High-speed scout-bomber-70 BLITZ. One of the most famous planes created by the German firm Heinkel (Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke GmbH) in the early 30-ies of the last century, became a high-speed scout-bomber Not-70. Its development was initiated by Lufthansa, which sought to acquire passenger aircraft, surpassing its characteristics are an American six-seat machines ORION 9 Lockheed company.
A passenger with the speed of a fighter these Germans machine was created by designers of firm Lockheed in 1931. Plane ORION 9 they managed to combine all the best that was laid in the two most successful cars of the same company — VEGA and ALTAIR. From the first used the fuselage and the second wing and the chassis. To increase the flight speed of the motor with radial cylinders are closed by the annular hood. Top speed was very high for the passenger car — 330 km/h.
The first flight of a “hybrid” took place in early 1931, and in may the car got on the line. Only the company has built 35 ORION aircraft of various modifications.
In the spring of 1932 an American plane appeared in Europe. It immediately drew the attention of not only passengers, but also representatives of European airlines. The machine speed made an impression on the managing Director of the largest German airline Lufthansa Erhard Milch (future Deputy Herman Goering). He immediately demanded that the firms of Heinkel and Junkers, who worked on the development of light passenger aircraft, to make changes to projects with the Aim of improving the speed characteristics of these machines.
The Junkers firm was in dire economic Straits, and its leaders decided to first bring to the airworthiness of the aircraft is almost ready Ju-60, to implement several instances of this plane and then using the profit to improve its aerodynamics.
The engineers at Heinkel brothers Gunther acted differently. They stopped work on its passenger plane in a 65 and started to design a completely new car. The construction of this plane, called the Not-70 was completed on 14 June 1932. Without waiting for approval of the project, the management firm ordered to start Assembly of the first sample of the machine. And four months later the finished aircraft rolled out of the Assembly shop of the plant in Warnemunde.
Not-70 was significantly different from the usual passenger aircraft of the time. Long thin fuselage, elliptical in plan, the wing and tail, retractable landing gear, extremely clean aerodynamic shape — all in the car talking about its speed capability. In addition, this passenger aircraft was powered by a 630-horsepower engine BMW VI 6.0 Z — a stood for… Not a fighter-51. New car, piloted by Werner Subtle rose into the air on 1 December 1932. Flying about 80 km, it successfully landed at the airport in travemünde. The chassis in this flight had not been cleaned.
The second prototype is Not-70 was finished in February 1933. At the beginning of the test when flying from travemünde to Berlin-70 reached a speed of 375 km/h, 45 km/h exceeding the maximum speed of the American plane ORION. Another month of record car was transferred to Lufthansa under the designation of Non-70A.
Manned flyug-captain of Lufthansa with Antichthon, the plane set eight international records for speed at distances from 100 to 2000 km with a load up to 2000 kg. the Most significant of these was the speed record of 355 km/h at a distance of 100 km with a load of 2000 kg. to estimate the speed of this passenger cars, it should be recalled that the maximum speed of the latest British fighter Gloster GAUNTLET of the firm was only 15 km/h more. However, the comparison is not entirely correct: because GAUNTLET was a biplane. However, a passenger jet flying with a speed of a fighter, could count on an enormous commercial success.
High-speed scout-bomber He-70 BLITZ:
1 — Kok-spinner screw; 2 — removable side panels of the engine hood; 3 — a lateral window; 4 — fairing-fairing; 5 — window cab arrow; 6 — keel; 7 — rudder; 8 — trimmer of the rudder; 9 — the support of the caudal spike; 10—basic heel tail crutch; 11 — footboard; 12 — retractable radiator; 13 — thrust of the trimmer of the rudder; 14 — 7.9-mm machine gun MG-15; 15 — sliding section of the canopy arrow-scorer; The 16 cabin Windows, arrow-scorer; 17 — antenna radios; 18 — sliding part of the canopy pilot; 19 — entrance door to the cockpit and Navigator; 20 maintenance hatch of the oil system; 21 — blind withdrawal of the secondary air; 22 — the window of the front door; 23 — brace tail support; 24 — rib of the rudder; 25 — power set keel; 26 — formers; 27 — cable the radio antenna; 28 — onboard first aid kit; 29 — a-bag with spare stores; 30 transmitter stations; 31 receiver stations; 32 — antenna radio; 33 — tank; 34 — unit radio; 35 — ORES; 36 — the instrument panel of the cockpit; 37 — column the steering wheel of the aircraft; 38 — the