The popularity of the brand BMW no less than known sports clubs. And this popularity is often equally disinterested. The advantages and disadvantages of vehicles with the blue and white circle on the radiator grille are discussed by fans of BMW as recklessly and interested as the corresponding quality favorite teams. The greatest attention is paid to the most prestigious series BMW vehicles — the seventh and the fifth.
First of all, I would like to recall the main stages of formation of this famous car company from Bavaria. Its origin is best illustrated branded logo — blue disk with a few white sectors, which symbolizes the rotating propeller. Indeed, the German firm BMW — Bayerische Motorenwerke (Bavarian motor works) in the first years of its existence, has released only aircraft engines, designed by the talented designer max Fritz.
After the First world war defeated Germany in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles banned the production of military equipment — including aircraft. Accordingly, the firm BMW had to curtail production of aircraft engines and to refocus its activities on the manufacture of motorcycles and automobile, motorcycle and marine engines.
Over time, the leadership of the company in search of more tradable goods for the production opted for the car. The first car brand BMW compact was the Austin Seven, manufactured prior to that, under license from the German company of Dixi. In 1927 Dixi became Bayerische Motorenwerke, and the Austin Seven, after the upgrade called the BMW DIXI, was put on the conveyor at the plant of the company in the city of Eisenach. It should be noted that the choice for the mass production of inexpensive but quite modern for its time, and most importantly — a reliable car allowed BMW as soon as possible to get out of a difficult financial situation and increase the production of cars. On the BMW DIXI was designed and produced new compacts which were eagerly bought, even during the great depression of 1929, when sunk into oblivion many famous automobile companies, producing expensive luxury cars.
In 1933 a technical leader Bayerische Motorenwerke became Fritz Fiedler. Under his leadership, the firm is prepared to release his first self-designed car, called the BMW 303. Machine weight 820 kg, produced as closed and open body, equipped with inline 30-strong “six” working volume of 1.2 L. Interestingly, the grille of this car, consisting of two symmetrical Windows, will become a permanent brand hallmark of BMW cars that are present on almost all the cars of this brand.
The BMW 303, the first car independently developed by the company Bayerische Motorenwerke (1933)
Sports car BMW 328 — the car that brought Bayerische Motorenwerke worldwide fame (1936)
BMW ISETTA — miniature mass-market car that pulled Bayerische Motorenwerke from the financial crisis (1954)
One of the most beautiful cars of its time — BMW Roadster 507 (1956)
Two-door rear-engined BMW 700 — the car that completed a series of compact, affordable cars for the mass-market (1959)
BMW 1500, a compact sedan with a sporty character (1962)
The first “five” — the vehicle of the new business class BMW 520 (1972)
“Hundred third” and a number of subsequent modifications have brought the firm a well-deserved fame. But a breakthrough in the leaders of the global car industry has provided Bayerische Motorenwerke BMW 328 sports twin, introduced in 1936. The machine was equipped with two-liter inline “six” with a capacity of 80 BHP and was capable of speeds up to 150 km/h. its design was based on the principles that will be for many years to come fundamental when designing sports cars, in accordance with which the basis of the car was the lightest tubular frame on which is mounted the body panel.
Based on the BMW 328 specifically for this popular race in Italy, “a Thousand miles” was made more perfect BMW 328 Mille Miglia. Machine with ultra-light aluminum body and engine, uprated to a power of 130 HP, a top speed of 200 km/h, which allowed her to win the most difficult and prestigious race.
In the last prewar years, the firm launched production of a solid sedan with 3.5 liter engine capacity 90 HP However, the Second world war returned to the Bayerische Motorenwerke to the production of aircraft engines and other military equipment. This was the reason that the end of the war the company in Munich was completely destroyed by American and English bombers. Well, and the factory in Eisenach was in the Soviet zone of occupation troops. By the way, in the postwar period, this company produced a number of pre-war models, almost all of which were sent to the USSR on account of reparations deliveries. Later on, this plant produced a runabout with a low-powered WARTBURG two-stroke engine.
