PHANTOMS OF OLD ENGLAND

PHANTOMS OF OLD ENGLANDExecutive ROLLS ROYCE PHANTOM. Cars of this company are known to many. However, to drive them ever as a unit — too narrow a range of vehicles on the dual radiators which are emblazoned the letter “R”. This firm is Rolls-Royce. Among its clients are the kings and presidents, billionaires and bankers. And this is understandable — after all, only ex-works (factory) price of the basic version of the Executive ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM of production in 2003 is 320 thousand euros!

 
In this, the 2003 year marks 140 years since the birth of the founder of the company Henry Royce, talented, moreover, the great autoconstructor, whose name for nearly a century are the most expensive and the most prestigious limousines.
 
Their first car, the ROYCE 10 HP two-cylinder engines Henry Royce in collaboration with his partner Claude Johnson was released in 1904. The high quality of these machines has attracted the attention of the owner of the London Agency for the sale of cars, the famous Aviator and motorist Charles Rolls. And when engineering talent was found with capital and enterprise, the result of this Union was quickly gained worldwide fame car firm Rolls-Royce.
 
At the Paris motor show in 1904 was put up at once four cars of Royce — of course, under the brand name of the company Rolls-Royce. After a year on the new car companies began talking in 1905 ROLLS-ROYCE 20НР became the winner in the toughest race “Tourist Trophy”. Commercial success of the firm Rolls-Royce has achieved, creating in 1906, the very perfect by the time the car ROLLS-ROYCE 40/50 HP SILVER GHOST (“silver Ghost”, eng.). The car was no different constructive refinements, however, liked the customers, reliability, build quality, quiet operation balanced six-cylinder engine, excellent suspension quality and a relatively high rate, which reached 85 km/h With minor changes the car was produced until 1925.
 
After the death of Rolls in a plane crash — it happened in 1910 — Royce had to withdraw from the leadership of the firm to do things purely for design.
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM I of the edition of 1922, which introduced the word
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM I of the edition of 1922, which introduced the word “Phantom”
 
ROLLS-ROYCE 40/50 HP SILVER GHOST — one of the most reliable and comfortable car first third of the XX century
 
ROLLS-ROYCE 40/50 HP SILVER GHOST — one of the most reliable and comfortable car first third of XX century
 
Design of the ROLLS-ROYCE 40/50 HP SILVER GHOST
 
The design of the car ROLLS-ROYCE 40/50 HP SILVER GHOST
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM III of 1936 edition — the most luxurious car of its time
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM III of 1936 edition — the most luxurious car of its time
 
Design of the ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM III
 
Design of the ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM III
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM 2003 — the first
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM 2003 — the first
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM 2003 — the first “rolls-Royce”, released by BMW
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM 2003 — the first
 
The first world war became a serious obstacle in the development of new models of cars. The first post-war car, collected on the plant in Springfield (Massachusetts, USA), was ROLLS-ROYCE 20НР with a six-cylinder engine working volume of 3,128 l, only released in 1922.
 
In the same year to replace badly outdated ROLLS-ROYCE 40/50 HP SILVER GHOST came more modern and more luxurious car ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM I six-cylinder engine with a displacement of 7,668 liters and 95 HP. the Car had a four-speed gearbox, drum brakes on all wheels and suspension on semi-elliptic leaf springs. Interestingly, the engine cooling system had no thermostat and the optimal temperature of the driver support manually opening or closing the grille. This car was produced in the United States, and in England (Derby), and the English version differed from the American. In 1929 to replace this car came upgraded ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM II.
 
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM III, produced in the period from 1936 to 1939, was probably the most luxurious car of that time. The machine was equipped with 12-cylinder V-engine, similar to what was produced by the firm. The reliability of the car, constantly declared by its creators, was ensured by duplicating many important mechanisms and assemblies. In particular, the engine is equipped with two pumps and a redundant ignition system with a pair of candles in each cylinder.
 
Ride on the Executive car are achieved through the use of independent suspension of the front wheels with a powerful wishbones, coil springs and hydraulic shock absorbers. Maximum speed reached 155 km/h Just before the Second world war, the company was able to release the 715 instances of this car.
 
