Family car SKODA OCTAVIA Combi 2004 the SKODA, occasionally arriving in the Soviet Union in the second half minuvshey century of fraternal Czechoslovakia, produced for domestic motorists that time more of an impression than the current one, the most extravagant cars of the inhabitants of the modern Russia. This is no accident: because the automotive plant of Enterprises of heavy engineering Skoda remained, but the opinion of experts of world car industry, almost the only of the socialist camp, who managed to keep their technical and design individuality, developed over almost half a century pre-war activities.
Car company Skoda has its origins from the company Laurin & Klement (L&K). founded in the late XIX century in the city of Mlada Boleslav (Bohemia, Austria-Hungary) entrepreneur Vaclav Clement and the engineer václav Laurin. The first time the company produced bikes since 1898 switched to manufacturing motorcycles with engines of his own design, and my first car — an outdoor self-propelled carriage with a 2-cylinder engine capacity 2 HP — L&K released in 1901. Machine, do not differ any frills design, the series did not go, was nevertheless an exhibit of the industrial exhibition in Vienna.
In 1905, the firm Laurin & Klement has released a rather perfect vehicle — an open two-seater L&K VOITURETTA TYPE with 2-cylinder V-shaped liquid-cooled engine capacity of 7 HP, three-stage gearbox, pneumatic tyres and headlights. Inexpensive and easy to maintain machine was graciously greeted customers and were in demand not only in Czechoslovakia but also in Western Europe. Almost simultaneously in a series was a let down and more powerful version of this machine L&K VOITURETTA ROUND with a 9-horsepower engine.
Considerable success had fallen to the share of the Executive car L&K FF edition of 1907 with an 8-cylinder engine with a capacity of 45 HP, designed by the chief designer of the firm Laurin & Klement Ressler. At the Paris motor show of those years the car was called “a true jewel of engineering.” In the same year in Moscow there was a small ten seater bus from this company, which marked the beginning of regular bus service in the capital of Russia.
The fledgling car manufacturing company made a very successful attempt of production of cars for different purposes. In the production program of the company had trucks and sports cars, limousines and truck tractors. Howled and the car-ransformers which quite harmoniously combine quality several types of machines. In particular, Landau luxury limousine L&M To release in 1917 with the help of simple alterations you can turn a bus, truck or even a small tractor.
The first serial car of the company Laurin & Klement — voiturette L&K TYPE A VOITURETTA
L&M To release in 1917 — luxury limousine-transformer, which could easily turn into a truck or van
SKODA 430 is the first car designed in 1929, with the participation of specialists of the company Laurin & Klemen after its merger with the industrial group Skoda. By design, the machine is a little different from L&K 110 1924
SKODA POPULAR edition 1936 with economical 1.4 litre engine producing 31 HP
The first post-war car SKODA 1102 1946 production goals, created on the basis of the pre-war model SKODA POPULAR
SKODA 1200 with a monocoque body pontoon is one of the first cars out of socialist Czechoslovakia (1952)
SKODA 1202 OCTAVIA COMBI — first Czechoslovak car-universal for sale to private lindens (1960)
SKODA 1000MB — a brand new length of automobile rear-engined car
The first world war dramatically spurred the production of cars — primarily the army. And military orders allowed to deploy new production facilities, to develop designs of components and assemblies, to fine-tune the technology of their production.
The first post-war car company Laurin & Klement was the L&K 110 4-cylinder engine of 1.8 liter capacity of 25 — 30 HP, edition of 1924. It was a relatively inexpensive car for buyers with average incomes in the postwar period to bet on cars of the highest class was, but least, irrational. For individual orders on the basis of this machine the company manufactures sedans, small trucks, and other modifications.
The post-war revival of industry and trade in 1920-e years, is awakened to life by a process that in time the Pasha called the conversion. Firms producing in the First world war, army equipment, frantically searched for ways of peaceful use of released production capacity. The number of such enterprises were located in the town of Plzen, the parent plant of the former joint-stock company “machine-building factories Skoda”, the largest industrial enterprises in the production of weapons disintegrated in 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The most profitable business leaders this plant has been producing passenger cars. Some experience in automotive engineering, the concern was — since 1922, it produced tractors and steam trucks under license of the English company Sentinel. The first passenger car Skoda was manufactured under license luxury car SKODA HISPANO-SUIZA H6 with a 6-cylinder engine with 120 HP Cost surpressing limo was 280 thousand euros, in comparison, the price of L&K 110 in that period amounted to 50 thousand crowns.
For two years, Skoda has released only about fifty limousines. However, in post-war Czechoslovakia is not so easy to find buyers of this luxury car of the highest class. For the stable distribution required is quite different — a massive passenger car. In 1925 the management of the concern Skoda this time decided not to buy a license to produce this car, and buy automobile manufacturing company along with them the accumulated experience of production of such vehicles. A firm producing the most popular in the Czech Republic passenger cars, the company was Laurin & Klement from mladá Boleslav.
