AMERICAN PLANE WITH A GERMAN WING

AMERICAN AIRPLANE WITH THE GERMAN WINGStrategic bomber b-47 STRATOGET. Work in the field of creation of jet engines suitable for use on aircraft, began in the USA in 1941. The design of new power plants engaged in the company “Allis-Chalmers”, “Westinghouse” and “General electric”, which was part of the so-called Committee of Durand. The first two working under orders of the Navy, and the third was designed turboprop engine for the air force. All three firms had a very vague idea about gas turbine engines for aircraft, their main activity was the production of industrial turbines. Therefore, the work progressed slowly, which naturally did not suit the military.

 
In April 1941 the commander of the U.S. air force, General Arnold, in the UK, demonstrated the newest jet fighter the Gloster company.
 
Flight of the top secret aircraft commander made an enormous impression. Followed by negotiations with the British, which received permission to export and US documents on jet engine designed by F. Whittle, as well as their serial production. All documentation received into the branch of the General Electric company, engaged in the development of turbochargers. And after seven months, on March 18, 1942, the first engine with the designation GEC-1 received on a bench test. Now the air force has the opportunity to initiate the development of jet combat aircraft.
 
In June 1943, the U.S. air force turned to major aircraft companies to develop multi-engine jet reconnaissance bomber. The main requirements were issued on 17 November 1944: flight distance 5670 km with a service ceiling of 13 700 m and a maximum speed of 900 km/h.
 
The number attracted to work on this project was the firm Boeing. Its engineers have been working on a jet bomber, known as the “Model 424”. It resembled a large-scale reduced-29, which instead of the piston were fitted with four jet engine in two placed under the wing of streamlined nacelles. However, purge models of this plane have shown that this arrangement reduces the engines performance characteristics. In December 1944, the firm Boeing has redesigned the project and called it the “Model 432”. In the new project all four engines put together inside the fuselage, which improved the flow pattern of the wing. The engines are installed according to the construction of the horizontal fuselage: the air intakes located near the cab, and nozzle in the rear. But in spite of teacher change, “432-I” differed from the b-29 except that a slightly thinner wing.
 
After reviewing the project, representatives of the air force found him very promising. Started the consulting firm Boeing regarding the registration of a formal contract for the advanced design “Model 432”. In the adopted document, the aircraft received the designation XB-47. At the same time similar contracts entered into with competitors of the Boeing company — North American firms (XB-45), Convair (XB-46) and Martin (b-48).
 
In may 1945, a Scientific Advisory group of the U.S. army headed by the famous aerodynamicist lecturer at the California Institute of technology and a leading specialist company Nortrop Theodore von Pocket, visited the German factories and research centers. The aim of the group was to find any new ideas or techniques that could be implemented in American projects. The group included the head of the Department of aerodynamics of the Boeing company George Shirer. Looking at the documentation of one of the German centres of research, he discovered the scientific results of the mid-1930-ies on the use of swept wings to increase the flight speed of the aircraft. Just a few days Shirer sent the firm a telegram, which was only one word — “STOP.”
 
The leadership of the Boeing company reacted swiftly by stopping work on the XB-47 with straight wings. The wind-tunnel tests conducted after the return Sirera, confirmed the German findings, and the project XB-47 has been redesigned for strelkite wing.
 
In September 1945, all calculations based on the XB-47 with swept wing was completed. Updated the project assigned brand designation “Model 448”. This car retained the fuselage 432-th that is equipped with a thin wing with 35 degree sweep at quarter chord, and a power plant made 6 musculoskeletal. The four engines were situated as well as the “Model 432” — inside the fuselage, but they moved the air intakes in the nose.
 
The military rejected the project, rightly believing that the location of the jet engines fire, and demanded their removal outside of the fuselage. Moreover, the plant outside of the fuselage promised to significantly facilitate maintenance.
 
In-47 is the most mass modification of aircraft, issued by three series, a total of 1591 instance
 
47 is the most mass modification of aircraft, issued by three series, a total of 1591 instance
 
In October 1945, the leadership of the U.S. air force was fully approved by the constructors of the company, the Boeing “Model 450-1-1” with six jet engines in nacelles under the wing.
 
In November 1945, the wingspan of the aircraft “450” increased to 35.4 m and slightly changed the location of the motor nacelles. In this layout option, the military ordered two prototypes of the plane XB-47 without navigation and bombing equipment for carrying out comparative tests.
 
