WINTER TRANSPORT

WINTER TRANSPORTThe history of Scientific automotive Institute (NAMI) as head of the state organization is traditionally measured from October 16, 1918, when on the basis of the automotive laboratory of the Moscow technical school was established Scientific automobile laboratory(NAL) scientific and technical Department of the Supreme economic Council. March 14, 1920, the CASH was reorganized into the Institute of US.

 
THE FIRST EXPERIMENTS
 
In the beginning the Institute was headed by Professor N. R. , Brilling. In 1899, Brilling, then still a student of the Bauman*, was arrested and a year exiled to Ufa province for distribution of the newspaper “Iskra”. From 1900 to 1902, until the next arrest, he continued training. After the new arrest, in 1902, Brilling went abroad to continue his education. In 1904, on his return to Russia, were not allowed to defend the graduation project because of the new arrest, and then again went abroad, where he graduated in 1906 the Dresden technical school. In the same year, Brilling back and defended in Bauman graduation project internal combustion engines, and in 1907 he defended his doctoral thesis on the topic: “Losses in steam turbine blades of the wheel”. With 1908, Brilling taught in school (since 1917 in the rank of Professor). In 1915 on the initiative of the Brilling in Bauman began training in vehicle engines, and the Institute was organized by the automotive laboratory. During the First world war, the factory of the all-Russian Zemstvo Union in Sokolniki was built snowmobile construction.R. The Brilling and A. S. Cousin brand VSS. During the Civil war to the organized employees of US and TSAGI Commission on the construction of snowmobiles “Compass” was tasked with ensuring the red Army all-terrain vehicles, and first of all – a snowmobile.
 
“Compass” was made and entered on the supply of the red Army snowmobile Beck. After another, though short, of Brilling’s arrest on suspicion of anti-Soviet activities and the actual liquidation in the second half of 1922 “Compass” further work in the development of all-terrain transport institutions US and TSAGI were on their own.
 
The civil war ended, the country began a period of peaceful development. In this regard, October 2, 1922 US, according to the Decree of the Supreme economic Council Protocol № 214, passed on a partial cost accounting in order to “work routine in nature performed for the credit of the NTO, and work order application on behalf of individual institutions was performed at the expense of the latter.” The structure of the US by this time was composed of seven laboratories: cars, light engines, heavy engines, tractors, motorcycles, thermodynamic, winter transport. In addition, there was a library technical library, publishing house, Museum, design Bureau, workshop and administrative part. Later, WE did the reorganization, during which the Lab winter transport transform to the Department. From 1 December 1924 Division (laboratory) of winter transportation was in charge of A. C. cousins.
 
The tasks of the unit included: the study of the properties of snow pound, “finding structures and their development on a line of snowmobile and sleigh”, as well as creating designs of adaptations to cars and motorcycles to improve their performance on snowy roads. Later a question was raised about the organization experienced operating lines on the snowy road to the sled and sleigh. Test ski and study of the properties of snow of the ground was carried out in a special laboratory setting, representing a mounted on the ski platform, loaded with ballast. Towing platform in the field was carried out by animal traction. The disadvantages of this method of testing has been uneven thrust exercised by the jerks, so it was designed to install engine hoist to move the sled. In addition to the winch was designed but never manufactured, “mobile laboratory snowmobiles to determine the main meters, such as propeller thrust on the move, the engine power and its characteristics, the friction coefficient of the ski, the stability of the sled speed, determining the removal of skis, etc.” and braking machines for the tracks of the sleigh. In addition, jointly with the war Department of the OGPU and other concerned agencies participated in the testing of domestic and foreign all-terrain vehicles.
 
