A LOCOMOTIVE WITHOUT STEAM AND SMOKE

THE LOCOMOTIVE WITHOUT STEAM AND SMOKEThe first domestic locomotive ВЛ19. In the late 1920-ies in our country began the so-called industrialization, whose main objective was to lift the industry to the level of the leading industrial powers of the world. A special role in this process was given to the reconstruction of the railway transport, which was in a deplorable condition — effect like the effects of the Civil war and the growing shortage of qualified personnel that led to the stagnation in the development of railway equipment.

 
In the current environment, has planned a number of measures aimed at the modernization of railway transport, which was to become the basis of industrialization of the country. In particular, the planned strengthening of the railway lines, the increase in axial loads of the rolling stock and equipment automatic hitch, and all the cars are auto brakes replacement to operate two-axle wagons on four-axle with increased carrying capacity and production of fundamentally new locomotives and electrification of Railways. By the way, the electrification projects was developed in pre-revolutionary Russia, however, realized they were not.
 
In 1926 electrified non-network nkps railway line Baku — Sabunchi — Surakhany, where it was openly railcar movement.
First, in accordance with new plans-electrified sections of the Moscow — Mytischi Northern railway and Khashuri — Zestafoni Transcaucasian railway. The first, which used a voltage of 1500 volts was calculated only for railcar traction suburban trains, while long distance trains were served by steam locomotives.
 
On the Transcaucasian railroad was transferred to electric traction of heavy Surami mountain pass climbs a slope of up to 0,029 and curves with a radius up to 150 meters.
 
The first domestic locomotive ВЛ19
 
The first domestic locomotive ВЛ19
 
 
To electrifying the area was used by steam locomotives type “Verl”, which fits in well with the curves of small radius, however, these locomotives worked on the pass in 1872, was badly worn. Attempt to replace them with new steam locomotives power plant failed — although they were powerful locomotives, “Verl” and hitch weight was almost the same, but the hard base of EC were significantly more and this is why they fit worse in a rounded way. For this reason, drive trains had double or even triple the thrust, which led to excessive smoke located in this area 4-kilometer-long railway tunnel.
 
The intention of the transition to electric phase Surami pass was in full accordance with the electrification plan, according to which the mountain rivers of the Kura and the Rioni was supposed to build a hydroelectric plant.
 
Work on the electrification began in 1928. It was decided to power the electrical systems of locomotives to carry out a constant current, allowing to organize the recovery of electricity. Working voltage in the contact network identified in the 3000 volt at the same current load on a network remained within the acceptable limits, the benefit of insulating materials at the time allowed the equipment to operate at the selected voltage.
Simultaneously with the electrification of the section of Khashuri — Zestafoni produced amplification paths, which would use locomotives with axle load of the vehicle 22.
 
As domestic enterprises have not yet had the experience of construction of electric locomotives, to operate on the Transcaucasian railroad locomotives ordered by foreign companies — American “General electric” and the Italian “Tecnomasio brown Boveri”.
 
The first came on the Transcaucasian railroad American locomotives. However, the purchase of a significant number of these locomotives was very expensive, so it was soon decided to release them in domestic enterprises. At the same time to produce electric locomotives was assumed as for American license, and domestic projects.
 
The first Soviet electric locomotive ВЛ19-01, built at the Moscow plant
 
The first Soviet electric locomotive ВЛ19-01, built at the Moscow plant “Dynamo” in 1932
 
Locomotive series ВЛ19-61
 
Electric locomotive series ВЛ19-61
 
Edition license Сс11 locomotive, which is designed to practically not differed from the American prototype C10, took place in 1932.
 
Design of electric domestic design was entrusted to a group of engineers of the Moscow plant “Dynamo”, headed by E. S. Asadovym and X. Y. Bystritskiy. In a very short time “the Dynamo” has managed to create a locomotive, differs significantly from the American C10, although that and the other was the same wheel arrangement traction motors, the control circuit and the possibility of recovery.
 