The construction of the layout of the XB-47 ended in April 1946, After his examination by the admission Committee of the company was proposed to change the location of the seat of the second pilot and to alter the chassis design.
 
The construction of the first instance of the aircraft began in June 1946. Work progressed very slowly, since there was no consensus about the schema of the chassis, besides the designers faced many difficulties in the layout of the power plant.
 
The use of thin wing did not allow him to mount the main landing gear. Had to use the chassis of the bike scheme, which the nose and main stand facing each other. And to ensure the stability of the aircraft when executing u-turns during taxiing and during landing, to the internal motor nacelles attached retractable small additional support
 
With all the advantages of Cycling the chassis design it was not allowed the pilot to increase the angle of attack of the wing on takeoff the deviation of the wheel itself. Therefore, the bomber made a lengthened nose landing gear, which provided the installation of the wing on takeoff at an angle 2°45′ to the horizontal. However, these measures do not give an acceptable landing characteristics-47: for take-off he needed a runway length of over two kilometers. This significantly limits the possible relocation of the aircraft, which could cause failure of the military from taking the machine into service. Designers had to sacrifice the free volume of the fuselage and the place where the 18 starting solid propellant JATO boosters with a thrust of 454 kg each. UPS with boosters promised to be very effective. Subsequently, on the rising pillars of smoke In-47 will be the highlight of every air show in the United States.
 
To reduce the landing distance swept wing equipped with a set of retractable flaps, which at release was moved a considerable distance back, and then fell. And to solve the problem of braking a multi-ton machine, the designers again took advantage of German innovations and installed in the rear fuselage a braking parachute, invented in Germany during the war.
 
Thin swept wing of the plane was extremely flexible. Even under its own weight, the wingtips down to 1.5 meters! The developers initially feared that excessive flexibility may impair the control of the ailerons, so the surface of the wing XB-47 installed several spoilers. However, the precautions were unnecessary — the ailerons worked fine in all flight modes so that the serial bomber interceptors was not used.
 
The crew consisted of two pilots, arrow and Navigator. The pilots placed in tandem in separate cockpits, closed the overall teardrop-shaped lantern fighter type. The Navigator also responsible for aiming and dropping bombs, was located in the forward fuselage, closed transparent fairing.
 
To select defensive weapons of the bomber, there have been numerous experiments and calculations. It turned out that the most likely attack zone 47 enemy fighters at altitude 14 000 m represent two narrow cone-shaped area in front of and in back of the plane with length of 1120 m. Even if the fighter will be exactly displayed at the target stations of guidance and its pilot will detect the bomber at a distance of 3.2 km at an angle of 20 degrees to the direction of flight, after turning the fighter into perfect attack position the distance between it and 47 will increase to 11 km. These results were confirmed in repeated attempts to knock down 47 fighters of the air defense of the USSR. Almost all of them ended in failure. As a result, the aircraft was fitted with only two heavy machine guns in the rear fuselage. Initially planned to equip in the fuselage cabin arrow with the turret of the Ericsson, but free space is long and narrow fuselage was not. Had to develop the automatic installation of remote controlled fire, which was equipped with a serial machine.
 
The first XB-47 with six engines J35-GE-7 with a thrust of 1650 kg collected at the plant of company Boeing in Seattle on 12 September 1947. New fighting machine called the STRATOJET (high jet). The first flight took place on 17 December 1947, during which the pilots B. Robbins and S.Osler surpassed the prototype machine at the nearby air force base Moses lake with a longer runway.
 
Strategic bomber Boeing b-47 STRATOJET
 
Strategic bomber Boeing b-47 STRATOJET
 
Strategic bomber Boeing b-47 STRATOJET:
 