Snowmobile CAS-V in the run of 1926
 
Snowmobile CAS-V in the run of 1926
 
Snowmobile NRB-III run of 1926
 
Snowmobile NRB-III run of 1926
 
Snowmobile NRB-IV run of 1926
 
Snowmobile NRB-IV run of 1926
 
Unlike the TSAGI built at dural (kolchougaluminium-tions) spacecraft in the US due to lack of use of nonferrous metals tried to minimize it. Therefore, when developing trails, machines US, with a few exceptions, the preference for solid wooden or mixed constructions. The laboratory (later Department) was built and tested several types of snowmobiles: stamps of Bulgaria and the CAS of different models, US-36 and others that were tested in we runs in 1924, 1926 and 1927 in conjunction with the snowmobile TSAGI and some others. In the run of 1924 Moscow – Nizhny Novgorod – Moscow started 11 snowmobile design TSAGI, US and the sledge improvised Voenved (garage RVS). To return to Moscow could only have five cars, and the other came from a run on the cause of serious damage. NRB-1 at the 80th mile away from Moscow has broken the two main lower spar of the body of the sled. NRB-111 left at the 154th mile-due to the water leakage in the cylinder. ANT-sh ceased to run due to failed motor mounts. On ANTL was broken skids. ANT-M crashed, falling from the bridge due to failure of steering control. Snowmobile of Voenved dropped out of the run on the 17th verst from Moscow “as a result of breakage of the screw and the radiator, which occurred during a jump from a snow ramp, not marked with a warning sign and unknown to the driver of the snowmobile”. As noted by the representative of the military Department A. A. Krzywicki, “most of the sled out of the run due to breakdowns, the cause of which must be sought in the fragility of the sleigh.” The design of the snowmobiles were widely used aircraft technology, however, as shown, “all these trastovye stretch very soon upset by those of the aftershocks of the sledge journey which you don’t have to deal with airplanes”. All experimental work on snegohodnomu transport treated seasonal. Based on the experimental data and the results of runs of the design is finalized and issued revised drawings.
 
A FLAMING ENGINE
 
Important was the question of providing we the construction of motors. In this regard, A. A. Krzywicki said: “the Snowmobiles are one of the most suitable ways of using the engines, why or unsuitable for airplanes. Therefore, the degree distribution depends in part on the availability of such neutiliziruemoy in aviation engines, as it takes place in Russia. Suitable for an airplane motor, should be put on him, not on a snowmobile”.
 
In the manufacture of the first snowmobiles, WE used mainly illiquid preowned motors. At the same time in warehouses were in the presence of a large number of used aircraft engines of the previous models obsolete for aviation. Most suitable stored in the warehouses for new motors water cooling were considered: nine-star “Aero -” with a capacity of 150 and 160 HP inline-six-cylinder “Hall-Scott” – 125 HP; eight-cylinder Hispano Suiza 150 HP.
 
Motors “Hall-Scott” was used in the sled VSS and BECK, as well as many artisanal samples of sledges and boats. Motors Hispano Suiza produced at the plant “Icarus”, however, the quality of performance was not high and after making 23 pieces of their production ceased. Operation of motors with liquid cooling, especially in the absence of special nonfreezing coolants and lubricants for sub-zero temperatures is quite time consuming, therefore, most desirable motors were air-cooled. Such motors in our country is not mass produced, but for use on snowmobiles could alter the motor with liquid to air cooling. To rework best suited engines “Aero -“, and 9 June 1927 US with UWS was awarded the contract for “reengineering” for sanitary snowmobile motor with water cooling for air. The task was to replace water cooling air and the change of attachment of the cylinder to enable capture of each cylinder independently from the others without disassembling the motor. All the work on the calculation and parkostroyeniya was conducted by the Department for two and a half months. WE redid the motors “Aero -” (150 HP) by making the aluminum heads and navertyvanija them on the glasses of the cylinders of the engine, after the preliminary removal of copper jackets. Work on the fit, the overall assembling and fabrication of some parts was performed by the laboratory of winter transport. Manufacture of all other parts, except cylinders, produced in the studios of the US. The result obtained are quite reliable motors, which in the preliminary test showed a very smooth ride, giving 168 BHP at 1400 rpm. “These converted engines have been very reliable and comfortable although a little heavy.” Motors “US-Aero -“, in addition to the tests on the stand, was tested on the experimental snowmobiles, in particular, US-V, US-VIII.
 
Snowmobile NRB-V participated in the we run in 1927
 
Snowmobile NRB-V participated in the we run in 1927
 
A leading role in the development of engines WE have played a major designer and head of the aviation Department A. A. Mikulin, who worked at the Institute from 13 October 1923, After the elimination of Compass Mikulin worked at the same time a Director, chief designer, chief engineer and chief technologist of the handicraft factory, producing metal utensils. However, Professor Brilling managed to captivate Mikulin work in US with a salary ten times less, moreover, the original Mikulin was listed in the Institute as a draftsman. At this time, the design Bureau of the US “was a group of three engineers who developed the motor UXO, motor dual compression and expansion 100 HP”. Later there were other work – oil engine, different engines, Glossary engine order Sptecbureau, conversion of engines for snowmobiles etc.
 