But the plants in Munich, caught in the Anglo-American sector, the occupation authorities at first allowed to produce only metal cookware. Only in 1948 they were allowed to organize the production of motorcycles with engine capacity of 250 cm3. Well, permit the production of cars was received by the firm in 1951.
The first post-war car company was the BMW 501 is a comfortable midsize sedan class with 6-cylinder two-liter engine capacity of 65 horsepower, In 1954, the firm has upgraded this vehicle by equipping it with a V-shaped “eight” power of 100 HP Interestingly, most of the details of this serial motor for the first time in world practice it was made of aluminum alloys.
As it was regrettable for the company, the demand for these prestigious and therefore expensive cars in the devastated post-war Germany left much to be desired. Save Bayerische Motorenwerke could only cheap mass-market car, the purchase of which would be by means of almost any family. By the way, the experience of production and sales of such cars in the world already existed. So, a one-volume mini-car ISETTA with a single door in the front of the body in 1953, released by the Italian firm Iso. The popularity of this little car was so high that the license for its production was purchased by England, France, Belgium and Germany. Machines of the same class began to produce devoid of military orders aircraft company Heinkel and Messerschmitt.
In 1954 to the production of ultra-compact and ultra-light car decided to start and management of the company Bayerische Motorenwerke, by purchasing a license for the release of gaining popularity of the minicar of the company Iso, as the experience of the creation of such machines the firm was not. Double car called the BMW ISETTA was powered by a single-cylinder motorcycle engine type cylinder capacity of 246 cm3 and a power of 12 HP Pipsqueak, however, speeds up to 100 km/h and spend only 3.5 l/100 km. In 1958, the car has been seriously upgraded — it was quadruple the BMW 600 with a 20-horsepower engine. All in all, until the early 60-ies it was sold over 160 thousand cars of small that have strengthened the financial position of the company.
In the same period, the company has released a luxury two-door Roadster BMW 507, the body of which was designed by renowned designer count Albrecht Hertz. The car was equipped with 3.2-liter V-shaped “eight” power of 150 HP, enabling it to accelerate to 220 km/h. the Production of prestigious and very expensive sports car once again confirmed that such a car has not come yet— four reptile firm was able to sell only 252 cars. Interestingly, one of the owners of these cars became the most famous American jazz singer Elvis Presley, which took place in the period of service in the occupation forces in West Germany.
The first “seven” is a luxury Executive sedan BMW 745i (1977)
Another “five” 1988 — BMW 528i
Cars of the third series— the most successful machine in its class (1990)
Car eighth series BMW 850i carrier of the highest achievements of world car industry (1990)
The most prestigious and expensive cars existing company Bayerische Motorenwerke — BMW Z8 (2000)
The new “five” BMW 530i edition 2003
The situation of the company seemed hopeless — peak sales sidecar ISETTA left far behind, and the expensive models were the buyer cannot afford. In these circumstances, the real rescue for the company was the production of two-door rear-engined BMW 700, the body of which was designed by the famous Italian firm Michelotti body. The popularity of the machine was so high that already in the first months of production were collected 30 thousand orders.
In the late 50-ies a controlling stake in Bayerische Motorenwerke acquired a multimillionaire Herbert Quandt. First, he changed the leadership of the company, and has also taken a number of measures for further successful development. One such measure was the release in 1962, the compact five-seater sedan BMW 1500 with a 1.5-liter 80-horsepower engine. This car, having a number of advantages among cars of this class, has become not only one of the best in the world but also the basis for future financial and technical power of the Bayerische Motorenwerke. BMW 1500 had a number of modifications and for ten years the productivity has tripled and reached 160 thousand cars a year.