1 — reset manhole cover cockpit Navigator; 2 — cabin Windows pilots; 3 — stabilizer; 4 — trimming of the Elevator; 5 — 20 mm gun feeding unit; 6 — Elevator; 7 — Aileron trimmer; 8 — internal sections of the ailerons; 9— outer section of the ailerons; 10 — ANO; 11 —external engine J47-GE-25; 12 — operational hatches; 13 — batch engines J47-GE-25 internal pole; 14— cockpit canopy pilots; 15 — the upper window of the cab of the Navigator; 16 — cabin Windows of the Navigator: 17 — the first version of the cockpit; 18 — pole motor; 19—fold auxiliary landing gear; 20—fold the front landing gear; 21 — door crew cab; 22 — radiotransparent Radome of the radar; 23 — boosters; of 24, 36— fold rear landing gear; 25 — missile decoys “McDonnell” AGM-20; 26—a variant of the sliding part of the lantern; 27 — cable antenna; 28, nuclear bomb Mk.28 (B281N); 29 — a nuclear bomb MK.28 (B28FI); 30 — wheel of the auxiliary landing gear; 31 — auxiliary landing gear; 32 — fold niche of the auxiliary landing gear; 33 — gear, rear landing gear, the 34 — wheel nose landing gear; 35 — fold niches nose landing gear; 37 — blades TVD; 38 — turboprop engine Wright YT49-Y-1; 39 — the wingtip of the B-47E-I11; 40 — spinner fairing of the fuselage; 41 Kil; 42 — dimensional ANO; 43 — rudder; 44 — trimmer of the rudder; 45 — feed machine guns 12.7 mm; 46 — brake; 47 — fold niche of the braking parachute; 48 maintenance access doors control system; 49— outer section of the flaps; 50 — inner section of the flaps; 51 — the hinge of the Elevator; 52 — the guided missile GAM-63A Raskal; 53 — wing external fuel tank; 54—station radiation enemy radar; 55 — front compartment REO; 56 container REO; 57 — the canopy pilots in the intermediate open position; 58—fold to be fitted; 59—the input ladder crew cab; 60 — unit radar; 61 — radiotransparent Radome radar in the open position

 
During flight testing of the first XB-47 flew about 83 hours, including 38 hours it was piloted by test pilots of the air force. Although the test company Boeing was delighted with the flying qualities of the b-47 pilots of the air force of their feelings is not shared, because the speed of the XB-47 was lower than expected, although greater at 120 km/h than the Orthoptera XB-48 company Marnin. The ceiling was also less than stated on 760 m and less than required to 2290 m.
 
The second prototype XB-47 had to be equipped with more powerful engines J47-GE-3 thrust 2270 kg. First flight took place on 21 July 1948. New engines have increased the maximum speed of 972 km/h, so I equipped them and the first instance of XB-47.
 
The third day of September, 1948, approved the company which subsequently developed the serial production of the bomber — plant firm Boeing in city Wichit (KS). The contract for the first ten-47A was signed on 28 October 1948 14 Nov 1948, they added another 88 cars IN-47B, November 22, 1948, the air force added to order additional three-47A and 41-47V. Later IN the three-47A was cancelled, increasing the number of IN-47B for 14 cars
 
After the U.S. adoption of a systematic approach in the development of new weapons STRATOJET was the first such system with the indices WS-100A (bomber) and WS-100L (scout).
 
The first XB-47, flying 8 Feb 1949 distance 3708 km from Moses lake base Andrews with an average speed 975,6 km/h, set an unofficial world speed record for a transcontinental flight. The record was set not by accident: at Andrews at this time was held presentation of the new equipment for the members of the Committee on armed services, and any achievement of the promised increase in orders for aircraft.
 
Delivery of the first of the ten ordered-47A expected in force in the period between April and November 1950. The first b-47 And took off on 25 June 1950. It housed six engines J47-GE-11 thrust 2360 kg. the Weight of the aircraft structure, compared with the prototype machines has increased from 54 to 68 701 970 kg. IN fact-47A was not a combat aircraft, and was intended to continue the test.
 
Start using In-47 in combat units marked by frequent crashes and accidents. The machine does not forgive mistakes in piloting, and especially difficult for the pilots were landing. However, more than half of flying accidents with the b-47 was the fault of the crew or technical staff. Only by 1954, the percentage of accidents is decreased so that the b-47 was considered already the most reliable jet aircraft in the United States.
 
Air refueling bomber Boeing-47E Stratojet from the aircraft-tanker Boeing KC-97G Stratofreighter
 
Air refueling bomber Boeing-47E Stratojet from the aircraft-tanker Boeing KC-97G Stratofreighter
 
The main disadvantage identified in the course of operation of the first series of aircraft was the lack of strength of braking parachutes with a diameter of 9.8 m. the problem was Solved by switching on conveyor chutes, and also developed in Germany.
 
