Not to say that prior to the release of “Fields” in the country was not vehicles. Was. However, mainly no civilian jeeps-cars, and military utility vehicles, designed primarily for use in the armed forces. Of course, a certain number of these machines into the national economy, however, personal property vehicles-ATVs were not observed.
Nevertheless, the Soviet car industry has repeatedly made attempts to create a comfortable passenger SUV. So, in pre-war 1938, at the Gorky automobile plant was created the prototype of the first Soviet passenger of all-terrain vehicle, designed for the high command of the red Army.
Machine, received the name GAZ-61, was established on the basis of “emka” GAZ-11-73 with a six-cylinder engine producing 85 BHP of the Car was very good on the highway with a full load all-wheel drive “m” speeds up to 107,5 km/h, and the permeability of it was such that in our days she would be quite able to compete on the roads with the most “cool” with modern trucks, jeeps SUVs. Serial production of the GAZ-61 was deployed in early 1941; it lasted until August of the same year. Many of these machines have been through the war; the GAZ-61 was visited by such prominent Soviet generals like Zhukov, Konev and Rokossovsky.
In the postwar years, with the start of production of the GAZ-M20 “Victory” again the question was raised about the creation of the comfortable Rover — mostly for the party and economic leadership in rural areas. This SUV, called the GAZ-M72, was established on the basis of a body of “Victory” and units of the army all-terrain vehicle GAZ-69. The machine had become the epitome of comfortable concept SUVs — the cars of foreign automotive firms at the time not even thought of.
The vehicle was equipped with a transfer box with switchable and dual leading front axle. With 16-inch wheels with extended lugs (so now equipped with all-wheel drive “Niva”) car had significant ground clearance that it provided good flotation in mud, sand, snow, arable land and rough roads. The car was produced in small series from 1955 to 1958. It is a pity that the release of such machines have not been properly pursued for our country, with its off-road this car would have been priceless. With the completion of the release of “Victory” and stopped the production of the GAZ-M72.
The need in a similar all-terrain vehicle nevertheless not only maintained, but even increased. In 1950-ies of the ordinary cars “Muscovites” and “victory”, do not possess all-terrain qualities, increasingly began to fall into the personal property of citizens. During these years the mass empowerment of the citizens of garden and suburban areas, which, as a rule, were cut off by road from the few paved roads.
An interesting attempt to create a sedan passenger SUV made in this period, the Moscow plant of small cars — MZMA. In 1957, on the basis produced at the time of the model “Moskvich-402”, he developed the all-terrain vehicle “Moskvich-410”, which had two leading axle and axle suspension wheels on longitudinal leaf springs. The transmission was enabled two-step “transfer case” and the hinges of equal angular speeds. The ground clearance of the car was 220 mm as in modern “Field”. A year later, the car was equipped with more powerful 45-horsepower engine and four-speed transmission.
The car has an enviable cross, but, in the opinion of those who happened to have this “jeep” had not sufficiently rigid and durable body. Total production of the “Muscovites”-all-terrain vehicles several modifications amounted to approximately 12 thousand machines; the production of these comfortable SUV was discontinued in 1960.
In the late 1950-ies of the designers of the MZMA did attempt to use units of SUV “Moskvich-410Н”, which is closed, to create a comfortable rural jeep “Moskvich-416”. The machine has a frame structure, all-metal three-door body with efficient heating and a reliable sealing doors; the ground clearance of the Rover was 220 mm. unfortunately, the release of the car which could become the first “civilian” Soviet jeep, was restricted to only two dozens of prototypes.
Well, a fortunate few who have become the owners of four-wheel drive “victory” and “Muscovites” were able to change their torn off-road car on standard domestic jeep only in 1967 — start of production at the Lutsk automobile plant compact baby car LUAZ. The car was developed by designers of Zaporozhye automobile building plant on the basis of experimental all-wheel drive vehicle US-049А; at first it was available only with front-wheel drive, but in the future, with the development of production hubs for rear wheel drive and all-wheel drive option. The power plant was designed to produce 16 million cars a year — it was noticeable even to our country with its vast expanses of impassable primers. Jeep, characterized by good permeability, had a not-too-high reliability — summed “Zaporozhye” units that were included in its design.
Complete, reliable, massive four-wheel drive car-a jeep appeared in our country only after it was built the giant Volga automobile plant. The plant, designed to produce 660 thousand cars, quite modern at that time, cars were built with the technical collaboration with Italian company FIAT — the Italians gave us the equipment, documentation on the production technology and license to produce FIAT-124.
The first “penny”, as it became too late to call of the car VAZ-2101, VAZ came off the Assembly line in September 1970. In the first year of work Vase plant design Bureau started experiments with front-wheel drive cars. In the end, this allowed the team of designers headed by V. Solovyov, design, build, thoroughly test and offer to the production of four-wheel drive car VAZ-2121 “Niva”. The first production of “Niva” rolled off the production line in April 1977.