fluid reservoir for the cooling system of the engine; 39 — engine BMW-VI; 40 — motor mount; 41 — oil tank; 42 — expansion tank; 43 — power fire frame; 44—pedal foot control; 45 — mesh radiator; 46 — seat pilot, 47 — oxygen tank; a 48 — seat Navigator; 49 — power bulkhead; 50 — doors of the bomb Bay (in open position); 51 vertical containers in the bomb Bay; 52 — bombsight; 53 — seat arrow-scorer; 54 — unit electrolaboratories; 55 — stringers; 56 — cockpit canopy pilot, 57 — sliding part of the canopy pilot (in open position); 58 — bladed screw; 59 — exhaust pipes; 60 — fold the side of the cockpit in a reclined position; 61 — fold niche cleaning wheel; 62 — wheel main landing; 63 — front of the main chassis; 64 — flap the fuel filler pipe of the tank; 65 — filler cap wing fuel tank; 66 Kil; 67 — the steering wheel height; 68 — trimmer of the Elevator; 69— the hinge of the Elevator; 70— flaps; 71 — Aileron; 72 — trimmer Aileron; 73 — wing of ANO; 74 — rod LDPE; 75 hood the filling neck of the coolant reservoir; 76 — pull control of the Elevator trim tabs; 77—porthole cabins arrow-scorer; 78 — wing fairing; 79 — the bomb Bay leaf in the closed position; 80 — the hinge of the flap; 81 — hinge Aileron; 82 maintenance hatches; 83 — flaps main landing gear; 84 — a panel of the niche of the harvesting wheel in the closed position
Record the car has received the name BLITZ (“lightning”), which suited perfectly for her. Naturally, the plane was interested in the military of the so-called Air Commissariat, under the sign of which hides the prototype of the German air force. Erhard milch, who had put on military uniform and has already become a Deputy, Hermann Goering, ordered to convert a fourth instance of Not-70 in a high-speed liaison aircraft. The engineers at Heinkel lifted the pilot’s seat to improve visibility and installed behind the cab open infantry unit with a 7.9-mm machine gun. Similarly was converted and the following production aircraft.
All machines entered service with the Air Commissariat as high-speed liaison and light transport aircraft. They were stained according to the standard for aircraft of Lufthansa scheme and looks almost no different from passenger cars.
In 1934 began construction of a series of 12 aircraft He-70D with engines BMW VI 7.3 Z with a power of 750 HP Only three of them were in the civil line, and the rest were used by the military. The first of March, 1934, Hitler announced the creation of the German air force — Luftwaffe, military aviation came out of the shadows of secrecy. The Heinkel firm started work on the creation of bomber command modification-70S and reconnaissance bomber He-70F. Due to this, a former unsuccessful rival “seventies” Ju-60 has been widely used on passenger airlines.
BLITZ in uniform
The main external difference of the new modifications-70 was the installation of the cabin on the line of symmetry of the fuselage — before it was shifted slightly to the left. Inside the fuselage are Not-70E bomb Bay was equipped with six 50-kg bombs or 24 bombs caliber 10 kg. For He-70F in the bomb Bay put additional resettable tank 280 litres of petrol and set the camera. Thus on the doors of the bomb Bay appeared window.
Modification of Non-70F was more versatile and that it gave preference to military. The maximum speed of the aircraft decreased slightly and amounted to 335 km/h, but this value is still higher than that of the main German fighter Not-51. Further, there were modifications of the F-1, F-2 and F-3.
In 1936 18 aircraft Non-70F-2 sent to Spain to assist the rebels of General Francisco Franco. At first they fought in the Legion “Condor”, and then was transferred to the custody of the air force of Franco.
In Germany-70 was in service in five mixed-reconnaissance groups of the Luftwaffe, the sixth was equipped with a reconnaissance Do-17. In each group there were 27 Non-45 and nine Non-70F. Despite the arrival of more modern Do-17P, HEINKEL He-70 a long time was in service with combat units of the Luftwaffe: on 19 September 1938 in the reconnaissance air groups were 73 of the aircraft-70 (49 of them operational). However, in the next month all non-70F were removed from razvedshkoly and put into communication squadron and flight school.
Trying to raise the maximum speed of Not aging-70, Ernst Heinkel decided to equip the aircraft with a more powerful engine of the British company Rolls-Roice and began negotiations with the British on the transfer of the design documentation on the engine capacity of 770 HP in exchange for a set of documents on Not-70. In 1935, the Heinkel firm received one sample of this engine and installed it on a non-70G. The first flight he made on 16 January 1936. Received during the short test speed of 400 km/h, firm Heinkel gave Not-70G British. But here intervened the leadership of the Luftwaffe and forced the Ernst Heinkel to cancel the transaction.