Many efforts delivered to the specialists of the company Boeing landing characteristics of the machine due to the poor throttle response of jet engines — the pilots were afraid to reduce the speed not conditioning, knowing that if care is not second round to sharply increase engine thrust will not succeed. This task proved to be more than the original: in the tail section of the aircraft established another parachute with a diameter of 4.9 m, which was produced in-flight and retarding the machine without reducing engine speed. And, if necessary, the pilot dumped it and went to the second round.
 
Delivery IN-47A ended in may 1951, the Aircraft entered service stationed at an air base Mac DIL in Florida 306th bomber wing, which was engaged in retraining of personnel of strategic aviation on a new technique. Most of the aircraft were not suited for combat missions. So, sighting and navigation complex K-2 had only four cars out of ten, and the system of protection of the tail And 2 were only one-47A. Another one tested the new system A-5.
 
In November 1949 the air force had proposed another variant of the bomber b — 47B. Further during 1951 in part had to do 87 machines of this type. In-47B differed reinforced construction, which allowed to bring a maximum takeoff weight of 800 kg. 90 His windshield had special water-repellent coating and the electrical heating system, which allowed to abandon the archaic wiper-wipers. Is the defensive system A-2 set a V-4 with a radar gun, but almost all aircraft it did not work. On the last series of bombers placed sighting and navigation complex K-4A with an optical periscope with bombopritsel in a modified nose of the aircraft. Of electronic equipment added, the station warning receiver AN/APS-54 and EW plant AN/APT-5A. The length of the bomb Bay has been reduced, and IN-47B began to raise up to 8172 kg nuclear and conventional bombs.
 
Emergency evacuation of the aircraft was through a hatch on the starboard side of the aircraft. Before Luke had a special spoiler to improve the safety of the crew.
 
The war in Korea contributed to the increase in orders for In-47. To expand production of air force leadership offered by the merging firms Boeing, Lockheed-Douglas, who had a joint issue of the bombers b-17 during the Second world war, Lockheed was given to 47 its manufacturing base in the city of Mariette (Georgia), closed at the end of the war and re-open in January 1951 for the repair of pressurized cabins-29. Built there “stratojet” were designated B-47-LM. Douglas built b-47 in Thale (boards are OK) under the designation B-47-DT. 47 the Boeing company, assembled in the city of Wichita, were designated B-47-BW, produced in Seattle — IN-47.
 
Bombers b-47B began to enter the air force in March 1951. However, the military rejected these machines, finding in them more than 2000 defects. The plane was substantially peretyagina. poorly managed and unstable when flying at high altitude. However, the detected defects did not prevent the signing in November 1951 a new contract with Boeing 445 “stratojet”. Later their number was reduced to 395.
 
The lack of aircraft ejection seats was considered the biggest mistake the company Boeing. Leaving through the emergency hatch even under perfect conditions was tantamount to suicide. That is why pilots combat units was terrified to fly on the b-47. In the mid-1950s, the air force demanded the immediate installation of seats. But inertia is a serial production does not allow to make instant changes to the design, and armchairs were only starting with four In-47.
 
Sighting and navigation complex K-2 was extremely unreliable. It consisted of 370 vacuum tubes and 20 thousand different components. In addition, the blocks of the complex is not located compactly, and were scattered throughout the plane, making it difficult for Troubleshooting and maintenance. In mid-1952, the complex K-2 was modernized, but the best of it, he did not. Protection system tail A-2 and A-5 were also unreliable, and as a temporary measure aimed at increasing the combat readiness of the aircraft, b-47 set remote optical sight N-6.
 
Starting from 89 th instance IN-47B equipped engines J47-GE-23 with the thrust of 2640 kg
 
The basic production version of the bomber was the Boeing-47E STRATOJET. Such aircraft were released 1341 instance, of which firm Locrheed built 386, Douglas — 264 and Boeing — 691.
 
Changes made to this modification included the installation of ejection seats for all crew members (Navigator ejected downward), replacement of unreliable sighting and navigation complex K-2 K-4, removal of built-in powder accelerator and the transition to their external suspension, engines J47-GE-25 with water injection to boost thrust up to 3270 kg and the installation of 20-mm cannon instead two machine guns in the tail of the plane.
 
In January 1952 began the modernization of all IN-47B the b-47E. The works were completed in early 1956. The upgraded cars sometimes referred to as B-47B-II. although this designation is not considered official. From the new b-47E they differed only serial numbers.
 