The modern notation of cars manufactured by Bayerische Motorenwerke, started to develop since 1972 with the advent of the cars of the fifth series of the new, so-called business-class — BMW520, BMW520i and BMW525i. It was a sedan with four – and six-cylinder engines with a displacement of 2.0 to 2.5 liters and output of 115 to 145 HP. the Index “i” in the name of the car meant the injection method of preparation of the combustible mixture in the engine.
Later — in 1975 — has determined the type of small cars. They were the machines of the third series — BMW 316, BMW 318, BMW 320 and BMW 320i with 4 cylinder engines working volume of 1.6 — 2.0 liters and power from 90 to 125 HP
The emergence of the production program of Bayerische Motorenwerke in the summer of 1977 a luxury Executive car for the seventh series placed the company among the leaders of world car industry. The first three models BMW728, BMW730 and BMW733i — packaged with six-cylinder engines working volume of 2.8 to 3.2 liters with a capacity from 170 to 197 HP
The following “seven” in 1986 was fitted with the first in the history of Bayerische Motorenwerke V-neck 5-liter 12-cylinder engine producing 296 HP As claimed by the firm Mercedes-Benz very painfully reacted to the emergence of a new power unit in the BMW 750i — at that time the company could offer the consumer only V-shaped “eight”. Only a few years on the “six hundredth” MERCEDES-BENZ appeared similar to a 12-cylinder engine.
The next model of the fifth series left the Bayerische Motorenwerke factories in 1988. One of the best versions of this series, the BMW 528i was fitted with a fuel injected 6-cylinder engine capacity of 193 HP
The following “five”, released in 1995, is rightly called a machine without flaws. Even the most simple of all of the fifth series of BMW 520i was one of the best cars in the world car industry! Machine with a 6-cylinder 2.2-liter inline engine capacity of 170 HP mass 1600 kg accelerates to 100 km/h in just 9.1 seconds! And the maximum speed of the “five” is 226 km/h. however, even during active driving, the fuel consumption does not exceed 10 l/100 km. the Car has an enviable manageability — to the extent of “sharp” steering wheel is perfectly combined with perfect precision drive and excellent stability. During the eight years of release it sold a million and a half cars of the fifth series.
“Five” in 2003 is a representative is the fifth generation of cars of business class. According to experts, the machine combines the dynamism and sporting spirit of the BMW the third series with respectability and representation of BMW of the seventh series.
Description new car should start with its powerplant. Bayerische Motorenwerke equips “five” or three-liter gasoline inline “six” power of 231 HP with the world’s first dual system to continuously adjust valve timing, or diesel three-liter row “six” power of 218 HP with a Common Rail injection system of the second generation. Moreover, both the first and second can be equipped with a six-speed automatic transmission or six-speed manual transmission. According to experts, the power, the smoothness of operation, efficiency and low toxicity, these engines occupy a leading position in the world.
The body shell of the new “five” — the world’s first aluminium front part attached to the steel base!
The front suspension of the five with racks McPherson
Multi-link rear suspension — almost all of its parts from aluminum alloy. Made of aluminum and the propeller shaft
The design of the driver’s seat
Geometric diagram of a BMW 530i
The principal dimensions of the BMW 530i
The new sedan is larger and roomier than the previous model, but its weight is not increased, and become less, depending on the model, the mass loss reaches 75 kg. But most importantly— by reducing mass of the front of the new “five” was the perfect weight distribution is fifty-fifty. This was achieved mainly due to the wide use in car design — especially in the front — aluminum alloys.
Bayerische Motorenwerke first car companies began to use a promising mixed body structure, which combines structures made of steel and aluminum alloys. In the new “five” link aluminum front and the rest of the body is in the a-pillars. Aluminum also made the front fenders and hood. It should be noted that the connection of these dissimilar materials with different electrochemical potentials and coefficients of thermal expansion required the fulfilment of certain conditions. So, to create a corrosion-resistant composite construction took coating the mating surfaces with special insulating glue.