As for differences, they were much more. So, the body of the locomotive was completed welded, not riveted, and the equipment was grouped into a common high-voltage Cabinet. Significantly different from the U.S. unusual-looking angular levers brake lever transfer and is vertical brake cylinders. Sandboxes mounted on the bogies of the locomotive could apply the sand under each wheel. In addition, the designers have provided a return device for trucks, which delivered them from “whipping” on straight sections of road. The electric locomotive compared to the C10 had a smaller base and length.
 
Domestic electric locomotive, in contrast to the “American” C10 license Сс11, received the designation in accordance with the nomenclature 1931, which was prescribed in the letter part of the series to use the initials of the party and state leaders of the country, and in digital — the load from the axis on the rails in tonnes (by the way, by the time series in accordance with the nomenclature of 1931 already had locomotives ФД20 and IS20). At “the Dynamo” electric letter part of a series of steel initials of Vladimir Lenin, but the digital part of the series approved a number of “114”, corresponding to the total weight of locomotive in tons. However, this designation was the electric only during its construction, into operation the same year he joined under the designation ВЛ19.
 
Building ВЛ19-01 was completed in 1932, but its serial production began two years later. The fact that in the design and manufacture of this locomotive was made many design and technological errors that within two years it was redesigned and rebuilt almost from scratch.
 
In particular, when welding the locomotive body was hurt so that he had to gather again, and in the future when building used exclusively riveted. Also had to abandon the corner of the rocker lever brake gear and run it the same as “American” C10.
 
Low recovery efficiency due to the small coupling weight of the locomotive and the clutter of the bodywork of the locomotive electrical equipment forced designers to radically alter his wiring.
 
General view of the locomotive ВЛ19
 
General view of the locomotive ВЛ19
 
General view of the locomotive ВЛ19:
 
1—paleocortical; 2 — limit sleeve of the brake lines; 3 — buffer; 4—buffer lantern PB-24; 5—column with rosettes bielectronic compounds; 6—grab handle for lifting onto the roof; 7—spotlight PL-45; 8—pantograph J-4; 9—vent for air outlet, the cooling pushtorsky resistors; 10—main tank; 11—a nameplate of an electric locomotive (of the plant “Dynamo”); 12 end sleeve nourishing line; 13—sand injector; 14—a sand bunker of the 1st wheelset; 15—sand pipe; 16—axle equipment; 17—spring; 18—spring suspension; 19—reverse spring; 20—the sand bunker 1st and 2nd wheelset; 21 —brake lever transmission; 22—end spring; 23—balancer brake lever transfer; 24—adjusting screw brake lever transfer; 25—brake master cylinder; 26—lubricating tube pivot site; 27—return device; 28—the rating plate of the Kolomna plant; 29—louver air intake for cooling of traction motors; 30—louver air intake for cooling pushtorsky resistors; 31—pull hand brakes; 32—vent pipe traction engine; 33—Typhon; 34—the front door of the cabin; 35—ladder to climb to the top; 36—windshield wiper; 37—screw coupling

 
The elimination of the detected shortcomings have led to the fact that for the second locomotive ВЛ19 differed significantly from the first.
 
So, at the expense of elongation at 100 mm of the sidewalls of bogie frames the total length of the serial ВЛ19 increased to 16 218 mm. The electrical equipment is collected by a scheme designed by the engineer G. V. Mr. Ptitsyn for passenger locomotive ПБ21. The peculiarity of this scheme was correctly implemented system of rheostatic electric braking, allowing the locomotive to slow down without the use of air brakes and, unlike regenerative braking, even in the absence of voltage in the contact network, and almost to a complete stop of the whole.
 
On ВЛ19 mounted traction motors, DPA-340A, differing from those used in Сс11, as modified by the scheme of air cooling. At the “Dynamo” electric locomotive used fans driven by dynamotor DD-60, which was driven generators control DN-3, is designed to supply control circuits or charge batteries, and also served as a voltage divider, half reduces operating voltage in the contact system voltage of 1500 volts needed to power the engines compressors.
 
The electrical circuit of the locomotive allowed it to operate in three connections of traction motors. When seriesno connecting all six motors were connected in series, in series-parallel — two parallel branches of the three motor each, and in parallel in three branches, two motor.
 
At each connection engines produced rheostat start, wherein the starting resistor is gradually withdrawn from the circuit of traction motors. Position, in which the inrush resistors were removed completely, designed for long-drive and therefore was called “running”.
 