Modification of IN-47E was the first equipped with the system of refueling in the air on a “flying rod”. The airlock was on the starboard side of the fuselage in the bow. Refuelling has reduced the supply of fuel to 55 299 L. overhead bins with a capacity of 6435 l made of stainless steel and is suspended on each wing between the motor гонд0лами.
 
The lower surface of the fuselage and all horizontal controls were painted with white paint to reflect the light radiation a nuclear explosion; similarly, stained and selected IN-47B.
 
The first b-47E flew on 30 January 1953. In February, he entered service in the 303-rd wing, located on the base Davis Monthan (Arizona) in April of 1953, then the new machine got the 22nd wing on the basis of March (California).
 
Boeing-47E STRATOJET quickly became a major component of US strategic aviation. By December 1953, the air force was already eight aircraft wings-47, and a year later they became seventeen, the beginning of 1956 the number of such units brought to twenty-two, and in December 1956, the air force had twenty-seven combat-ready wings, equipped 1204 IN-47E. The total number of bombers built were 1306.
 
Since the 521-d series cars equipped with the new reinforced landing gear. These aircraft were unofficially known as B-47E-II. The first of them arrived in August 1953.
 
Even more powerful chassis mounted on bombers, since 862-th — this modification was known as the B-47E-IV. The Quartet had a new on-Board locator MA-7A and the system warning receiver AN/APG-39. Takeoff weight B-47E-IV has reached 104 420 kg, which was in 1271 kg is more than acceptable on the initial draft. The extra mass appeared mainly due to the increase in the fuel capacity. The radius of the modification amounted to 4630 km, which was almost twice that of IN-47A, released five years earlier.
 
Boeing B47-E Stratojet with the fuselage is covered with special paint that reflects the light radiation of nuclear explosion, 1953
 
Boeing B47-E Stratojet with the fuselage is covered with special paint that reflects the light radiation of nuclear explosion, 1953
 
In early 1955 the Strategic air command (SAC) demanded that the company Boeing structural reinforcement In-47 in connection with the transition to a new method of bombing half loop that allowed the carrier to quickly withdraw to a safe distance from a nuclear explosion. The first successful reset in this way the layout of the atomic bomb mass of 2724 kg was conducted in June, 1955; maximum overload amounted to 2.6 D. the following test layout ground 4018 kg was dropped with overload of 2.5 D.
 
In April 1958, during a periodic inspection in the wings-47 has detected fatigue cracks. An unexpected discovery led to a whole string of alterations of the structure called Bottle Milk (bottle milk). Work was completed in July 1959.
 
The last b-47 was transferred to the air force 18 February 1957. The aircraft hit the 100th bomber wing at the airbase, Peas (new Hampshire).
 
In 1957 began replacing the b-47 on a new heavy bomber b-52. In March 1961, President John F. Kennedy ordered the removal of “stratojet” with weapons, but the Berlin crisis of 1961 -1962 years slowed the process. The last b-47 was put into storage 11 February 1966.
 
Two aircraft transferred to the us Navy for temporary use, was called the EB-47E. Instead of wing tanks on them poduevo containers with electronic warfare equipment. However, two aircraft were operated longer than the others “stratojet”. The last flying plane of this type in the United States has become an EB-47E-45-DT — only in the late 70-ies it was transferred to the aviation Museum in Colorado.
 
In 1963, 36 b-47E was equipped with special communication for work in the conditions of a nuclear war and received the name of EB-47L. Three aircraft radio intelligence, created on the basis of per-47Н, called ERB-47H. After 1959, few IN-47E called ETV-47E was used as training.
 
In early 1953 on two “stratojet” tested the equipment for refueling in the air for a “hose— cone”. One, called the KV-47S, was a tanker, another YB-47F, — refueled aircraft. Such tests were caused by the absence of the force the speed of the tanker. The problem was resolved by equipping the aircraft KV-50 two auxiliary jet engines. The test program was closed on 11 July 1957.
 
For testing missiles “Bomark” fourteen-47E was converted to unmanned radio-controlled target S-47E. Upon firing of the missile was programmed on a small miss, but one of the planes was destroyed by a direct hit.
 
Photo-reconnaissance version of the aircraft RV-47B developed in March 1951. The bomb Bay was located eight cameras. The aircraft could perform tasks only during the day and normal weather conditions. Built 26 of the aircraft this modification.
 