Mikulin was personally involved in the testing of new motors in the sled.
 
PLENTY OF PLANS
 
In the future, the snowmobile and the sleigh WE had to do to supply the military Department and to the national economy. For the air force was proposed by the state, according to which the marine parks of the 1st and 2nd digits, Aviapark 1st and 2nd level, separate detachment artillery spotters, reconnaissance squadrons, attack aircraft, light bombers had to be composed of sanitary snowmobile and snowmobile airfield service. Squadrons of heavy vehicles was assumed to match only the sanitary snowmobile. On assignment for the military and for the national economy were constructed and tested several models of snowmobiles US. 8 Jul 1927 military was contracted with US for the design of sanitary snowmobiles for the needs of UWS. Prospective snowmobile was named US-VI. In the first series snowmobile was supposed to supply the converted for air-cooled engines “Aero -“, which was supposed to organize at plant No. 29.
 
Snowmobile US-VI (fabrication drawing)
 
Snowmobile US-VI (fabrication drawing)
 
However, the introduction of snowmobiles and engines in the series was conducted without the Professor Brilling, who is once again suspected of anti-government activities and was fired from the Institute. After Brilling institution has not voluntarily left and some other staff, and the Deputy Chairman of the Board Aviatrust may 7, 1928 sent to the list (only printed 12 copies sent to the factories № 1, № 24 and other organizations) to heads of the enterprises of aviation industry policy No. НС7528: “When hiring individuals ing. tech. staff and all employees who previously worked in the Scientific and Automotive engines Institute (US) and dismissed from the Institute, upon request to the Trust Board on the consent”. Subsequently, Brilling was held on the “industrial party case” and in 1930 -1933 years was in prison, working in the Special technical Bureau of the OGPU on a new engine.
 
The second winter of a motor vehicle, developed in the US, was the sleigh – a vehicle with a driver that interacts with the tracks. Strictly speaking, the terminology is still not well established, and with regard to the new mode of transport use different terms, such as “motor sleigh”, “Botosani” and. the Sleigh, developed by the Department, the “unit specially adapted for traffic on a snowy road and on a snow virgin soil”. This form of transport charged a large demand from the Military Department, which is mainly funded work, but also from the economic institutions in the country. Developed the sleigh was intended to be used for messages where the car has not been able to maintain the connection and transport due to deep snow, and the use of snowmobiles was for any reason impossible.
 
The main ideologist of the design of the sleigh in the US was A. C. cousins. One of the first designs become US-1, or on the date of filing to the test, “Motoaki US model of 1928”. It was the car of special design with a crawler gear and two guided skiing. The experience proved to be unsuccessful, and A. A. Krzywicki wrote:
 
“Motoaki US model 1928 had a belt mover system US, consisting on each side of the machine from two squirrel wheels of which the rear was the leading and guiding of the front; around these wheels wearing rubber tape having on the inner surface of the projections included in the cut-out squirrel drive wheel. Between the wheels – front and rear – there was pressure rollers with spring. Specific pressure, due to the low weight of the sled was very low (did not exceed 0.1 kg/cm2). The power reserve of the engine, taken from the car US-1 and developing up to 22 HP was sufficient, and, it seemed, everyone was saying that the sled will go on every snowy road and over the snow. It was Nastia and on the dirt road at a low temperature; but at higher temperatures, when the snow becomes more sticky and adhesive, squirrel cage began to obligate snow, thanks to the available in their gaps and holes that the diameter began to increase at 10 percent – 15; as a result, the tape began to fall every few tens of meters, and the ride turned into flour, so as to knock the snow had a shovel and a hammer and put on a tape not so simple. In all these circumstances, this model of sled WE were almost unusable”.
 
Another developed in the US steel construction. US-CASS. According to the General layout US-CAS were very close to US-1. The main difference is the use of original system gear of caterpillar tracks, which Kuzin A. C. filed July 22, 1927 patent application. September 30, 1929, the designer, was issued patent No. 10928. About its design Kuzin A. C. wrote:
 
“Currently available various designs of the motor sleigh has a number of significant disadvantages that the practical value of these units are negated. The main disadvantages of current designs of sleigh the following: a large dead weight of the sled and lower envelope prevent the sled to walk on loose deep snow and cause a large flow of fuel.
 