When rheostat braking is applied the motors are connected according to the scheme, the appropriate parallel type.
 
Faulty motors may be disconnected in pairs (1st — 2nd and 5th — 6th motors) or individually (3rd and 4th motors).
 
Pushtorsky resistors consisted of boxes assembled from cast-iron elements, which were located directly under the trolleys. Cooling of the resistors is natural.
 
Despite the fact that ВЛ19 was not intended to work on difficult sections of Railways, decided to stop production of electric locomotives Сс11 and the beginning of production instead ВЛ19.
 
The first production locomotives ВЛ19 was sent to the depot “Nikopol” Catherine railroad to work on the site Zaporozhye — Dolgintsevo in ample light conditions.
 
Electric locomotives ВЛ19
 
The electric locomotives ВЛ19
 
By 1933, electrified stretch Moscow — Mytischi extended to the station in Zagorsk. In this regard, it was decided to replace the steam locomotives with electric locomotives. However, here the operating voltage was 1500 volts, which necessitated the alteration ВЛ19 mixed power, allowing the locomotive to operate at voltages as 1500, and 3000 volts. The first such locomotives began in 1935 ВЛ19-27 and ВЛ19-30, upgraded the specialists of the plant “Dynamo” and depot “Moscow III”.
 
Behind them, the “Dynamo” on a special project created electric ВЛ19-41 engines of the DC-1A operating voltage 750 volts — this locomotive could only work at the voltage in the contact network of 1500 volts.
 
A few instances of “dual-mode” locomotives made for “Dinamo” during the entire period of production ВЛ19. Just before the great Patriotic war was built eighteen “dual-mode” ВЛ19 and converted nine.
 
“Dual-mode” locomotives were equipped with switches for voltages, similar in design to a brake switch or the reverse, that allowed to work with four types of connection of traction motors. In addition to the circuits of traction motors, switch this was commotional circuit auxiliary machines and furnaces for heating, transferring them with a voltage of 1500 volts to 3000 volts.
 
Electric dual voltage was operated at the Yaroslavl railway, selected in 1936 from Northern Railways, on the line of the Mineral Waters — Kislovodsk, Ordzhonikidze railway, electrified in 1936, and at Baku the host of the Transcaucasian railway. All these railway lines were electrified at a voltage of 1500 volts, and the area of Zagorsk, Aleksandrov, Yaroslavl railway — for a voltage 3000 volts.
 
The main share of the issue ВЛ19 was 3000-volt locomotives.
In 1935 was electrified section Kandalaksha — Apatity, Kirov railway in November 1935 the first part of it spent electric ВЛ19-40.
 
After electrification in 1936, the section of Zestafoni — Samtredia (easier compared to the Surami pass), his service was sent to the electric ВЛ19.
 
In the same year at the 37 km electrified extended plot Kirov railway from Apatite to Kandy, and on 1 April 1937 the locomotive VL 19-22 conducted a train from Belovo to Usaty, initial section 142 km of electrified line Belovo — Novokuznetsk, Tomsk railway.
 
The last locomotives ВЛ19 (from No. 129 to No. 145), after the experiment with VL 19-123, was equipped with two motor-fans DV-18/3000 is doubled, driven dynamotor DD-60. In addition, the number of positions rheostatic braking, they had increased to 20, which increased smoothness of operation of rheostatic brakes.
 
In the 1930-ies was electrified heavy mountain sections of Railways, however, operate on them ВЛ19 was difficult — it is more consistent with lowland conditions. That is why in 1938, the factory “Dinamo” has developed the project of the new locomotive, representing the modernized Сс11, and the production ВЛ19 was discontinued.
 
Despite this, the designers had the idea of equipping ВЛ19 regenerative braking system. For the experiment used ВЛ19-38, but the remake it only confirmed the disappointing results of the tests ВЛ19-01. After a short stint on the Transcaucasian railroad ВЛ19-38 was again converted to the rheostatic braking.
 
Continued to improve “dual-mode” locomotives. So, in 1940 ВЛ19-27 was converted to a much more simple and reliable scheme of engineer Z. M. Dubrovsky.
 