The first mass model of the brand SKODA was released p 329 with the participation of specialists of the former elegance of the car with the index “430”, which, in fact, differed from the L&K 110 of the sample of 1924. Machine with all-metal body. equipped with 30-horsepower engine, was relatively inexpensive, economical and reliable. Interestingly, the radiator of the car SKODA 430 first appeared, now known to all motorists logo — a winged arrow in a circle.
In the early 1930-ies there appeared a series of POPULAR cars, of which has become easy and inexpensive machine SKODA 420 of issue 1933, with 4-cylinder engine working volume of 1.0 l and the original spinal tubular frame.
The first SKODA POPULAR, created in 1936 on the base model “420”, were but the standards of the 1930s pods highly developed machine — independent front suspension, hydraulic brakes them at the time was equipped with only expensive cars), economical 1.4 litre engine with a power of 31 HP, capable of accelerating a light car to a speed of 110 km/h — all this makes the car quite worthy of its name.
One of the most popular Czech cars of the 1930-ies became a SKODA POPULAR of the IV edition of 1936. Cheap runabout with a 27-horsepower engine, easily picks up speed to 100 km/h, was equipped with a synchronized transmission, independent front suspension and a fully retractable into the trunk soft top.
The end of 1930-ies, characterized by the revival of demand for luxury cars, has prompted the group to release a series of prestigious cars SKODA SUPFRB, equipped with 6-cylinder engines with power from 55 to 85 HP, working volume, respectively. from 2.7 to 3.1 l model, SKODA SUPERB 4000, manufactured on special orders, installed even 8-cilindrov the engine displacement is 3.9 L.
The outbreak of the Second world war and the capture of the country by Nazi Germany put an end to the program of issue concern civil Skoda cars. The creation of cars, the car factory Skoda re-launched in the new state. I must say that the plant in mladá Boleslav suffered during the war slightly, which allowed to resume production of cars in 1946. The first post-war car is a SKODA 1102, convened on the basis of the pre-war model SKODA POPULAR. The specialists of the plant was a success and greatly modernize the machine in accordance with the changing automotive fashion, leaving the engine, chassis and basic body panels unchanged.
The two-door car with 58-horsepower engine SKODA RAPID — the last rear-engined car automobile Skoda
Brand new to the automobile front-wheel drive Skoda SKODA FAVORIT hatchback with the body designed by renowned designer Nuccio Bertone
SKODA FELICIA, the first car designed p 1994, with the participation of specialists of the VOLKSWAGEN group
SKODA OCTAVIA release 1997 — the first car company created by German technology on the platform of the car VOLKSWAGEN GOLF IV
The new SKODA OCTAVIA, is built on the platform of the VW GOLF V was unveiled at the Geneva motor show 2004
I must say that during socialism, the car is not considered vehicle personal use policy of the countries of the socialist camp focused on public transport. However, the car from mladá Boleslav even during the tough centralization of production still produce cars for individuals. One of the first “socialist” cars is a SKODA 1200 with an entirely new monocoque body pontoon type such as the Soviet “Victory”. The Skoda 1200 was equipped with a 1.2-liter engine capacity of 36 HP
Machine the same purpose and became the most popular in Czechoslovakia, the SKODA 440 SPARTАK of issue 1954. However, from the previous model, it was distinguished only by the shape of the body — all the mechanics have remained largely unchanged. However, the release of such a vehicle is allowed with respect to the design school of the automobile plant in mladá Boleslav, which gave us the opportunity to go toe-to-toe with the recognized leaders of the world automobile fashion.
Now, apparently, few remember that until the end of 1960-ies cars-station wagons in the socialist countries were called pickups or vans and equated to the trucks belonging to the “means of production” and selling to private individuals is prohibited. The barrier was overcome by the designers of the Skoda automobile plant — in 1960 there was released the first car-universal for sale to individuals — 1202 SKODA OCTAVIA COMBI.
In 1964, in Czechoslovakia built a new Skoda car factory, which became the largest industrial complex of the country. It was there that began the mass production of fundamentally new rear-engined Skoda models and Skoda 1000мв 1100мв with engines working volume, respectively, 1.0 and 1.1 L.
Historians of the car industry never came to a consensus, why in a period when front-wheel drive has already started a winning streak for automotive companies in Europe, Skoda automobile designers chose a rear-engined layout that determined the specificity of the model range of SKODA cars for many years to come. Perhaps a serious impact on the builders have had the experience of Czechoslovak Tatra automobile plant, which for many years and with considerable success produced rear-engined car scheme.
However, SKODA 1000МВ was one of the most popular in Czechoslovakia, the issue of his amounted to 440 thousand copies, which for a country with a population of about 15 million people was quite an imposing figure. In 1969, the plant celebrated the production of the millionth car.
Further development of rear-engined cars stasis series “100” — passenger cars, SKODA 105 and SKODA 120 1976 release with the sedan, coupe, wagon and convertible, equipped with engines working volume of 1.0 to 1.2 liters. From the base model, these machines were traditionally distinguished only by the shape of the body, but the factory designers I took this to the PA “excellent” — according to many historians of motor vehicles, they managed to create the most elegant in the whole of Eastern Europe with car.