The use of frictional engagement of strips is unreliable, since the presence of snow on the supporting pulleys of the tape slip and sometimes come off with them; in addition, the high cost caused by using for this purpose a normal car, it prevents the wide use of these sleigh.
 
The present invention aims at eliminating the above drawbacks and to create a sled specially adapted for winter & off-road spring and autumn time.
 
We offer mechanical sledges belong to the type of sled in which case, for ease made from light rods connected like a farm or from sheets of lightweight material, and the motor, clutch and gearbox are in the back of the case. Existing sleigh sleigh differ in the proposed device the tracked drive, which the present invention is.
 
Snowmobile US-CARDI
 
Snowmobile US-CARDI
 
Caterpillar drives are suspended on the ends of the axis and able to swing about the point of suspension, following the road profile, sprung to settle dry shocks resulting when riding on rough roads. Caterpillar actuator consists of a soft ribbon, which are located along the chain or any protrusions through which the tape engages with the corresponding subcatname (crowns) leading and supporting pulleys and due to this is not able to slip or escape from the drums (pulleys). To prevent the strong deflection of the tape between supporting reels rely on runners, which transmit the load to the ribbon and hold it with the gear rims of the trailing edge in the middle. The tape is quite flexible in the longitudinal direction, in the transverse – rigid, thanks to the profiles, which, being firmly connected with the tape, play the role of protector. Load transfer to the drive takes place through the rims lying on the sides of the tooth (middle) crown. Thus the crown transmits torsional force and prevents the tape to escape from the rims, which only take the load and thanks to the rounded shape of the surface do not suffer from contact with the ribbon of snow or mud. This prevents stretching and breaking the tape.”
 
A light sheet material for the construction of US-CAS is not found, and the only available sheet of aluminum used on the floor of the body. Design of propulsion US-we are happier than US-1 and the low strength and low reliability could be attributed to the handicraft of the terms of the construction of the sled.
 
For aviation developed a model of tractor for work on the snowy airfield. This tractor was designed to tow aircraft from the hangar to the start and back to the hangar. Starting aircraft in the hangar made by the special teams, which was very inconvenient. By the customer on the tractor was made by the BBC. If necessary the truck could be used as an ambulance with a special trailer or to tow other goods. The production of the tractor was preceded by some preliminary experiments built for this purpose model. Using the results of preliminary experiments and data from test pilot propulsion, US-1 and US-KAS, the Division has started to produce working drawings and production of a prototype tractor in the studios of the US. January 8, the staff cheered US military pilots, saying that the truck is 95% installed and will be ready by January 20. In the month of March, there have been some tests on the field and on the road, then a car passed in NII VVS. However, the air force supply truck had not arrived. May 16, 1929, one of its developers, A. S. Kuzin reported to the colleagues of the progress of work. In this regard, Protocol No. 76 of the Board WE have recorded a decision on whether to ask the BBC to indicate that it needs to operate the tractor “on the virgin snow, the snow on hard ground, or the autumn road or summer road”, as preliminary experiments showed that “when working in severe winter conditions, the tractor may be unsatisfactory”.
 
Also in the US produced motoaki US-CARDI design D. K. Karel. On motoconcho US-KARAMI were applied to a motorcycle engine Indian power 7 HP Crawler that included (for one Board) leading and guiding wheels and two support roller, is rigidly mounted to the housing. The caterpillar was a rubber belt with attached to it a wooden cover plates for engagement with the drive wheel. According to the author of the design, independent suspension on both halves of the caterpillar tracks was not needed, and on soft snow the ability of compacted snow helped the adaptability of both halves of the propeller to the irregularities of the snow way. The front leading and rear guide wheels have the same diameter 690 mm. the Total length of matasano was 2280 mm width – 1150 mm height – 1280 mm, ground clearance – 300 mm. Managing motocykli the course was conducted by the slowdown of the tracks. Motoaki went well on the virgin snow, but showed low reliability, mainly due to the use of a worn engine.
 