The war forced the Rolls-Royce company to curtail production of cars and to organize the production of MERLIN aircraft engines, which were equipped with British fighters.
 
The first post-war Executive limousine was ROLLS-ROYCE SILVER DAWN, assembled not for the Derby, and in Crewe, where the firm moved production of cars. This car was first fitted with a body of its own design and manufacture for all previous models, it was ordered special truck manufacturing companies. The machine was installed six-cylinder 126-horsepower engine cylinder capacity of 4,257 l, the car accelerates to a speed of 145 km/h Production ROLLS-ROYCE SILVER DAWN was completed in 1955 — it was built in 760 cars of this type.
 
In 1950 the company released a small batch of cars, ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM IV inline eight-cylinder 5.7-liter engine. And the next “phantom” — luxury car ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM V was already V-shaped “eight” with a working volume of 6.23 L.
 
In 1971 the company was on the verge of bankruptcy — the financial losses caused by large investment in the development of gas turbine engines, has been excessive. After the intervention of the British government firm Rolls-Royce was split into two separate sections — one of them continued to do automotive engineering, other aviation motor industry. The division went clearly in favor of the failed bankrupt — due to the commercial success produced models of automotive branch of the group quickly recovered their financial position.
 
In the seventies of the last century, the firm has produced a range of luxury cars, among which was the SILVER SHADOW and SILVER WRAITH with their modifications of type convertible and coupe coachwork by the famous Italian firm Pininfarina. The end of the decade saw the release of another “phantom” — ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM VI bodies landole and a limo. By the way, these machines are intended to service the Royal family and senior government officials in the UK. Royal cars were equipped with V-shaped 6.75-liter eight-cylinder engine capacity of 228 HP, mated to an automatic transmission.
 
In 1980, the automotive branch of the company joined in the famous defense group Vickers. It was assumed that this measure will ensure the financial stability of Rolls-Royce, but unfortunately, this did not happen. So, in 1982, the sales of cars has dropped from 2500 to 1600 copies. The company’s management adopted a program of austerity, and in 1984 was restored sales volume and net profit of 14 million pounds.
 
However, the profitability of small-scale production were rather low in the nineties to provide a higher level of firm first used the elements of line production. However, a complete modernization of the production program funds, the company is not enough. And at the end of the century the concern Vickers had to say about his desire to give Rolls-Royce a new, wealthy owner.
 
So the owner of the former leader of the British car industry was the German concern BMW. In just four years BA artsy built in the English town of Goodwood, a new plant, recruited and trained staff and, most importantly, developed and prepared for production a new car with a very “original” name — the ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM. By the way, was designed by a group of designers led by Englishman Ian Cameron — the new owners of the company felt that the spirit of the new “phantom” can only Express the true Briton and led the new company is also an Englishman, one of the leaders of the factory, a Rolls-Royce in Crewe Tony Gott.
 
New car presented to the public on 3 January 2003. It has not caused shock among the British machine was designed in the spirit of the prewar and early postwar models of the company Rolls-Royce and the first car ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM II. However, the BMW such an operation to produce not the first time — enough to remember a very good experience of creating compact cars the MINI ONE and MINI CUPER “based on” English car MINI Morris company.
 
The design of the new car developed from five groups under the overall guidance of the Cameron — three of them created the exterior car designs American Marko Djordjevic from the California concept Studio BMW and two led by Charles Goldhamer and Alan Sheppard worked on the interior. The designers tried to reproduce the main features of luxury Rolls-Royce cars of yesteryear— large wheels, large wheelbase, short front overhang, long bonnet, sloping window line and the curved line of the threshold. And, of course, a radiator grille typical of these machines pentagonal shape. While the creators of car did not forget about the aerodynamics — the drag coefficient of the automobile giant has made the 0.383 — a perfectly acceptable figure for a car of this class.
 
Dashboard of the ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM 2003
 
Dashboard of the ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM 2003
 
The driver
 
The driver
 
BMW V 12 engine with direct fuel injection
 
The BMW V 12 engine with direct fuel injection
 
Body ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM is a power frame of aluminum alloy, on which hung the trim panel is also aluminum or molded from composite materials. Of stamped steel for the boot lid only. The mass of the body is only 550 kg and a record of its torsional stiffness is 40,500 Nm/deg. By the way, the body is going in Germany at the BMW plant in Dingolfing, and then transported to the Assembly plant in England.
 