The last “five” is a carrier of the whole range of modern devices, among which it is possible to call such a world a new system of active steering that can change the gear ratio steering in the range of low and medium speeds, significantly reducing the steering angle and improving the car’s handling in city traffic when maneuvering, Parking and cornering. And conversely, at higher speeds the system makes the steering wheel less “sharp”, which improves the linear movement and makes the reaction on the steering smoother. The system of active steering works in tandem with dynamic stability control — with signs of exchange rate volatility of the steering angle is adjusted, restoring directional stability.
The chassis of the car is designed using a large number of elements of the aluminum alloy on the model of BMW of the seventh series. Front suspension strut type McPherson stahovani stretch marks — almost all aluminum, except for the tie rods, wheel bearings and hinges. Rear suspension integral type is ideal to ensure trajectory stability and driving comfort. Her four levers, idlers, fixed not on the body, and elastically attached to the subframe. It is also elastically supported, a differential. The subframe, in turn, by means of four rubber bulk elements connected with the body. All these elastic mounts effectively dampen shocks transferred from the road on the tires of the car, not passing them to the car body.
New “five” for the first time offered with active cruise control radar system used in dense traffic on a highway, which allows us to maintain a safe distance from the vehicle ahead. It is only in the field of view of the radar, operating at a frequency of 7.7 GHz, to receive the car moving with less speed, as the system starts to adapt the speed in accordance with speed of the vehicle ahead. If the field of view of the radar car, the system takes on the challenge of increasing the speed. It is worth mentioning that at any time the driver can intervene in the actions of the system — it is enough to press the accelerator or brake.
For the first time in “five” 2003 Bayerische Motorenwerke was developed programmable projection display. With its help it is important for the driver information is displayed directly in his field of vision — this allows the driver to perceive it, not taking his eyes off the road. Virtual “picture” is created by the projection unit built into the front panel, and is transmitted to the windscreen, and from him — in the eyes of the driver. At the same time it creates the illusion that “picture” appears over the front edge of the hood. Adjustment depending on ambient light can change the brightness of the image.
Another novelty on “the five” 2003 — headlights and adaptive brake lights that enhance active safety during night trips. Thus, the blocks bi-xenon headlight in accordance with the steering angle of the steering wheel, yaw and speed significantly improve the lighting of the future path when cornering — they seem to “look” for the turn. The same adaptive brake lights reduce the risk of hitting the car behind due to sudden braking by increasing the surface of the glow.
Since we are talking about traffic safety, it is worth to get acquainted with the set systems of passive safety of the new car. It should be noted that in case of accidents the basis for effective reduction of the loads on the occupants and creating the highest possible ginecomastia space is the body: with bearing elements that can withstand high loads in all types of collisions; with an exceptionally rigid frame cabin; with the special design of the front part allows effective use of its deformation length.
In addition, the composition of an effective restraint system in addition to airbags includes steering column, steering wheel, seats, headrests, seat belts, pretensioners, force limiters, as well as the device allowing the maximum possible offset sitting forward. Managing all of these devices provides advanced electronic security system, main components of which are decentralized sensors-satellites and high-speed data transmission system on optical buses. Their main task is to give effect to the desired component at the right time, providing optimal protection to the driver and passengers.
Specifications sedan BMW fifth series
Concluding the topic of active and passive safety of the car, not to mention the new tires, which by order can be equipped with a new “five”. These tires allow the car to get to the workshops of the tire even at full loss of pressure. All in sparkprice the sidewalls of a tyre, even able to lenakatina able to take a standard load. With such a tire in case of puncture the car can travel up to 150 km at a speed of 80 km/h.
On the basis of “five” 2003 Bayerische Motorenwerke plans to release a number of modifications. In particular, in 2004 the car with a body “universal”, and in 2005 sport BMW M5 with V-shaped 10-cylinder engine producing about 500 HP
In conclusion, it should be noted that to assemble a new “five” in the summer of 2003 and joined the factory in Kaliningrad, with the simultaneous curtailment of the release of the previous model. In Russia, the car in a base complete set will cost about 47 million euros.