BIG CLEANING
 
By the winter of 1929/30, in the Department of winter transport in the state there were 9 people: the head of Department, senior engineer, 2 engineers, 2 draftsman-designer, and 3 mechanics. For transmission on the serial, the plant was ready documentation for snowmobile US-IX, the project was carried out snowmobiles US-IX. In 1929, the “highways” together with “Osoaviahima” organized the rally on the route Moscow – Yaroslavl -Kostroma – Kineshma – Yuryevets Podolsk – Manturovo – Bogorodsk – Kotelnich – Vyatka – s .. – Debussy – Okhansk, Perm Krai – Perm -OSA – Votkinsk – Izhevsk – Yelabuga – Kazan – Cheboksary – Nizhny Novgorod – Vladimir – Moscow. Start of run was held on February 17 at the red square in Moscow. The mileage came out snowmobile serial production TSAGI (ANT)-IV engines with “Lucifer” and the larger US and US V-VIII with motors “US-Aero -“. In the district of Kineshma snowmobile US-V and one of the cars TSAGI fell through the ice, but after extraction of water and two-day Parking could continue. Snowmobile US-VIII are unable to continue the ride due to the beginning of the thaw and went out of the race after Izhevsk. Complete the run are three planes, but US-V who is injured in the accident in Kineshma, constantly lagged behind and took a shortcut to 625 km, going from Glazov to Izhevsk from bypassing Debussy, Perm, Okhansk, OSA, and Votkinsk. We run confirmed the high quality snowmobile TSAGI, which, however, cannot be said about the structures of US.
 
Snowmobile US-VIII
 
Snowmobile US-VIII
 
In addition to his work in the field of all-terrain transport, WE have carried out other defense and national economic tasks. However, the progress in the practical implementation of the Institute’s developments have been modest in the US and a Commission was sent for cleaning. The Commission noted: “the Institute’s Work is sharply divided into two periods – the first from 1918 to 1928 – a period when the Institute was under the direction of Professor Brilling, who fought against the Sovietization and the second period – after the removal of prof Brilling and purpose in the US the new Soviet leadership in 1928, the New Soviet leadership after removing Brilling worked in the setting of an organized boycott of the US by a number of specialists working outside of the Institute.”
 
Evaluating the results of the work of the Institute, the Chairman of the Commission on cleaning stated:
 
“…My, as of today, WE do not meets the needs of the major industries of Aviation, Automobile, Tractor and the requirements imposed by the defense of the country.
 
…The leading role of the US did not have as a research Institute and in their practice to a small extent meet the needs presented to date by the industry.
 
…The volume and the number of problems and tasks in the work plan, WE have taken no account of the real possibilities of implementation (cost, personnel, etc.).
 
…The current structure WE built on sectoral basis, does not give a correct organizational structure to accomplish the tasks set before the Institute before a research organization.”
 
A. C. cousins was released from the superintendence of the Department of Winter Transport. But he was left at the Institute, “using a degree head designs”. The basis for the transfer to work lower was “lack of organization and administration in the Department kustarschina and long pace of work.”
 
Also, for ordinary engineering work had to work and “valuable talented designer, politically alien, not finished with the Soviet ideology” Mikulin.
 
For personnel changes followed and organizational measures. On December 3, 1930 at a meeting of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR adopted the decision to merge the propeller division of TSAGI, which in September 1930 he was attached to the aviation Department of the automobile and Automotive engines research Institute (NAMI), and Department of experienced motor engineering aviation plant them. M. V. Frunze in a single Institute of aviation motors, TsIAM later. US was reorganized into the Scientific autotractor Institute, and from 1931 was called NACHI. In the same year, in the NATI held a regular cleaning of the place of the A. C. Cousin was assigned a young engineer who walked “the way of qualifications” and was “politically loyal”. In 1946, from NATALIE was allocated a car under the historical name of US, and tractor part continued existence under the same name. However, the history of snowmobiles US did not end there.
 
SERIAL PRODUCTION
 
Experienced snowmobile US, as a rule, were made in the workshops of the Institute, however, propellers are invariably ordered on the side. The main manufacturer of the propellers, which produced almost 100% of them in the country, was Moscow plant “Propeller”, leading its history from pre-revolutionary artisanal workshops. Factory “Propeller”, in addition to propellers, produced and almost the entire volume of avialae in the country. Designer of the most avialae released “Propeller”, was N. R Lobanov. In addition to skiing, N. R. Lobanov, who, besides skiing, was engaged in the construction of snowmobiles. In particular, January 6, 1928 he has filed the application for the invention “a mechanical sled with propulsion in the form of tracks”. 0 patent published on 28 February 1931. A patent is valid for 15 years. The invention related to “mechanical sled with propulsion in the form of caterpillar tracks for traveling over snow of any depth and density, as well as on the soft marshy surface of the land offered in these sled collectively to apply: the lateral support of the ski, the runners of which have-shaped cross section, the body of the same cross-section and semi-oval shape of the blades of the propeller”. The invention is not found practical application, although in the history of all-terrain transport factory “Propeller” still played a significant role.
 