At the end of 1936 production is Not-70 for the German Luftwaffe began to cease, but the plane showed interest in the newly established and fledgling air force of Hungary. Ernst Hein-Kel he readily consented to the issuance to them of 18 aircraft. In that period in Hungary organize the production of the French aircraft engine company “Gnome-Rhone” 14K “Mistral Major”, and the Hungarian side has offered to equip their ordered aircraft, especially since they were on 100 HP more powerful than stock engines from BMW.
17 APR 1937 rose in the air the first prototype of the aircraft for the Hungarian air force, Not named-170V1. Problems with longitudinal stability identified in the first flights, forced the designers to modify the nose of the aircraft. Next car, which was seen as a prototype for a future series, had an elongated nose, three-bladed propeller “Hamilton Standard” and the designation Not-170А1. On production aircraft was established in Herz camera and two 8 mm machine gun.
Deliveries of production aircraft began in September 1937 and was completed in February next. Aircraft were useful for reconnaissance flights over Romania and Yugoslavia, and after the German attack on the Soviet Union and the West over Ukraine.
In 1937, the Heinkel firm had proposed to the Ministry of aviation of Germany to upgrade the existing Luftwaffe aircraft, setting them on the engines Daimler-Benz DB600 power of 1175 HP, but also more modern radio equipment. The proposal was met with great restraint: it is in service already had more advanced aircraft, and to spend money to upgrade nobody wanted.
However, the firm also converted the two aircraft, giving them the designation of No-270. In addition to a new, more powerful power plant they had no side Windows, an extra machine gun, firing forward, and a redesigned tail light infantry unit. Commercially these machines have not been built.
Well, Not 70 gradually lived. By 1938, of the 28 passenger non-70 on the lines were only a few cars. Despite its short life, the aircraft-70 left a noticeable trace in the history of aviation. It was developed many advanced technical solutions, which are then used in the new structures of the firm Heinkel.
Not-70 in the Legion “Condor”
During the formation of the Legion “Condor” in its composition have included two reconnaissance squadron — 1/88 and A. 2/A. 88. The first was armed, the aircraft is Not to 45 and were intended to conduct close reconnaissance, and the second, equipped with No-70 BLITZ — reconnaissance at a considerable distance from the front line.
At the end of October 1936 arrived to Spain the first two aircraft He-70F, and two weeks later the squadron consisted of 12 cars. In addition to “pure” intelligence He-70F among them were several bombers Not-70S; this modification has subsequently become the most massive in Spain. The first reconnaissance flight to the area to Enjoy over the territory of the Republicans complied Lieutenant Runs. The flight passed quite easily due to the high speed aircraft that could easily go from most of the Republican fighters.
At the end of November and the departure-70 bombing Republican targets. The airstrikes targeted a power plant in the vicinity of Trempealeau and the Benefit in Catalonia. In December 1936, a few Non-70 was transferred to the South of the country, to the airport in Tablada in Seville, where he made flights in support of the garrison besieged by the Republican troops in the town of Santa Maria de La Cabeza. Not immediately-70 with tail number 14-30 performed in this district a two-hour reconnaissance flight. The data obtained allowed the group of bombers JUNKERS Ju-52 successfully bombed the positions of the Republicans.
26 Dec keep 70 up from the airport in Tablada and dropped bombs on the railway junction in Acusar de San Juan. One of the aircraft flew along the railway to the towns of Cuenca and Utiel. The result was revealed the accumulation of Republican troops and military train near Andujar, as well as a new landing strip in Manibe. Subsequently, these goals also subjected to air strikes.
In early 1937 in the Legion “Condor” begin to arrive new Not-70. The last aircraft of this batch were received in March. By this time in the 2/A. 88, there were already 30-70 two modifications, E and F. the Aircraft carried the registration number from 14-30 to 14-59.
Meanwhile, the Not-70 continued to carry out reconnaissance flights over the Central sector of the front, in particular, in the sector of Las Rozas. Then the Germans had to face in the air with Soviet aircraft—fighters I-15 and I-16, which flew Soviet pilots. After clashes with the Republican fighters, Not-70 returned with numerous injuries. During the battle, have Not Jarama-70 was actively used not only for reconnaissance but also inflicted air strikes on the positions of Republican troops.
At the end of March 1937 the Legion “Condor” was reorganized. In the 2/A. 88 arrived first scouts and bombers DORNIER Do-17F, designed to replace the Not-70. Twelve released Not-70 was transferred to the aviation nationalists, others are Not-70 yet were part of the Legion.
