UNFORGETTABLE 965 minutes

UNFORGETTABLE 965 thPrototype car ZAZ-965A FIAT-600Car extra small class ZAZ-965. 2008-the year of Reykjavik, the annual auto show antique automobile club of America. Acoountable to the surprise of the audience, the winner of the car class “ultra-retro-compact” became a Soviet car ZAZ-965 “Zaporozhets” from Kiev Alexei Martynenko. Keeping the car from the podium, he immediately established another record by selling it to some American millionaire in 365 thousand euros!

 

The story of ZAZ-965, the first domestic mini-car, or, as they say now, the car very small class, goes back to the mid-1950s years, when the Moscow plant of small cars (MZMA) ceased production of the cheapest at the time 401-th of “Moskvich” and moved on to the release of the 402-th — more expensive, though more modern.
 
I must say that in the postwar years, the automobile industry in Europe given the extremely low solvency of the population have relied on compact and inexpensive subcompact cars — in Germany it was autoscooter Messerschmitt three-wheeled, four-wheeled micro cars BMW-Sally, Zundapp Janus and Heinkel-Kabine, Italy — FIAT-500 and FIAT 600, in France — Citroen 2SV, Mochet and Coggomobil. Well before the Soviet automobile industry the challenge of mass motorization of the population and were not ideologues of the time proclaimed for our country, the priority development of public transport — tram, trolleybus, bus and, in a pinch, a taxi.
 
For the first time in our country, the initiative to create affordable mass car has been shown by the leadership of the Irbit motorcycle plant (IMZ), which produced at that time heavy motorcycle M-72 with sidecar. The workers suggested on the basis of major components of the motorcycle to organize at IMZ manufacture of car very small class. The development of the project was entrusted to Scientific automotive Institute (NAMI), with the result expected to have a promising design, quite comfortable and unpretentious in operation and is unassuming to the quality of roads in the same way as a motorcycle with a sidecar.
One of the main creators minicar became known avtokonstruktor and designer, candidate of technical Sciences Y. Dolmatovsky. Add — for many years he was a permanent member of the editorial Board of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor” and a regular contributor. In the early 1950-ies Yuri Dolmatovsky, in collaboration with the designer Vladimir Ramowym worked on the concept car rear-wheel drive wagon, which provided a compact, higher capacity, comfort and lower drag coefficient. Such a layout was chosen, and for the future of the mini car.
 
The creation of two prototypes of the car called “Protein”, took less than a year. Accelerated work on the car contributed to the “Kremlin” show in the summer of 1955 cars of small European heads of state headed by N. With.Khrushchev shortly before the events of the Ministry of motor industry was bought a batch of these machines.
 
The first prototype of the national car — compact car
 
The first prototype of the national car — compact car “Squirrel” designed by Y. Dolmatovsky.
 
Rural variant
 
SEL variant Proteins
 
A prototype of the first domestic car of especially small class
 
A prototype of the first domestic car of especially small class “Zaporozhets” ZAZ-965 was approved by the Italian FIAT 600 of 1955 edition
 
It was assumed that at an impromptu meeting, the First Secretary of the Central Committee will give valuable guidance to Soviet automakers and tell me which of the mini cars will become the prototype of the first Soviet compact car. During the meeting, Nikita Sergeyevich showed pictures of “Whites” — he became more interested in domestic development, and ordered to urgently produce prototypes of the unusual car.
 
In the short term have constructed five models of cars. Unfortunately, their test is not reached — on orders over engines were removed and installed on the developed in the design office MZMA prototypes of the future “Zaporozhets”, called the “Moskvich-444”. The prototype for the machine the Minister of the automotive industry N. And.The Strokin approved Italian car very small class FIAT-600. Minicar design was led by chief designer MZMA A. F. Andronov.
 
It should be noted that the compact FIAT-600 were chosen as sample no accident — this car launched the series in 1955, was the last word of the Italian car industry, which had huge experience of creation of similar cars. This gave hope that we are made in his image and likeness the car to be release long enough.
 
A sample of the first Soviet compact car “based on” FIAT-600 was built in October 1957. The car was not an absolute copy of “the six hundredth” — when the external similarity of the diameter of its tires has increased from 12 to 13 inches for increased clearance and, as a consequence, permeability. In turn, the large wheels required changes to the suspension kinematics, increased wheel arches and, accordingly, adjust the layout of the cabin.
 
ZAZ-965 (left) and FIAT-600 (right) — as they say, feel the difference
 
ZAZ-965 (left) and FIAT-600 (right) — as they say, feel the difference
 
Geometric scheme of the car ZAZ-965A
 
The geometric scheme of the car ZAZ-965A
 
The layout of suspension ZAZ-965
 
The layout of the chassis ZAZ-965
 
Front suspension
 
Front suspension
 
Rear suspension
 
Rear suspension
 
MeMZ-966 engine of the car ZAZ-965A
 
MeMZ-966 engine of the car ZAZ-965A “Zaporozhets”
 
Another important difference from the “six” became the engine — on the Italian machine was installed 4-cylinder “four” liquid cooling and a future “Zaporozhets” equipped at first motor 2-cylinder boxer engine air-cooled MD-65 production Eames. However, because of the development of the Carter, the prototype had to be equipped with reduction gears — the only way to ensure acceptable vehicle clearance.
 