Strictly speaking, 1 December 1927 GAS No. 8 “Propeller,” according to the telegram Aviatrust had to call the factory No. 28, and its subsidiary, GAZ No. 11 “Sawing” should have been called plant № 41, but for a long time, until the 1950s, in an unclassified document used the old name. The results of the work of the plant was applied in the spring, and the fiscal year does not coincide with the calendar. In season 1926/27 g. “a Propeller” was made 1956 screws and 1318 sets of skis for different airplanes, and in season 1927/28 g. it was released 3273 screw, 895 sets of skis and 25 sets of floats for the plane Mr-1. A factory producing screws as serial, so and single orders. Was made skis and propellers for aircraft “Farman-Goliath”, “Martinsyde” and many other domestic and foreign. In addition to the main program for the air force, the plant produces “goods” (furniture, cross country skiing, Cutlery, etc.), as well as carry out individual orders Dobrolet, Ukrvozduhput and other organizations, the share of which accounted for about 11% of military order. The roadmap на1928/29 g were included the screws to the snowmobile TSAGI in number of 9 pieces.
 
Snowmobile US (NACHI)-IX(b)
 
Snowmobile US (NACHI)-IX(b)
 
In the late 1920s, in connection with the transition to the five-year plans, the plant was tasked with creating a production base for wartime execution of mobilization tasks. However, maintaining the required output in peacetime has been associated with significant cost and plant requested to increase the production of civilian goods to the amount of 57% of total production. The level of complexity, engineering processes, requirements for the qualification of personnel engaged in the production of civilian goods, were not significantly different from the requirements of the military. After negotiations with interested institutions on the plant took the decision to increase the production of “consumer goods” of the former nomenclature and the organization of production snowmobiles. On 18 July 1928 at the Technical meeting of the plant were heard on the issue of snowmobile and voiced the requirement to ask Aviatrust to give an indication of whether this order is included in the program 1928/29 G. “If the giving of the order is delayed in the current winter season will not be able to release snowmobile”. In coordination with the concerned departments have approved the production program of release of the snowmobile at the factory No. 28 in the season 29/30, 30/31 and 31/32 30 snowmobiles. The issue of snowmobiles during periods of 1928/29 and 1932/33 was not provided, however, at this time, the factory produced snowmobiles out of the program on individual orders. Thus, the plant participated in the manufacture of prototypes snowmobiles US VI and US-IX. Both machines were used by experienced aircraft engines “US-Aero -“. After the improvements both cars were adopted for serial production.
 
With the introduction of snowmobiles in the plant has arisen objective difficulties. For the manufacture of snowmobile almost the entire range of components (metal cans for petrol and macrosystem, steering, metal fasteners, suspension parts, etc.) required to produce specially. The lack of factory machines, Metalworking forced extremely unproductive use of resources due to the wide use of manual labour. For this reason, a cooperation for manufacturing snowmobiles were involved in the aircraft plant No. 23 in Leningrad, and in addition, individual parts manufactured on the side for individual orders. In the design WE-VI of the first edition was provided by the widespread use of non-ferrous metals, in particular the ski was dural. However, for economic reasons, WE were tasked with the job of “sanitary parkostroyeniya snowmobiles in connection with the replacement of non-ferrous metals black, due to an acute shortage of copper and aluminium in the market.” This job was “closely connected with the production of serial production of the sled 28 the aircraft factory and produced on behalf of NK UWS”.
 
Snowmobile ARBES-P, used the Moscow school plant
 
Snowmobile ARBES-P, used the Moscow school plant “Avtodor”, after repairs in the US got a new engine
 
Motors “US-Aero -” mass production differed from the prototype. For the alteration was taken by the motors “Aero -” model “M-9”. The cylinders of these engines were replaced with cylinders of the engine US-100. At 1350 rpm serial engine developed 140 HP with the compression ratio was equal to 4.8, the proportion was equal to 1.77 kg per 1 HP motors Along with the “US-Aero-the” serial production, on the snowmobile factories No. 23
and number 28 was used motors “Spanish” and M-11. After the reorganization of the Institute, the snowmobile was given the name of NATA.
 