Reconnaissance aircraft RV-47E was issued in the amount of 256 copies. The first 52 aircraft known as the “Model 450-216-29”, the other “Model 450-158-36”. Compared to standard IN-47E, the bow of the RV-47E on 864 mm longer. The aircraft used the built-in boosters. The main armament of eleven cameras and ten illumination bombs for night photography. Fuel capacity increased to 69 663 L. First RV-47E flew on 3 July 1953. The last 15 planes was considered to be all weather and had the designation of RV-47К.
 
RV-47Н — SIGINT aircraft; its bomb Bay was located signal analyzers, radar and jammers. The first RV-47Н entered the 55th strategic reconnaissance wing at Forbes air force base (Kansas) in August 1955. The last plane was released in January 1957. Total built 35 units. In the US air force these aircraft were nicknamed “crows” (accent on the first syllable). RV-47Н often violated the air border of the USSR.
 
On the basis of IN-47B produced training aircraft, TV-47B for the training of pilots and navigators.
 
After a severe hurricane in 1954 at the request of the U.S. Congress was developed by a research aircraft WB-47B, was used to penetrate the centers of hurricanes and typhoons. From November 1958 WB-47B worked in conjunction with meteorological satellite “tiros II”. Came 128,5 hour and in 1963 scrapped.
 
WB-47E reconnaissance the weather for the air force. Some of 34 WB-47E was used for air sampling of clouds of nuclear explosions. In the nose of the aircraft was the camera to record the process of formation of clouds. In 1965, the aircraft replaced by the WC-130 Hercules.
 
In the late 40-ies of the U.S. air force wanted to create a long-range bomber with turboprop engine. For testing TMD two b-47B was converted into a flying laboratory with the designation XB-47D. The two outboard engines J47-GE-23 was retained, and on the inner pylons hung TVD YT49-W-1 firm Curtiss-Right power 9710 HP, which was turning four-bladed propellers with a diameter of 4600 mm with paddle-shaped blades with a width of 610 mm. the First XB-47D flew 26 August 1955, and the second on 15 February 1956. The maximum speed achieved by the XB-47D was only $ 967,1 km/h is the fastest speed at level flight is shown as a spiral plane.
 
YB-47J was the only aircraft equipped bomber sighting system of the MA-2.
 
In 1956, the U.S. air force was temporarily transferred TO one-47B canadian air force for testing turbojet “Mohawk” is designed for installation on interceptor CF-105. A gondola with a “Mohawk” is secured on the starboard side in the rear fuselage. Plane received in Canada name CL-52, flown 31 hours, and was then returned to the US.
 
In 1949, the firm Boeing for testing of aircraft missile GAM-63 Rascal, conventional serial bomber built two aircraft YDB-47B. The GAM-63 was developed by the Bell on the basis of the experimental rocket X-6 “Shrike” and, in fact, was increased. The title comes from a Rascal type system guidance: RAdar SCAnning Link — active, radar, radio command. B-47, the rocket was suspended on the starboard side of the fuselage. The first launch from the YDB-47E was held in July 1955. In late 1957 on the two existing missile trained crews 321-th bomber wing. Missiles planned to equip the entire 445-squadron 321 wing, however, on 9 September 1958, the program of serial production of missiles was stopped.
 
Strategic bomber Boeing-47E Stratojet
 
Aircraft YDB-47B was used to conduct flight testing of aircraft ballistic two-stage missile Martin on the Orion program Barker as part of the development of a weapon system WS-199B. Attempt to intercept the satellite “Explorer VI”, which was at a distance of 230 km from the earth, took place on 13 October 1959. According to telemetric data, the missile took place in 6 km from the satellite.
 
In 1949, the air force began research on a super-secret program to develop a specialized carrier of a hydrogen bomb. At that time thought that the huge force of the explosion will destroy the carrier, and the only means of transporting the super can only be remotely controlled bomber. In the beginning of 1950, decided on the alteration of the ten aircraft In-47 unmanned. The first car was supposed to come into service in 1951. The modification assigned the designation M-47. In April 1951 the program was codenamed “Copper ring” (Brass Ring).
 