Do-17F debuted in the course of operations on the Basque (Northern) front. Since that time most of the reconnaissance flights deep into the rear of the Republican troops were serving these as a more modern aircraft. Well, Not-70 faded into a supporting role.
After the fall of Bilbao the Legion Condor returned to the Central sector of the front, where he stayed for only twenty days, and then again headed North and camped at the airport Harare of Pisuerga, also known under the name Kalahari Boedo. This is where the planes of the Legion flew in support of the advancing francoist parts on Santander. In the fighting squadron 88 A. actively used as a new Do-17F, and Not-70.
14 Aug 1937, Franco launched an offensive in thirteen days occupied Santander. In these battles No-70 luck: according to the Germans, in the battle on the Northern front, never lost one of these aircraft. The last area of fighting, where Not used-70 from squadron A. 88, was the province of Asturias.
September 4-70 involved in the bombing of the Republican airfield Lines. During the photographing of the results of this impact two Not-70 was attacked and shot down by fighters of the Republicans, with their crews killed. On September 22 at the airport Albericia lost another No-70: the Germans “scored an own goal” — a plane crashed Not a fighter-51.
After the fall of Asturias in late September, the Northern front had ceased to exist. Squadron of the Legion returned to Leon, province of Castile. Coming in the lull command used for carrying out the reorganization and replenishment of the units with new equipment. The latter does Not-70 was transferred to the Spanish part — the Germans left only two aircraft for the needs of communication.
Not-70 the Spanish units
In early June 1938 the aircraft was numbered 14-36, 14-45 and 14-56, was the only non-70 in the Spanish aviation. All proceeds from the Germans machine became part of a new group 7-G-14, immediately started fighting on the Central front in close interaction with individual squadrons Z-E-14 and 4-E-14, commanded by Carlos Sartorius and Antonio Rueda of Ureta. Latest in the autumn of 1938 was replaced by Fernando Martinez. The Spaniards were supposed to use their Not-70 as bombers. Division armed these aircraft took part in the battle for Truel and the ensuing battle near the town of Alfambra near Trula. Host group 7-G-14 was the original airfield in Sanjurjo near Zaragoza; later the aircraft flew in Manolo in Valencia.
The actions of the Spanish Non-70 during this period can be called quite successful. Crews were able to avoid losses and, along with that with great effectiveness to strike at ground targets. A well-managed and reconnaissance flights. Success contributed to a fairly high speed of the aircraft.
In March 1938, began a large offensive of the nationalists in Aragon towards the Mediterranean sea.
Republican territory was cut into two parts, and after 38 days the troops of Franco went out to the Mediterranean sea. Aragon, as well as a large part of the provinces of Lleida, Tarragona and Castile, was in the hands of the rebels. The fighting showed that Not 70 and is securely covered with air fighters FIAT CR-32, can act with impunity. The first Spanish Not-70 was lost only 17 of December 1937, and then at the airport. The others were also destroyed.
In the night from 24 to 25 July 1938, the Republican army suddenly crossed the river Ebro. Began the biggest and bloodiest battle of the civil war. In aerial combat met the main force aircraft of the warring parties. Left hand-70. They are assigned the task of exploration of the Republican bases and bombing concentrations of enemy troops.
Over Ebro pilots-70 first collided in the air with a new high-altitude Soviet fighter I-16 type 10 with more powerful engines, these aircraft were also fitted with oxygen equipment that allowed the pilots to feel confident in flying at high altitudes. Machines were in service with the 4th and 5th squadrons of the 26th fighter group of the Republicans.
However, even clashes with the more dangerous opponent group 7-G-14, according to the statements of Franco, suffered no losses. Only in the later battles of the Franco lost two Not-70 — single November 22, 1938, was destroyed along with the crew at the airport in the heart Truely and the other on 29 December 1938 almorox shot down in the North-West of Toledo; members of the crew of this machine was also killed.
Not-70 was used in battle until the last day of the war. Your last flight on the exploration of the location of the Republican troops in the sector Aranceto group 7-G-14 was performed on 25 Mar 1939 and 1 APR the war ended.
Not-70 after the war
After the war, the nationalists the remaining 11 planes are Not-70 distributed between the different squadrons as the aircraft communications. According to official reports of the Ministry of aviation of Spain in 1945, as part of the regional aviation there were ten Not-70. The aircraft were used as transport and communications, while four cars were in the Maestranza in Navarre, one aircraft was used on the base Menaces, one on the basis of Sanjuro in Zaragoza, two aircraft based in Villanubla, and the rest of the machine was a training airfield of the air force Academy in león.