Snowmobile later release, built after the reorganization of the Institute, equipped with the engine M-11, was called NACHI-IX(b). On the snowmobile WE (NACHI)-IX were also installed and the motors M-12 or M-100, similar in its characteristics M-11, but due to the low reliability of these engines have not been spread.
 
Snowmobile US-VI US-IX and NATI-IX(b) were made on trehmernoi scheme with half-shut case. Skis first releases were dural, late in the making – mixed designs T-shaped cross section with a metal sole. The body of the snowmobile was divided into three compartments: driver, passenger, motor. The cab was double open. Winter trip for the driver was not very comfortable. The cargo-passenger compartment separated from the engine metal fire wall. Behind the partition was mounted fuel and oil tanks.
 
Snowmobile NATI-IX(b) of serial production built for Chuvashavtodor
 
Snowmobile NATI-IX(b) of serial production built for Chuvashavtodor
 
Among the organizations that funded and coordinate (with the informal assistance of the military and security officers) work in the field of off-road and powerboat transport, was organized in 1927 the society “Avtodor”. In the “Avtodor” in Moscow and Leningrad operated training schools for the training of drivers of snowmobiles for the institutions. For training used snowmobile ARBES-N built in Compass, which in the US was equipped with a new inline engine. In addition to training, Avtodor was in charge of the introduction of snowmobiles in operation. October 20, 1929, the first meeting of the facilitation Committee of we construction under the Council of the society “Avtodor”. The Committee raised the question of the organization we transport lines. Among the first, on the initiative of the Autonomous Republic, was organized line in Chuvashia. To study the question of the organization of the messages we in Chuvashia in autumn 1929 he was seconded by the representative of the “Avtodor” A. B. Kuznetsov. 17 Nov 1929 letter No. 12/14 Commissariat of the Chuvash Republic comrade. Stepanov and senior engineer inspector Andronikov advised the Board of the “Avtodor” that the results of negotiations with the representative we sent the subsection on the question of the establishment of operational lines, it was decided to establish two lines on route Cheboksary – Kanash – Batyrevo length of 135 km, and Cheboksary – Nizhny Novgorod – 320 km Stepanov and Andronicus petitioned the Board of the “Avtodor” on the establishment in CHASSR line between the two points and asked to allocate two snowmobiles TSAGI. Stepanov and Andronicus said: “Cheboksary after closing navigation cut off from the entire world for 5 – 6 months, because the nearest train station Kanash -83 km away, and Nizhny Novgorod (regional center) 3 and 4 days. In the sled this way takes 1 day (there)”.
 
NKVD Chuvash Republic was nominated by the conditions of organization lines:
 
1. Open 15 December 1929 G.
 
2. TSAGI conducts two experienced drivers.
 
3. The NKVD takes over their content and allocates in excess of 150 RUB. travel per month for each.
 
4. At the disposal of the NKVD gives the mechanics, which the drivers during the period of operation required to teach care and management.
 
5. Technical guidance is provided by TSAGI.
 
6. Supply of spare parts provided by TSAGI.
 
7. Costs for maintenance and fuel are provided by the NKVD.
 
8. Machine of the NKVD operates through Chuvashavtodor on the basis of self-financing. Preferably, the occurrence of TSAGI stockholder (the cost of two planes).
 
In the winter of 1929/30 was commissioned experienced line Cheboksary – Kanash. In January and February
 
1930 . on the snowmobile TSAGI (ANT)-IV motor “Lucifer” was passed 5260 km, carried 244 passengers, delivered 1132 kg of cargo. Distance from Cheboksary to Kanash snowmobile, leaving the flight approximately every one to two days, took 2.5 hours instead of 10-12 hours, the required horse-drawn transport. In the first winter season, the line was transferred to regular operation, and the plant № 28 especially for Cubesato-trance was made snowmobile NATI-IX (b).
 