By the middle of 1980-ies the industry of Czechoslovakia and with it the plant in mladá Boleslav began to experience serious financial difficulties. In fact, Skoda car factory was in need of radical renewal of the model range, however, the funds for this is clearly not enough. The last rear-engined car was the SKODA RAPID — two-door coupe with 58-horsepower engine, capable of accelerating the car up to 150 km/h.
In 1987, the factory has released a fundamentally new front-wheel drive car — the SKODA FAVORIT hatchback, a body which was designed by the famous Nuccio Bertone. Machine, little different from the Soviet VAZ “eight” — both in design and in appearance — was the last independent development company.
In the period of economic reforms and the collapse of Czechoslovakia, a convergence company Skoda and the German company Volkswagcn-Audi, resulting in the group for 5 billion has bought from the state in this enterprise. Skoda thus became a subsidiary of the mighty German company. By October 1994 with participation of specialists from Volkswagen based on the model SKODA FAVORIT was created more modern SKODA FELICIA — first with the old 1.3-litre engine, uprated to 68 HP, and then with the motor company Volkswagen — injection 1.6-litre petrol and 1.9-litre turbodiesel. In addition to the hatchback the firm has also designed and wagon. Few people know that some of the station wagons sold under the name LAURIN & KLEMENT — Skoda has so marked the centenary of car production in mladá Boleslav.
Geometric diagram of the front-wheel-drive car SKODA OCTAVIA 2004
Multi-link rear suspension of Skoda octavia
Diagram of steering control with electric power steering:
1 — steering gear 2 — torque sensor; 3 — torsion; 4 — pinion mechanism; 5 — motor; 6 — control unit
The front part of the interior of the SKODA OCTAVIA
SKODA OCTAVIA release 1997 became the first car company, created on the platform of the car VOLKSWAGEN GOLF IV entirely on German technology that allowed the company Skoda, once again, to become one of the leading European manufacturers. The machine was larger, but the comparison with the VW GOLF that allowed OCTAVIA in automotive “table of ranks” to move up in the standings of the basic model, receiving the rank of a family car.
SKODA OCTAVIA took a leading place among the cars of Eastern Europe. The production of this machine has also allowed the firm to significantly expand its presence on the markets of Western Europe — after they OCTAVIA the number of sales of Czech cars has tripled, reaching 150 thousand copies!
SKODA OCTAVIA volkswagenaudi were equipped with petrol engines working volume of 1.6 to 1.8 HP, multipoint injection and a 1.9-liter turbodiesel. By the way, the diesel OCTAVIA has a top speed of over 200 km/h and 100 km/h it accelerates in just 10,9 S. the Car had excellent performance and had a 10-year warranty on perforation corrosion body.
The new SKODA OCTAVIA, first introduced at the Geneva motor show 2004, built on the platform of the VW GOLF V (about the car was described in the journal “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 5 of 2004). Machine type — no different from the sedan and five-door hatchback, a larger in comparison with the predecessor. with 01р0мным 560-liter trunk. The base of the machine is increased by 66 mm, which allowed us to create a better comfortable environment for rear seat passengers. By the way, the car became wider (38 mm) and higher (33 mm), which also worked on improving the CE of comfort.
The main change chassis — new multilink rear suspension, which replaced the archaic semi-elastic transverse beam. The same as the GOLF V, was steering — rack-and-pinion with electric power steering in which the motor is kinematically connected not with the steering shaft and the steering rack. Such a device, by the way, in recent years increasingly replacing familiar to many motorists power.
Skoda offers to equip the new car with various engines, including two gasoline with a working volume of 1.6 liter capacity of 102 and 116 HP and two turbo diesel with a working volume of 1,9 and 2,0 litres capacity of 105 and 140 HP Machine equipped with a powerful five – or six-speed manual transmission or automatic sstatement boxes-machines.
New OCTAVIA retains the characteristic appearance, although it has become more modern. In accordance with the automotive fashion changed the configuration of the headlight, dubbed the “crystal” optics, other steel hood, a-pillars, tail lights. For the most important changes in the interior. Its design resembles both and GOLF and PASSAT — the same entertainment system, same control window, the same floor the gas pedal.
Front seats — four mechanical adjustments to the expanded range. Two adjustable but the height and reach — is and the steering column. In finishing salon uses new types of modern high-quality plastics.
Technical characteristics of the car SKODA OCTAVIA
Those who had the opportunity to sit behind the wheel of a new car, in one voice say that the 1.6-liter engine is still rather weak for a fairly heavy car, its dynamics is poor. However on smooth roads the car accelerates steadily up to 180 km/h, and even the ZSU-speed car perfectly “holds” the road and maneuverability is no comments. In this way, first and foremost the merit of a good steering control with electric power steering, which has an optimal sensitivity and good feedback.
Much more dynamic OCTAVIA with a 2-liter 140-strong turbodiesel and six-speed manual transmission. The car accelerates on high gears even on the rise, and even on a flat road it easily reaches the passport a maximum speed of 208 km/h.
At the time of signing the magazine in print, were not yet known prices PA various modifications of the new OCTAVIA, but the firm’s representatives claim that in comparison with the cost of previous generation machines, they will increase no more than 10 percent. In this case, the sales of this car in our country will be provided.