Some automotive historians claim that the civilian Niva VAZ was on the Assembly line accidentally. The original jeep was designed for military purposes — as in the distant thirties, “to commanders of the Soviet Army”, But for some reason, at the time of the launch of a series this jeep has been rejected by army specialists. And because clotting almost established production were threatened with considerable losses, the production of “Niva” was “good.” However, the reservation was made that the new machine “is designed mainly to meet the demand of workers of village”.
Interestingly, VAZ-2121 “Niva” became the first private development of the plant, ahead of many Western firms in the 1977 serial the comfortable passenger jeeps with permanent all-wheel drive almost was not. “Niva” became the first large comfortable SUV with a monocoque all-metal body closed.
The layout of the car VAZ-2121 “Niva”:
1 — headlamp, 2 — front position lamp with turn signal; 3 — Jack; 4 — heatsink; 5 — motor; 6 — expansion tank; 7 — air filter; 8 — battery; 9 — the lever of blocking of differential; 10 — gearshift lever; 11 —the lever of the auxiliary gearbox; 12 — steering Col; 13 — front seat; 14 — rear seat; 15 — light license plate light; 16—rear lights; 17 — muffler; 18— rear brake; 19 — spring rear suspension; 20 — rear shock; 21 — cross rod rear suspension; 22 — lower trailing rod rear suspension; 23 — rear axle; 24 — fuel tank 25 — resonator; 26 — propeller shaft, rear axle; 27 — fluid reservoir hydraulic brakes; 28 — fluid reservoir the clutch; 29—transfer case; 30 — clutch pedal; 31 — a brake pedal; a 32 — propeller shaft front axle; 33 — steering gear; 34— brake, front; 35 — spring front suspension; 36 — front axle; 37 — lateral turn indicator; 38 is the reservoir for washer fluid windshield
The geometric scheme of the car-SUV VAZ-2121 “Niva”
Geometry extended “Niva” VAZ-2131
Scheme of transmission of the car VAZ-2121 “Niva”:
1 — outer joint drive the front wheels; 2— shaft front wheel drive; 3 — inner joint front wheel drive; 4 — Carter of the clutch mechanism; 5 — gearbox; 6 — intermediate propeller shaft; 7— rear axle; 8 — rear drive shaft; 9 — transfer case; 10 — front prop shaft; 11 — front axle
Controls and control devices of the jeep:
1 — the switch of illumination of devices; 2—the lever of switching of light of headlights; 3 — the lever of indexes of turn; 4— steering wheel; 5 — instrument panel; 6 — the lever of inclusion of window wiper; 7 — the switch of a sound signal; 8 — wiper switch lights; 9,11,19 — plugs; 10 — cigarette lighter; 12 — warning switch; 13 is a decorative cover; 14 — gear box; 15—the lever of a manual brake; 16 — the lever of the auxiliary gearbox; 17 — the lever of a differential lock: 18 — heater fan switch; 20 — throttle; 21 —switch outdoor lighting; 22—the brake pedal; 23 — lever throttle control; 24— clutch pedal; 25 — the ignition lock; 26 — fuse carrier; 27 — the lever of the lock of a cowl
Prior to the release of “Niva” all-wheel-drive domestic cars were equipped with either ball constant velocity joints of the type Bendix-Weiss or suharikami type Tracta. The Niva for the first time in our country was applied to more compact and durable ball joints of the type Bierfield, designed for cars of a small mass.
The machine quickly gained popularity, not only in our country but also abroad. Experts say that it is the “Niva” became the prototype all-wheel drive cars SUZUKI VITARA and DAIHATSU ROCKY.
In the mid 1990-ies, the plant produced modernized versions of “Fields” — BA3-21213 with petrol engine of increased power (78,9 HP) and a displacement of 1690 cm3 and VAZ-21214 engine with the same capacity equipped with a fuel injection system; both versions of “Fields” had a larger rear door, the threshold of which was located at bumper level, which facilitated the loading and unloading of the vehicle.
Updated on the basis of “Niva” was mastered low-volume production of long wheelbase variants of the jeep — these vehicles the distance between the axes increased to 500 mm. a number of elongated machines were produced in three-door version, but the Main part has five doors. Some of these vehicles were produced with engine capacity of 1774 cm3 with a capacity of 82.3 HP
The plant also produces a number of compact GRU-Novichkov-pickup trucks with a lifting capacity of 0.3 tons — double (BA3-2328) and the quadruple (BA3-2329) cabins.
The design of the car VAZ-2121 “Niva”
VAZ-2121 is a four-wheel drive passenger car with the wheel formula 4×4, with zakrytym three-door body of the carrier type and front engine.
