kompensiruet small flow rate. When using a motor on the vehicle cylinder up allowed the use of oil МС20 in the ratio of 25:1.
 
The A-170 is installed carb К65Д. Well showed itself, and other brand K68; but since it is now available only in versions for four-stroke motorcycle “Ural”, it is necessary to significantly increase the cross section of the nozzles. The disadvantage of all domestic carburetors — leaking float chamber, not allowing it to PM transport horizontally, do not drain the gasoline.
 
It should be noted that from a homemade motor you can not demand of aircraft reliability, so that in the event of its failure should always be able a safe landing (reserve parachute). This rule is legislated for flights on non-certified aircraft, which are all ALS.
 
All units are “TATUS 120” mounted on a durable frame made out of light pipes (aluminum alloy AMg6). Removable fence screw can be disassembled into four parts; it is made out of the same pipe, but smaller diameter. For the individual components used in alloys D16T and АД31ТН. Mounting dimensions of the frame and the fence is rigidly specified by the slipway in which they are welded.
 
The lower part of the frame forms a secure base that allows the paramotor to be in a strong position on the earth at all stages of the flight preparation, during transportation and storage. The strength and shape of the frame is such that it is able to protect your paramotor from damage when attempts takeoff or landing.
 
In actual operation it is impossible to avoid mechanical damage to the surface of the frame and especially the fence. In such circumstances, the best appearance, regardless of length of service provides colorless etching, giving the metal parts of the pure aluminum color. All steel parts of PM deposited a protective and decorative coating, usually cadmium. A colorless anodic oxidation of the reducer pulleys not only gives them a nice appearance, but also enhances their durability.
 
At the start of the slings of paraglider freely slide on the Hoop fence screw, therefore, the surface of the Hoop should be absolutely smooth. Strained slings are much loaded and elastically deform the fence, so its outer diameter by 200 mm greater than the diameter of the screw. The main space of the fence is covered with a grid of fishing line, podernuta through the holes in the tubes; it protects slings from accidental contact with the screw.
 
The propeller is two-bladed, made of pine, painted with epoxy varnish. The low density of pine trees provides a minimum mass, and the strength of the wood screw is sufficient to provide maximum comfort in flight. The suspension system includes a comfortable chair with a solid seat, covered with a layer of polyethylene foam, and upholstered headboard. When disassembling the suspension of the paramotor easy to remove; on the main unit at the same time remain shoulder straps and back cushion, which is convenient for carrying. The seat is fixed to the tubular removable rails firmly fixed to the frame. They also provided four mounting holes of the dome allows you to choose the optimal position of the paramotor relative to the dome for the best use of thrust and provide comfortable position to the pilots of different weights.
Paragliding and suspension are attached to the paramotor quick coupling, self-locking D-shaped carabiners. The reliability of this connection is provided by responsible safety loops with separate carabiners, directly connecting dome and suspension system.
 
The most important property of the paramotor, paraglider inherited from the transportability. Disassembled “TATUS 120” will fit in the trunk of the car, it is possible to take Luggage on the plane or train and take with you on vacation. To assemble it, you will need no more than 10 minutes and one wrench for the four bolts securing the propeller. Quarter of the fence are brought together textile Velcro. Finally, the fence and the arc of the suspension are fixed two studs. For details of fencing are provided bag, and handbag design-the case of the main unit allows you to carry a paramotor Packed in the back.
 
Although the engine can fly on a normal paragliders, it is better to use a special, calculated under the motor. They are characterized by high strength, high reliability designs and connecting links, a more convenient location brakes. As a rule, paragliders are certified in the standard category with an aerodynamic quality 5 — 7 and with an area of 26 — 32 m2.
 
Management the powered paraglider full — time, two brakes, which way you want to rotate, the brake and pulled. Torque tries to turn the aircraft to the right, and to compensate for it, have to pull the opposite brake. On the landing before touching the ground gently pull both the glider and almost stops.
 
All motor control is concentrated in the arm, fasten the strap on the left wrist. It allows you to adjust the engine by pressing the fingers on the lever, connected to a cable in a flexible sheath with the throttle valve of the carburetor. Within reach of the thumb is the button to turn off the ignition. Easy glider allows for 4-5 days of training from an experienced instructor to learn to fly for anyone.
 
An experienced pilot to take off even in a stiff breeze requires not more than 25 m run. It is possible to use the pad, completely unusable for any aircraft with wheel chassis. The mileage on landing does not exceed 5 m. If a steady wind is blowing force 4 — 5 m/s, the takeoff and landing reminiscent of a helicopter, that is.
 
Speed characteristics of the powered paraglider depend on the characteristics of the dome. For modern multi-purpose domes typical speed range from 25 to 40 km/h And the flight in calm weather with the speed of the pedestrian a few dozen meters from the ground gives an indescribable pleasure.
 
A. PILMAN,
Krasnoyarsk

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