Almost simultaneously with the organization of lines in the Chuvash Republic were discussed the prospects of organizing we messages in the Komi Republic. 24 Dec 1929 in “Avtodor” was heard on the question of sending representatives Narkompochtel and US to survey the tract Arkhangelsk – Pinega to organize the we line. Following discussions it was decided to organize a pilot line Arkhangelsk – Pinega. In the future, the work was assumed by the opening lines Kotlas – Krasnoborsk (145 km), from Kotlas – Solvychegodsk (27 km), Kotlas-Velikiy Ustyug (65 km), Kotlas – Justicialist (434 km) on the river Vychegda. Experienced the lines have been marked snowmobile US-IV and US-VIII. The results of an experimental line in the Komi Republic was found to be unsatisfactory. Snowmobile belong to structurally complex devices aviation class that requires a supply of quality fuel and lubricants, routine maintenance, special (preferably heated) areas for the storage or repair of equipment, as well as the rest of the team. The need for infrastructure maintenance service we transport greatly increases the cost of operation. During the operation of the line from 7 to 28 February 1930 in the sled to US-IV in six flights were completed 2887 km and transported 340 kg of cargo, and US-made VIII 1 flight of 480 km and transported 490 kg of cargo. Unlike lines in the Chuvash Republic, the line in the Komi Republic during the reporting period did not justify the invested funds and were eliminated. Later, on January 16, 1931, it was decided to transfer the larger US-VIII for the academic courses of “Ukravtodor”.
 
Snowmobile, captured by the enemy near Leningrad
 
Snowmobile, captured by the enemy near Leningrad
 
Experience operating snowmobiles in the Chuvash Republic and the Komi Republic allowed Narkompochtel to put the question on the regular lines for transportation of mail on certain routes with significant, justifying the cost of purchasing and maintenance of equipment and adequate infrastructure, volume of traffic.
 
Within determine compliance NATI-IX(b) the requirements of the post office in 1932, the laboratory of transport research Institute conducted tests of the snowmobiles, which showed some design flaws:
 
1. Open type ski T-shaped cross section with a flat sole creates increased resistance to motion. In conditions of loose snow virgin soil on the top of the ski accumulated snow, which creates additional resistance to movement. The flat sole of the ski, due to the large area of friction also creates increased resistance to motion, increases the wear of the soles and sticking it to the snowy canvas. The presence of sharp edges in the flat soles of the ski increases the resistance when turning and makes it difficult to control the snowmobile. Ski open type T-shaped cross section with a flat sole for snowmobiles of average power to use is impractical.
 
2. The thrust of the snowmobile at full throttle in six people in traffic on soft virgin snow insufficient.
 
3. The undercuts of the ski do not provide a good stability of motion of the snowmobile on the road thumb – snowmobile enters.
 
4. Open space for the driver and the mechanic make the job of the driver, especially in conditions of low temperature and wind.
 
5. The body dimensions to accommodate six people small.
 
At development of the second five-year plan, the question was raised about the reconstruction of plant # 28 and transfer it to another product. On 6 January 1931 at the meeting of we the subsection of the section in winter and vodnomotornyy transport “Avtodor” was heard the report on the survey of production snowmobiles factory No. 28. Those present decided to organize a test run of wooden snowmobile NACHI construction of the plant, Propeller and metal TSAGI release of the plant. Marty. However, in connection with the change of the profile of the plant, the event has lost relevance – and the mileage did not take place. However, in 1933, at hosted with Avtodor in Moscow the meeting of the snowmobile and all-terrain vehicles snowmobiles attended the NACHI-IX(b), which, according to press reports, came to Moscow on their own from Cheboksary.
 
Probably last of US-IX remembered at the state level in the summer of 1941 in the discussion of the draft Resolution, the bonds of the organization of production snowmobiles. Therefore on these planes, it was noted: “the Car is 5-seater (including the driver). Three ski wood. Depreciation – cylindrical helical springs. Management – automotive. Motor – aircraft M-11. Power – 100 HP. The machine requires a revision, since 1930 had not produced”.
 
Wooden snowmobile release plants No. 23 and No. 28, and metal constructions plant. Marty was operated by the military and in the national economy prior to world war II. In the CAF and air force snowmobile used not only as an airfield, but also as transport or communication. During one of the accidents snowmobiles NACHI killed the responsible Secretary of the editorial Board of the journal “Vestnik vozdushnogo flota” A. B., Panchenko and was wounded H. A. Sokolov-Sokolenko from the Academy of the air fleet. In the course of machine operation of production plants No. 23 and No. 28 has had a few repairs, during which time their components and assemblies were replaced with suitable, and sometimes the snowmobile is generally assembled from several emergency. At least one such truck, was captured by the enemy near Leningrad.
 
A. KIRINDAS
 
Used visual and documentary materials GARF, rgae, RGVA, OP/P, CHAMO, RGAKFD, NMM N.E. Zhukovsky.
 
The assistance in the article had M. Khairulin and A. Khoroshilov.

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