The original project was supposed to take off, refuel in the air and proceed to target MV-47 will be in the manned mode. Then over a friendly country catapulted the crew and the aircraft will fly on autopilot, obeying the commands astronavigation system. However, the need to perform aircraft maneuvers and avoid enemy interceptors have forced the military to abandon this scheme. The system entered another plane — the “Director” DB-47. He had to manage the media on the radio to exit the target area. Such a scheme is considered most appropriate, and firm Boeing began to develop both aircraft.
 
But none of these systems has not been established. A nuclear bomb equipped with a brake parachute that allowed the media to escape at a sufficient distance from the center of the explosion.
 
The most famous American pilot who flew on the “stratojet,” was captain John Lappo, which became a kind of American Chkalov. In the dead of night on 24 April 1959, he flew into a routine training mission. In the early morning returning to base and flying over lake Michigan, however, dropped to a height of 23 m and flew his RB-47E under the famous Mackinac bridge, and then gave GAZ and candle went to the top.
 
Details of air hooliganism in the press, and people, flying under the longest suspension bridge strategic bomber, became known throughout the country. However, enraged the authorities gave it a court martial; from the prison, however, he was saved only by his old merits — 28 combat missions in Korea on b-29 bomber and four battle honors.
 
DESIGN DESCRIPTION
 
Bomber b-47E jet shestidesyatiletiyu is a monoplane with high wing and single-fin tail.
 
The fuselage is all-metal, oval section with a maximum height of 3.22 m. In the fore part was located pressurized cabin crew and basic avionics. On the rounded tip of the bow is attached to a periscope bombopritsel system MA-4. The pilots were placed in tandem under a common teardrop-shaped lantern. Before the ejection, the lantern was dropped. Ejection seats were made by Weber firm. The Navigator ejected downward. Landing in the cockpit was through a hatch located on the left side of the fuselage. Behind the cabin was the bomb Bay heating and air conditioning systems. In the rear fuselage were installed two 20-mm cannon М24А1 ammunition 350 rounds per gun.
 
The two-spar wing of the plane sweep 36°37,9′ at quarter chord. An airfoil — Boeing 145 laminar. The wing is very flexible — it endings could vary in flight with an amplitude of up to 4.5 m Installation angle of attack of — 2°45′. Under the wing housed the engine nacelles between them could be suspended additional fuel tanks. The mechanization of the wing consists of Fowler flaps and ailerons with trim tabs.
 
Bicycle landing gear. Bow front located in front of the bomb Bay, and the main for him. Two support stands attached to the inner engine nacelles. The height of the pillar was such that the parked plane’s fuselage was located at an angle of 6 degrees to the horizon.
 
The aircraft was established six engines J47-GE-25A with a maximum thrust with water injection in the first stage of the compressor is 3280 kg and without water injection — 2730 T. the Engine had a twelve-step compressor, eight combustion chambers and single-stage turbine. Diameter of engine 990 mm, length 3680 mm, weight 1157 kg. During takeoff could be used hanging propellant boosters with a total thrust of 14 669 kg, bringing the rate of climb to 23.34 m/s.
 
The main armament of the Boeing-47E STRATOJET consisted of free-fall bombs weighing up to 11 350 kg Standard load — ten 454-kg bombs.
 
Flight characteristics of the Boeing bomber-47E STRATOJET
 
Wingspan, m…………………………………………………………………………………………..35,35
Length, m………………………………………………………………………………………………………33,57
Height, m………………………………………………………………………………………………………8,49
Wing area, m2…………………………………………………………………………………….132,66
Unit load on wing, kg/m2 ……………………………………………………………..706,25
Weight of empty aircraft, kg………………………………………………………………………..36 605
Normal takeoff weight, kg…………………………………………………………………..89 974
Maximum takeoff weight, kg……………………………………………………………..104 420
The maximum flight speed, km/h………………………………………………………………975
Cruising speed, km/h…………………………………………………………………………….810
Minimum flight speed, km/h……………………………………………………………….283
The rate of climb, m/s………………………………………………………………………………..12,34
Practical ceiling, m…………………………………………………………………………..12 350
Cruising altitude to the target, m……………………………………………………….10 090
Combat radius of action and bomb capacity 4924 kg, km……………………………3261
Maximum flight range without refueling, km………………………7477
The length of the run, m…………………………………………………………………………………………..3170
The length of the run with JATO boosters, m…………………………………………………………2241
Maximum payload, kg………………………………………………………….11 350

 
 
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN, Kharkov

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