The test car demonstrated a complete unfitness for his motorcycle engine. The engine on the stand capacity of 17.5 HP did not provide the car you need speakers. And the maximum speed of 80 km/h was significantly below the design is 95 km/h could Not withstand criticism and the reliability of the motor — mileage cars before major repair was only 30 thousand kilometers.
 
Had the designers of the MZMA and the US to undertake the design of a new motor. As samples were used powertrain from the vehicles, Citroen 2CV, BMW 600 and the VW Kafer (beetle), the Most acceptable from the point of view of the designers of the 444-th turned boxer engine in the US, patterned motor VW. With this powertrain the car was quite possible to run in the series.
 
The production of a new minicar in accordance with the decision of the Board of the state planning Commission decided to not post on MZMA (he was fully occupied with the production of the “Muscovites”), and to create a new car under new car factory at the former combine plant “Kommunar” in Zaporozhye. For the record — this company was founded in Alexandrov (so until 1921 was called the city) in 1863 for the manufacture of agricultural implements. In the Soviet years the plant was reconstructed and expanded, then the enterprise under the name “Kommunar” began to produce harvesters.
The production of engines for mini-cars was scheduled to deploy on the former light plant marine diesel engines in the city of Melitopol. However, it was proposed to use for the machine not the boxer motor US-IN, US-G, which, according to experts from the state planning Commission, was designed to a higher technical level. He, however, had a flaw — the designers designed the motor in such a way that it can be installed only in front of the car! But the planning Commission was a powerful argument — NAMI-G, which were created by the specialists of VPK as the power unit for easy desantiruemye amphibians, was almost ready for serial production.
 
In spite of the strong objections of the developers of the car, 23-HP engine, won the series name MeMZ-965, approved for installation on a minicar. However, its dimensions differed in a big way from the size of those motors that were installed on the 444-th before, so the back of the machine had to redo it to change the rear fenders, and smooth the cowl is made convex. At the same time had to adjust the layout of the engine — in particular, that his unit, which consisted of a transmission, the crankcase of clutch, differential and transfer case.
 
Ready minicar called ZAZ-965 “Zaporozhets”. July 18, 1960, the car was taken to “assert” in the Kremlin.
 
Test driver A. V. Skidanenko drove N. With.Khrushchev along the building of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to the Ivanovo area and back. Nikita the car is approved, advising the financiers to set it not too high a price, which was done — the cost of “Zaporozhets” was 12, OOO rubles (after the denomination of 1961 — 1200 rubles).
 
Serial production of the minicar was launched on 25 October 1960, before the end of the year, the plant assembled about a thousand machines.
 
In 1966, the car was upgraded and was equipped with a more powerful 27-horsepower engine with a displacement 0,887 liters, steering wheel with recessed hub, the front under the headlights (not on the wings, as at machines of the first releases), the mouldings along the side of the body and the grille panel front end.
 
Many enthusiasts consider minicar ZAZ-965 as the object for tuning, creating on the basis of these cars are gorgeous specimens of automotive design
 
Many enthusiasts consider minicar ZAZ-965 as the object for tuning, creating on the basis of these cars are magnificent examples of automotive design
 
965 was awaited and therefore the favorite child of the Soviet people. This was facilitated by its relative affordability, and excellent maintainability (say that to disassemble and re-assemble a miniature car could almost any more or less competent driver), and fantastic maneuverability due to smooth bottoms and proper weight distribution along the axes (even firmly entrenched in the mud a 650-pound “Zaporozhets” easily pulled from the crew minicar) and great economy (car spent a total of 6.5 liters of 76 octane gasoline per hundred kilometres) and, in the end, high strength and stiffness two-door body.
 
Nine years of continued production, “the hunchback”, during this time, Zaporozhye automobile plant produced 166 302 of the machines, and then happened what often happens with many of our factories that forget sometimes that created and cultivated over many years of consumer liking in relation to manufactured goods, which are now a capacious term “brand” is as invaluable as design and design solutions incorporated into the product. A favorite of Soviet motorists, the car was removed from production and instead began production of a totally expressionless ZAZ-966, which in size and price differed from the “Muscovites” and “Lada” slightly, and consumption characteristics — quite radically.
 
The design of the ZAZ-965A
 
ZAZ-965A “Zaporozhets” is a frameless quadruple two-door subcompact car very small class with a monocoque private body. Carbureted engine, 4-cylinder, OHV, /- shaped, its power — 27 HP, it is located together with the transmission units in the rear. Fuel — gasoline A-76, fuel consumption — 5,9 l/100 km; maximum speed — 90 km/h.
 