The body of the phantom is equipped with hinged doors — this the English call doors for suicide. By the way, these were powered and domestic “the Muscovite-400” — we really didn’t know what opening against flood doors are called that way. Today they are banned, however, for ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM, an exception was made — firm BMW has convinced the controlling entity in the reliability of locking the rear doors at speeds above 4 km/h.
 
The engine of the Phantom design is not very different from six-liter motor, which is equipped with Executive BMW-760Li It is also V-shaped, 12-cylinder, however the displacement has increased to 6.75 liters and capacity of 453 HP besides it is equipped with system of direct fuel injection, which allowed to raise the compression ratio to 11. The supercharger in the motor is not provided, the designers essentially abandoned him, preferring to calm the nervous turbo “atmospheric” engine with continuously variable valve timing and valve lift. As a result, when the engine speed in 1000 rpm the torque reaches 560 Nm.
 
By the way, the tachometer on the dashboard not — installed instead of the original device, which can be called with the pointer of the power reserve. At idle the arrow of this device shows 100 percent, but it is necessary to start and start acceleration, as the shooter turns to the left. To zero it reaches to maximum acceleration when recessed into the floor the gas pedal.
 
The engine is aggregated with six-speed automatic transmission type ZF. Maximum machine speed is limited by electronics at level of 240 km/h but speed in 100 km/h ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM accelerates only in 5.9 s. I Wonder what starts and stops the engine using the ignition key, and good old-fashioned button.
 
Suspension for the car also produced a Germany — front double wishbone, independent, pneumatic elements instead of the coil springs, and rear mounted on the stretcher .multi-link, independent, bow thruster, cockpit with gas strut.
 
Brakes: hydraulic with vacuum booster. Brakes front and rear wheels — disc, ventilated. It is curious that the Parking brake is engaged not familiar lever and button.
 
Steering — type “gear-rack” with power steering; when turning the steering wheel from lock to lock it makes three turns.
 
The front panel is a luxury car-extremely conservative and concise. Leather under visor — two rectangular aluminum panels: on the right — the inscription of the PHANTOM, and on the left side are classic round dials. However, behind the panels is a modern automotive electronics. So, it is necessary to extract from the armrest lever that controls the auxiliary functions of the vehicle (rotary Controller), as located in the center of the front panel of fine mechanical clock turn 180 degrees, showing the driver color LCD display, capable of his desire to become a Navigator or a television.
 
Presentation of the new “Royal” car, and along with the new plant of the company Rolls-Royce in Goodwood, held in early January 2003. Numerous specialists, producers and journalists automotive publications, meticulously researched, freshly baked ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM, looking at him in German accents. Equally meticulously tested their public service in the course of test driving. Summing up their opinion, one of the most biased “researchers” of the new car is welcomed by a PHANTOM known by all the classic formula: “the King is dead… long live the king!”
 
Specifications Executive car ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM
 
Body type…………………………four-door sedan
The number of seats………………………………………………………..5
Curb weight, kg…………………………………. 2485
Full weight, kg…………………………………………..3030
Trunk compartment volume, m3……………………………………..0,46
Length, mm……………………………………………………. 5834
Width, mm………………………………………………….1990
Height, mm…………………………………………………..1632
Base, mm……………………………………………………… 3570
Track front/rear mm……………………1686/1670
Engine…………………………………………petrol,
with direct injection
The number and arrangement of cylinders……12, V-shaped
Working volume, l………………………………………..6,749
Compression……………………………………………..11,0
Maximum
power, HP/Rev.min…………………………..460/5350
Fuel tank capacity, l…………………………….100
Bait………………………………………rear-wheel
Brake……………………….disc, ventilated
Maximum speed, km/h………………………….240
Acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h, ……………………..5,9
Fuel consumption, l/100 km:
urban……………………………………………24,6
extra-urban cycle………………………………………….11,0

 
I. EVSTRATOV

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