With the beginning of world war II part VL-19 from the depot “Moscow” and “Moscow III” and all the locomotives from depot “Nikopol” was mostly evacuated to Tomsk, Perm and Sverdlovsk Railways.
 
Locomotive series ВЛ19-55
 
Electric locomotive series ВЛ19-55
 
The same ВЛ19 that remained in the Kirov railroad, honorably took the test in wartime. However, they needed to be to protect the locomotive crew from splinters, cockpit electric sheathed with steel sheets.
 
During the war, the electrification of the local Railways continued, although not as rapidly. By November 1945, he completed the electrification of 161-km stretch of the Chrysostom — Chelyabinsk South Ural railway, and to work in the depot “Chrysostom” was given the electric ВЛ19. The traffic on this stretch was opened by the locomotive ВЛ19-138, evacuated to the Kirov railroad.
 
In 1947, at the Novocherkassk electric locomotive plant were repaired received damaged and dismantled locomotives ВЛ19 — they are equipped with traction motors, DPA-400Б different from created at the Novocherkassk electric locomotive plant for Vl22m engines DPA-400 other ventilation system, and the wiring of the locomotive was performed on the sample ВЛ19-27. All of the refurbished locomotives received a series ВЛ19м and rooms with 187 at 197. These locomotives were received at the depot “Zlatoust”.
 
After the war, began production of a new, more powerful electric locomotive Vl22m, and by the end 1940-x of years in the depot “Zlatoust”, “Belovo” and of the Sverdlovsk railway begins a gradual replacement ВЛ19 on Vl22m.
 
In 1957 was electrified section Klin — Kalinin Oktyabrskaya railway. Before this event, on the route Moscow — Klin was only used railcar traction, and freight and passenger trains ran steam. Following the extension of the electrified section to the Kalinin began the translation of the entire site to electric traction. To do this, in the depot “Moscow-passenger” and “Khovrino” were transferred to the electric ВЛ19м and ВЛ19 (mostly with the Sverdlovsk railway). Locomotives-veterans worked here until 1962, and after completing the full electrification of the Moscow — Leningrad they were replaced by VL-23.
 
Operation ВЛ19 lasted until the mid-1970s years were gradually replaced passenger locomotives ЧС2 Czechoslovak-built and dual-system locomotives of domestic buildings ВЛ61д and ВЛ23.
 
In the operation of locomotives ВЛ19 in their design has made many changes. So, stairs for climbing the roof on the front of the cab, made in the form of brackets, ladders were replaced by folding stairs that is interlocked with the lifting mechanism of current collectors. On some locomotives, the sand bunkers were moved from the trucks to the body on the model of Vl22m. Accordingly, changed the flow of sand he moved now under the first, third, fourth and sixth wheel pair.
 
The introduction of the coupler to domestic railroads began in 1935, but ВЛ19 long was produced with a spiral gear. After the war and until the end of 1950-ies of the screw coupling was widely replaced by automatic, after which the locomotives were withdrawn traditional for those times buffer.
 
To date there are three electric ВЛ19 they all became locomotives-monuments established in Kandalaksha, Chrysostom and Khashuri. In the city you can see the first electric — ВЛ19-01. However, the original welded housing before the war were replaced by riveted, same as serial ВЛ19.
 
Technical characteristics of the locomotive ВЛ19
 
Rod slujby…………………………………………………………………………………………..gruzoperevozki
Axial formula………………………………………………………………………………………………………..So+So
View toka…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..postoyanny
Supply voltage, V……………………………………………………………………………………………….3000
The total mass, t……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..120
Power in the time mode, kW……………………………………………………………………………….2040
Pull in the time mode, CGS……………………………………………………………………………………….20 000
Speed clock mode, km/C……………………………………………………………………………………..37
Power in long mode, kW………………………………………………………………………….1800
Pull in long mode, kgf………………………………………………………………………………… 17 000
Speed endurance mode, km/h……………………………………………………………………………..38,5
Design speed, km/CH……………………………………………………………………………………..85
The diameter of the wheels, mm……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1220
The smallest radius of the fit, m………………………………………………………………………………..75
The gear ratio of the traction transmission…………………………………………………………………..3,74

 
S. JEVAC, Saint-Petersburg

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