WHERE THE ASPHALT ENDS

ZIL-157Readers of the older generation, of course, well remember during the last war. Autumn impassability of roads, forty-one, broken tracks and wheels, smeshannye thousands of feet, frontage roads pitted with craters-graders. And the impotence of the machinery such enduring and seemingly unpretentious trucks and trentodoc, mounted, “on diver” every two hundred metres. In those years in off-road conditions clearly emerged (and later confirmed repeatedly) that designers of transport equipment, not forgetting about the usual machines adapted for movement on the road, you need to pay more attention to the all-terrain vehicles. The country needed a wheeled all-terrain vehicles, combining the speed of “normal” and indifference to road conditions tracked vehicles.

And among the machines, successfully combining these requirements, the number of post-war truck off-road vehicle ZIL-157.
 
This phenomenal cross for his time machine with a characteristic appearance, as if preserving the memory of the war years, is still common on our roads. About*lady powerful and reliable engine, three driving axles and Yes even a special winch for self-recovery, she was able to lead the caravan, on his way to distant places in the far North or winter in the Altai. She is not afraid of any Ukrainian black earth, nor slurp the viscous clay of the middle band nor loose Sands of Central Asian deserts. In short, the ZIL-157 and its many modifications, became an important milestone of the domestic automotive industry and therefore has earned the right to a detailed story about yourself.
 
So, we present today the ZIL-157…
Truck all terrain vehicle ZIL-157 is an improved modification widespread in the 50-ies of the car ZIL-151. This three-axle vehicle with all-wheel drive has a curb weight 5540 kg and capable of carrying 4.5 t of cargo plus 2.5 tons of cargo on the trailer. Its important difference from the basic model of the ZIL-151—self-recovery winch. The designers have also included the centralized control of tire pressure, which facilitated the movement in various road conditions.
 
The ZIL 157 index lucky in road transport in many ways. Easy to operate and undemanding, this machine worked and are working in various sectors of the economy.
 
Fig. 1. ZIL-157 (side view and top). Fig. 1. ZIL-157 (side view and top).
Fig. 1. ZIL-157 (side view and top).
 
Fig. 2. Controls and control devices of the vehicle ZIL-157
 
Fig. 2. Controls and control devices of the vehicle ZIL-157:
 
1 — shift lever transfer case, 2 — throttle, 3 — brake pedal, 4 — foot light switch, 5 — shift gear 6 — clutch pedal 7 — steering wheel, 8 — instrument panel, 9 — switch of turn indicators, 10 — control arm, grille, 11 — the valve of the air wiper blade, 12 — gauge brake system, 13 — gauge air pressure in siyah, 14 — arm ventilation hatch lid, 15 — pedal starter, 16 — unit tire cranes, 17 — the lever of a manual brake, 18 — lever for front axle, 19 — lever for the winch.

 
Fig. 3. Scheme suspension the front axle.
 
Fig. 3. Scheme suspension the front axle.

 
ZIL-157 (front).
 
ZIL-157 (front view).
 
R and S. 4 Scheme of the suspension of the rear axles.
 
Fig. 4 diagram of the suspension of the rear axles.
 
R and p. 5. Appearance suspension rear axles.
Fig. 5. Appearance of the suspension of the rear axles.

 
R and p. 6. The location of the propeller gear in the car.
R and S. 6. The location of the propeller gear in the car.

 
In addition, high performance truck made it in the eyes of designers great base model to create various modifications. So, in 1958, on the roads of the country appeared truck tractor ZIL-157В. He was able to tow a trailer with a load of 6 to 11 t (depending on road conditions). Later released ZIL-157Г, the essential feature of which was screened electrical equipment. Then created a machine with index “E” — her cabin was adapted for the mounting of special bodies (for example, a mobile workshop).
In 1961 the ZIL-157 was replaced on the conveyor even more perfect model, which received index “157К”. Its main characteristic was the increased passability. Appearance modification is almost no different from favorite drivers car, but in a number of units of ZIL designers have made very significant improvements, increased engine life, improved reliability and performance. So, for the first time on a truck used single-disc clutch, hand brake with drum-type, telescopic dampers, in addition, upgraded gearbox.
 
Fig. 7. Structurally-kinematic scheme of the transmission model of the ZIL-157
 
Fig. 7. Structurally-kinematic scheme of the transmission model of the ZIL-157:
 
1 — swivel axle of the front wheel, 2 — shaft, 3 — ball joint with {alcami, 4 — rod, 5 — motor, 6 — speed transfer case, 7 — cardan joint shaft, 8 — the telescopic connection 9 — differential housing, 10 — pinion, 11—cylindrical satellites, 12 bronze bushing, 13 — drive axle shaft, 14 is the driven gear.

 
To be clearer, in what way was this period of design ideas, see, for example, changed the axle load of the vehicle — a figure very significant for the characteristics of its behavior on the road. The ZIL-151, the front axle load was 2390 kg, rear — 7840 kg Model ZIL-157К has different numbers: 2770 and 7420. Needless to say, as a beneficial impact for change “alignment”, given to the months of hard work prochnistov, builders, as its increased running and performance!
 
The ZIL-157К too soon came the “younger brothers”: the truck tractor, tanker, car tank, chassis cab for the installation of special bodies and others. They are released in Grozny and Kharkov, collect and in other cities, but everywhere on the hood left emblem homeland machine — the famous automobile plant named after Likhachev.
 
TIPS ON MODELING
 
The constructive scheme of the prototype mainly determines the class of the future model. Truck-terrain vehicle ZIL-157 was the most appropriate sample for building RC or electromodel. A large body allows you to conveniently place the equipment or the motor power supply, and single tires on rear axles provide low rolling resistance when driving ia turns. This is very important for electromodel competing on the speed along the circular track or RC track, passing complex shaped track.
 
As you know, the model on the bench examination will be awarded points as per availability of respective nodes and the quality of their production. A complete copy of the transmission ZIL-157 allows you to gain a significant number of points. To nodes, which gives extra points (compared to a normal car scheme) include: transfer case, drive shafts (5 PCs) and differentials in all axles. The award credits is estimated also, each drive axle (over one), provided by the design of the car prototype.
When making the cockpit a great help would be “visual material” — ZIL-150, in large quantity operated in the national economy. “Those machines” differ only in the shape of the wings and the location of the headlights. Similar and inside equipment, with the exception of the control lever transfer case and valves pumping cylinders. Instrument panel and cab door from the inside, painted dark green, the ceiling is covered with dark gray fiber floors black rubber Mat with cutouts for the levers. The same color steering wheel and controls transmission and brakes. The lower part of the seat is divided into two unequal lobes: the smaller of the driver and the passengers.
 
The shape of the discs and tire sizes (12,00X18) installed on the ZIL-157, are the same as on the Rover of the Gorky automobile plant GAZ-63.
 
All the cars that went with Belovskogo conveyor, painted in dark green (military) color. The onboard version of the car represented in our drawing, has folding seats along the long sides for passengers and a removable canvas awning is installed on the arcs. The color of the awning — green.
 
BRIEF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
 
Dimensions, mm:
 
length (without winch) — 6684
 
Width — 2315
 
cab height — 2360
 
base — 4225
 
clearance — 310
 
Track of wheels, mm
 
front — 1755
 
rear — 1750
 
Speed max., km/h — 65
 
Minimum turning radius on the track of the outer front wheel, mm — 12000
 
Atideo:
 

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