The number of serviceable Non-70 is gradually decreased. Planes for a long time stood idle from-for absence of spare parts. Despite the difficulties in the operation of aging machines at the beginning of 1946 in the Spanish air force remained nine No-70, and in flying condition were only six cars. Some of them continued to fly until 1954. The last of the “Spanish” Not-70 allowed for scrapping in 1956.
Design of high-speed bomber Heinkel He-70E
Speed bomber-70S was a triple single-engine cantilever monoplane of mixed construction, with low wing and retractable landing gear.
All-metal fuselage is of oval section had a very clean aerodynamic shape. Constructive scheme — monocoque; power set consisted of frames, stringers and spars. Fuselage is dural. Riveting plating was carried out “itati” in order not to disrupt the smooth flow around the fuselage air flow.
Technologically the fuselage consisted of three sections: nose, Central and tail. Bow-ended power armor fire frame, to which was attached the steel tubular engine mount and water tank cooling system. In the Central section housed a fully enclosed cockpit, with maximum forward to ensure that the wing does not interfere with the pilot to monitor the ground on takeoff and landing, and to improve visibility.
The canopy pilot could shift back, and for the convenience of landing of the crew of one of the sections of the lantern on the port side of the cockpit leaned to the side. The armored pilot’s seat. The set equipment allows you to perform flights day and night in simple and adverse weather conditions. All of the instrument panel in the cockpit and the radio operator had illuminated.
For a pilot, it was located to the right of the Navigator. Navigational navigational equipment was installed on the right side of the dashboard pilot. In the cockpit the Navigator came through the front door located on the starboard side of the aircraft near the cockpit. A bad review from the workplace of the Navigator went on to become one of the main reasons for removing the aircraft from service and transferring him to a supporting role.
Immediately behind the cockpit, fairing housed the tank and fairing mounted front of the broadcast antenna and the coil antenna radio. Between the cockpit and arrow-scorer housed a bomb Bay with a vertical container for bombs. Optionally, instead of containers you can install an additional 280-litre fuel tank.
Cabin arrow-scorer was behind the bomb Bay. In addition to sighting equipment for the bombing, there were radio station FuG-VIIIR/T, 7,9-mm machine gun MG-15, first aid kit and oxygen equipment. In the floor of the cabin had a window-the window for aiming and monitoring. The cockpit was closed the transparent canopy, two sections of which had moved forward, providing access to the cabin, and in an emergency situation — quick bailout.
For cabin hand-scorer followed the end section of the fuselage with the tail and the crutch.
The two-spar wing, free-bearing, of mixed construction. It consisted of a center section and two consoles and had elliptical in shape, which was typical for most aircraft firm Heinkel at the time. The power set consisted of two steel spars and set of ribs. Wing skin is plywood. In the console there was a niche cut-outs for cleaning the main landing gear. In the center section, between the root ribs and recesses of the cleaning landing gear housed two fuel tanks (one left and right) with a capacity of 210 liters each. The mechanization of the wing was presented to the flaps-the flaps and ailerons. On the left console was fixed receiver air pressure (LDPE), and the wingtips were navigation lights.
Tail two-spar, of mixed construction, with metal power set. The fin and stabilizer were sheathed with plywood, and the rudder pitch and direction — cloth. On the rudders and height were installed operated trimmers. The wiring of the Elevator control hard. Trimmers deviated by rotating the knob on the left side of the cockpit.
The chassis is typical for the early 30-ies of the tricycle scheme with the tail crutch. Main landing gear retracted and released by a hydraulic system. Wheel size 900×200 mm equipped with pneumatic brakes. After retraction of the niche was closed by flaps, which significantly improved the aerodynamics of the wing.
The performance characteristics of the modifications of the aircraft Not HEINKEL-70 BLITZ
The power plant of the aircraft consisted of inline 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engines BMW-VI7.3Z with a capacity of 750 liters .with. with two-bladed metal propeller with a constant pitch; a later modification of the aircraft is Not-Not 170-270 was equipped with a three-blade metal propellers variable pitch in flight. The motor had the exhaust manifolds instead they had individual exhaust pipes.
The engine was mounted on steel tubular Motorama using rubber anti-vibration pads. The water tank was fixed on force fireproof bulkhead, oil tank—motorhome under the engine. Remove using a rope system, the radiator was located in front of the power frame.
The armament of the aircraft consisted of defensive 7.9 mm machine gun MG-15 with ammo 450 rounds (six stores) installed on a movable pivot mounting in the cockpit the radio operator and bomb armament. Bombs (6х50кг or 24х10кг) was placed vertically in the fuselage bomb Bay.
A. CHECHIN, N. Food reserve was, Kharkov