ZAZ-965A had upgraded powertrain model MeMZ-966 production Melitopol engine plant, which included the actual engine, clutch and transmission with the main transfer. All engine components are mounted on a common crankcase cast from magnesium alloy. On top of the crankcase has a separate cast-iron cylinders, arranged in two rows at an angle of 90 degrees. On the outer surface of each cylinder cast in cooling fins. On top of each pair of cylinders fixed through the common strip finned head, made of light alloy.
The pistons are cast aluminum alloy. Crankshaft having four crank located in pairs in mutually perpendicular planes, was mounted on three indigenous bearings in front and rear walls of the crankcase and in the middle of his wall.
 
ZAZ-965A, the latest release packaged with the upgraded 30 HP model engine MeMZ-966А.
 
The mechanisms driving the drive wheels of the vehicle, including the main transmission and the differential with axle shafts, installed in the common transmission with the crankcase attached to the crankcase of the engine.
 
The driver
 
The driver:
 
1 — throttle, 2 – the gear shift lever; 3 — the brake pedal; 4 clutch pedal; 5 — the handle of the hood lock of the trunk; 6 – horn button: 7—the switch of a washer pump; 8 — instrument panel; steering wheel 9: 10 — sunshade; 11 — rear view mirror; 12 — signal lamp of emergency oil pressure: 13—rocker switch on wiper blades; 14 — Central light switch; 15 — the ignition; 16 — the switch of indexes of turn; 17—the control lamp of the generator; 18 — the switch atopy gel; 19 — warning lamp for normal operation of the heater; 20 — arm dampers of a heater; 21 — button choke control carb (“choke”); 22 — the lever of a hand (Parking) brake

 
A dashboard of a car ZAZ-965 had the required minimum gauges: speedometer with trip meter, indicators have equal fuel and oil temperature, the repeater of
 
A dashboard of a car ZAZ-965 had the required minimum gauges: speedometer with trip meter, indicators have equal fuel and oil temperature, the repeater of “flashing lights” turn indicator light and the headlights
 
Trunk
Trunk
 
The trunk of “Zaporozhets”—it housed the spare wheel, fuel tank and battery, while the space for the payload was quite a bit
 
The car is equipped with a dry single-plate clutch with peripheral spaced springs and driven off from the pedal. Pressed steel clutch cover in which is located the pressure disc with six compression springs bolted to the engine flywheel. Between the flywheel and pressure plate is the clutch disc with friction linings.
 
ZAZ-965A installed twin-shaft four-speed transmission with synchronizers to enable second, third and fourth gears. All transmission mechanisms are mounted in the crankcase was cast of light alloy, along with Carter, the main transmission and is attached to the clutch housing.
 
The rear drive wheels have independent suspension. Bracket drive shaft of each of the drive wheels mounted on swinging corner duplicem the control arm. In wheel suspension used coil spring, inside which there are telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers.
 
Car wheel —disc, lightweight, with a deep symmetrical rim; wheels tires — tubeless. The characteristic feature of the “Zaporozhets” is a large enough rear camber, which, however, under normal load became almost invisible.
 
The front wheels have independent suspension. The elastic element of the front suspension is a pair of torsion bars of rectangular cross section composed of steel plates and installed in tubular housings. The latter is rigidly secured across the vehicle in front of the base body.
 
Shock absorbers, front suspension hydraulic, telescopic type.
 
The steering mechanism of a car ZAZ-965A is a pair of globoid worm and dvuhgorbogo roller. The latter is fixed on the axis of the shaft of the steering Pitman arm on ball bearings. A worm mounted in said housing on two tapered roller bearings fixed on the lower end of the steering shaft. Carter of the steering mechanism mounted on the base bracket body, and the steering column to the bracket on the flap of the body. Steering wheel with two spokes mounted on the upper end of the steering shaft. The horn button is located in the center of the “donut”.
 
Brake system ZAZ-965 includes a drum (drum) brakes hydraulically operated from a foot pedal. Rear brakes to perform the same function and have the handbrake cable from the lever located between the front seats of the car.
 
This year, the first Soviet people’s car turns 50 years old. As can be seen in connection with the anniversary, the leaders of Zaporizhzhya automobile plant decided to revive the minicar, became in time the real embodiment of the dreams of our fellow citizens on your own car. It is assumed production of modern car stylized as the ZAZ-965, as was done with cars FIAT 500, VW Beetle or Citroen 2CV. Well, then, that the “hunchback” to the present time there are a lot of fans, confirmed by the numerous rallies and vintage car show, as well as clubs and community lovers 965 “Zaporozhets”. Many Amateur historians of the car industry and mechanics-lovers meticulously, down to the last detail restore vintage cars, and many enthusiasts consider these mini-cars as the object for tuning, creating database 965-x gorgeous specimens of automotive design. Well, the small part continues to ride the “humpback”, causing a kind smile at the drivers of oncoming and passing vehicles.
 
Technical characteristics of the car ZAZ-965A
 
 
I. EVSTRATOV

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