Engine working volume of 1570 cm3 with a capacity of 73 horsepower, along with the clutch housing and the transmission case forms a compact power unit attached in the car on the rubber cushions at three points.
Engine cooling — liquid. The water pump is driven from the engine through V-belt transmission; the pump shaft is also secured shestilopastnye fan. Radiator — tubular vane, the cooling system also includes a heater of a body.
The exhaust system has two series-mounted muffler — resonator and main muffler.
The power supply system includes fuel tank, fuel pump, carburetor and air filter. Carb — falling stream; it has two sequentially activated camera, heated system idle, system suction blow-by gas in the throttle valve diaphragm accelerator pump, strainer on the fuel inlet to the carb and solenoid valve idle jet in the primary chamber. Fuel tank capacity of 42 liters is located under the rear seat.
The transmission consists of clutch, gearbox, transfer box, propeller, gear, gears front and rear axles with cross-axle differentials, axles constant velocity joints on the front axles.
Clutch dry, single plate, with diaphragm pressure plate spring and vibration damper on the slave drive. The clutch is hydraulic, with the main and working cylinders and the surge tank.
Transmission — four-speed with synchromesh on all forward gears. Optimal selection of gear ratios of the box provides a “Field” confident starting off, dynamic acceleration and good efficiency.
Transfer case—two-stage, three-shaft with inter-axial differential, having forced the lock. It provides increased torque 1.2 or 2,135 times, as well as differential lock, which on the tunnel floor of the body there are two lever transfer case.
“Fields” three of a propeller shaft: an intermediate that connects the gearbox with transfer box; cardan shaft of the front axle.
Long wheelbase Niva BA3-2131
In place of the classic “the Field” comes a new model CHEVROLET NIVA (2003)
Main gears consisting of a pair of bevel gears with spiral teeth of the hypoid gear, increasing summed torque and transmit it at a right angle to the axle shaft. The transfer of torque from the spur gear on the axle is carried through the bevel differential with two satellites.
Suspension Suspension consists of suspension units front and rear wheels with shock absorbers and stabilizer bar in the front suspension and hubs and wheels with tires.
Front suspension is independent, lever-spring, with coil springs, telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers of bilateral action. Suspension equipped with a stabilizer bar and buffers compression, limiting suspension travel.
Rear suspension consists of a pair of coil springs with telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers bilateral action, four longitudinal and one transverse rods, two buffers compression at the ends of the beam rear axle and one Central.
Steering jeep consists of steering mechanism and steering actuator. Carter worm gear steering mechanism mounted on the left longitudinal member of the body inside the engine compartment. On the opposite side on the right side rail is a bracket of an idler arm.
Brake system of “field” has two independently operating drive. Front brakes — disc, consist of a disk and a movable caliper with a three-cylinder blocks. Rear drum, with self-aligning pads, driven by a one cylinder with two pistons. The hydraulic brake consists of two independent braking circuits of front and rear wheels and is actuated from pedal with vacuum booster and brake master cylinder with two coaxial pistons.
The ignition system is a classic, consists of the coil, the distributor with the breaker, wiring high and low voltage, plugs and the ignition switch. Circuit low voltage, powered by battery or generator, ignition switch, condenser, primary winding of the ignition coil and the breaker. Circuit high voltage secondary winding of the ignition coil, distributor, high tension leads and spark plugs.
The car body bearing, three-door, all-metal. Side door — with front linkage, rear lift, hung on two hinges. In the open position the rear door is held by gas struts.
The hood opens in the direction of motion and is locked with a lock. Cable ends lock lever on the left side under the instrument panel.
Front seat — separate, folding, adjustable in the longitudinal direction. Back sofa forms when added cargo area.
The car is equipped by system of ventilation and heating of the body, consisting of heater with two speed fan and casings-air duct.
Technical characteristics of the car “Niva”
Today we say goodbye to her — from the classic “Field” — heavy, angular, far from modern automotive styling, but at the same time, truly all terrain, able to cope with almost any terrain, and, most importantly, quite affordable. For more than a quarter century, there have been more than half a million SUVs, while the share of exports of the SUV was about one third of the issue.
A Holy place is never empty — today with coming off the Assembly line of VAZ CHEVROLET NIVA — a car is quite modern in design, comfortable, comparable to its off-road qualities with the old “Field”, but alas! with all the same design flaws, defects and poor Assembly components. And, of course, price! For American accent in the car’s name and its Latin inscription to the consumer will have to pay twice the amount than in the classic Russian jeep from $8000 to $9500, depending on configuration.
Today, we say goodbye to the “Field” — the decision on the termination of release of the Volga automobile plant has already been taken.