equipped with two-stroke 4-cylinder 120-horsepower diesel engine model yaz-204, allowing it to reach speeds up to 65 km/h, while consuming 30 – 35 litres of diesel per 100 km.
The first self-created trucks of Minsk automobile plant have become all-wheel drive 7-ton all-terrain vehicle MAZ-501 with a gable of the rear wheels and released on its basis army trucks MAZ-502 and MAZ-502А with single rear wheels /a-line 6-Chi-landrover diesel engine YAMZ-236 180 HP and winch self-recovery winch on the front bumper.
On the basis of a 7-ton diesel truck, the designers of the Minsk automobile plant has developed a model of MAZ-200G lattice sides and folding benches in the back, tractor MAZ-200V, who worked in tandem with the prefab KM-24, SCP-and SCP 9M-12 and for transporting the wall panels and concrete blocks for building houses.
In the middle 1950-x of years at Minsk automobile plant, appealed to the leaders of the Kuibyshev hydroelectric station, a request to create a dump truck with side unloading of the body. A prototype of such a truck with an index of MAZ-506 appeared in 1954. It had a steel dump body with hydraulic mechanism for tilting it to the right or left side fixed front and rear sides. Prototypes of the new car passed serious tests and has been recommended in production. And in 1956 MAZ mastered his limited-edition release.
The truck MAZ-200 was mounted cranes, powerful fire tanker trucks used to extinguish fires at oil storage and fire escapes ATSL-45 – the longest in the Soviet Union.
Since 1962, the part of cars MAZ-200 has started to equip with more perfect diesel engine – V-shaped 6-cylinder YAMZ-236 with a capacity of 165 HP; the fuel efficiency of this motor was 10 percent higher than the inline 4-cylinder, yaz-204.
In the early 1960s the designers of the Minsk automobile plant began to design a completely new cabover truck MAZ-500 with the cabin located over the engine.
It should be noted that the European car company produced trucks of this type in pre-war years, and the beginning of 1960-ies, these machines accounted for a significant part of the fleet of trucks.
However, “beskapotniki” had one drawback, which did not suit the military – patency was lower than that of cars with hood. The fact that load distribution of y bonnet of the truck unloaded the front driven wheel, not allowing them to dig into the soil. However, the weight of such machines in case of other equal conditions was less than that of conventional trucks, which saves the metal and to reduce fuel consumption, increase the capacity of the truck and improve its maneuverability.
In the middle of 1950-ies the design of “beskapotniki” began at several domestic factories, but the greatest success has achieved designers MAZ-N. Kuzmin, L. Gilels, A. Wagon, I. Demidovich, N. Yankov, L. and Lavrent’eva F. Revzin, who worked under the leadership of talented designer and organizer M. S. Vysotsky. For the creation of heavy vehicles and road trains MAZ-500 group of specialists of the Minsk automobile plant was awarded the title of laureates of State prize of the USSR.
The layout of the chassis of the car MAZ-500:
1 – front bumper; 2 – front spring; 3 – engine; 4 – coupling; 5 – gearbox; 6 – frame; 7 – driveline; 8 – rear spring; 9 – rear axle; 10 – the Central transmission brake; 11 – cooler; 12 – steering
The transition to production of the new truck, not unified with the car the predecessor, allowed its creators to introduce into the design of many advanced technical solutions. On the MAZ-500 appeared telescopic double-action shock absorbers, power steering, planetary gears in the hubs of the rear wheels. And, most unusual, is pushed forward cabin, which greatly simplified maintenance and repair of the machine. But a more rational load distribution on the axles allowed to increase the capacity of the vehicle and also reduce the database and the overall length of the car.
The first prototypes of the “beskapotniki” rolled from the gates of MAZ in November 1958 – that was onboard MAZ-500 and the dump truck MAZ-503. MAZ-500 was 300 mm shorter than the “bonnet” onboard MAZ-200, but the platform it was 300 mm longer, and this allowed the MAZ-500 to take on Board cargo at 0.5 tons more than its predecessor. With all that new car MAZ-500 was a spacious cabin with comfortable sleeping compartment. Accordingly, cabover dump truck MAZ-503 had a capacity of 0.4 tons more than conventional predecessor.
In the design process “beskapotniki” Maza designers paid considerable attention to the appearance of these trucks, and first – cabin design with rounded shapes, suitable more for buses than for the Soviet truck at the time. In particular, did not immediately given to the artists-designers of radiator shell – they had to draw and spacetravel least six variants before to make a choice in favor of the most technologically advanced grid with thirteen vertical slits.
And so it became the first production hoodless MAZ, descended from the factory conveyor 16 March 1965.
In addition to layout and design, new truck differed from its predecessor in a fundamentally different engine. Let me remind you that the MAZ-200 was equipped with inline 4-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine with 120 HP, and the MAZ-500 – four-stroke 6-cylinder V-shaped 180-horsepower diesel engine YAMZ-236.