…There is a truth familiar to everyone since childhood. To get a good harvest, the plants during their growth it is necessary to give enough moisture. And if in the Central latitudes of the European part of our country plants can quench their thirst with rain water, in Kazakhstan, in Central Asia the picture is different. There is a lot of sun, you can obtain and get! incredible yields, but at the same time, there is not enough water.
Irrigation in our country, like many other sectors of the economy, received a huge development after Lenin’s decrees. Fifty pet in pre-revolutionary Turkestan were irrigated with only 34 thousand hectares of land. While the historic decree of the Council of people’s Commissars of the RSFSR “On the organization of irrigation works in Turkestan”, signed by Vladimir Lenin on may 17, 1918, provision was made for irrigation in Turkestan, about 740 thousand acres of land (around 800 hectares) for five years. For these purposes it was allocated 4 billion rubles. Created a special management of irrigation works in Turkestan “Irtur”.
Three years later, when the civil war was coming to an end, and the approaching new enemy — drought. The Council of Labour and Defence on the proposal of V. I. Lenin, adopted 29 April 1921 a decree “On anti-drought”.
These first activities undertaken at the initiative of Vladimir Lenin, started a broad program of reclamation of arid lands. About the success of its implementation today said the special exhibition pavilion at the VDNKH — “Melioration and water management”. It stands to show that the irrigation would have been the last years has received especially wide development after the may (1966) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee devoted to the problems of land reclamation.
In 1969, in our country there were 9593 thousand hectares of irrigated land. R the Directives of the XXIV Congress of the party States: “to Develop projects and implement the construction of technically advanced irrigation and watering systems with the automation of water distribution and with efficient means of irrigation technique”. For the current five-year plan, the irrigated area should increase by 3 million ha. And then this figure Will more and more increase. Otherwise it can not be; after all, with hectares of irrigated arable land is removed in 4-5 times more crop than per hectare without irrigation. And here’s an example: irrigated lands occupy only 3.2% of the cultivated area of the Kazakh SSR, but they give about 17.8% of the gross output of agriculture of the Republic.
Irrigated farming today — a vast sphere of activity. Without a broad knowledge of many, sometimes very distant from each other branches of science and technology is impossible to create the optimal irrigation system and the necessary mechanisms. It is in this way born new agricultural machinery irrigation farming.
In the halls of the pavilion “Irrigation and water management” reflected the three way supply and distribution of water on irrigated land: surface, subsurface and sprinkler irrigation.
Surface came to us from antiquity. Bar ditch or ditch, the water overflows and floods the land or furrow. Surface irrigation is rather widespread, because it is possible to do without special machinery and scarce materials. But with this method it is difficult to regulate the humidity of the soil.
Under the new subsoil irrigation in the land laid perforated pipe which is and absorbed into the soil water. This method is just beginning to be used. He never came back, essentially, from the experimental stage.
Another Fast-paced method of irrigation is sprinkler irrigation. It is considered the most progressive and agrotechnical and reclamation points of view, because it gives the opportunity to regulate the amount of water supplied in wide range. In addition, sprinkler irrigation is the path of mechanization and automation of irrigation works. After all rain is created by special machines, and they can set the required mode, to automate their work. It is not surprising that the magnitude of the space, which used irrigation, growing all the time.
The benefits of sprinkling before surface irrigation is obvious. Soil promazyvaetsya ka shallow depth, and this is very important because if a high level of mineralized subsoil layers and water from the top to get to them, then it will grab the salt and spoil their soil. You can pour small rules of the Vedas, but often. Improving the microclimate, as the layer of air near the ground is moistened; reduces evaporation. Drops of rain wash away the dust from the leaves, the plant can breathe better. Fertilizers and pesticides dissolve better. With the rugged topography of the field is also best to use sprinkler irrigation because it eliminates the need to plan the plots.
On VDNH USSR, you can see several types of sprinkler installations. They are divided into kratkosrochnye — KDU (the range of a jet 10 m); srednesrochnuyu — SDU (25-30 m) and delestraint — POS (60 m). The rain intensity for different soils, from heavy to light, from 0.1 to 0.8 mm/min. At such intensity the water has time to soak into the soil completely and puddles are not formed.
Different sprinkler moving and position.
From the first pump and doggishly unit located on the tractor, kotorym moves along the sprinkler, the hose sucks the water from it and using the spray device sprays over the field in the form of rain. Position of the installation are connected directly to the pressure pipe or the water is fed into them from the open network.
In the mess the country is widely used korotkometrazhnye installation ДДА100М consisting of sprinkling of the wings -portable collapsible thin-walled pipelines, perekidyvaem on trucks. These installations are technically reliable, but can take water only from a public network. In addition, this machine can not be used on slopes. New products ENEA-74, which in the current five-year widely went to the fields that are sprinkler installation “Volzhanka” and “Frigate”.
Volgograd pilot plant for irrigation technology, together with Azerbaijan scientific-research Institute has developed a draft of a new watering machine DKSH-64 “Volzhanka”.
“Volzhanka” (photo 1) is essentially the pipeline to the wheel supports with the mechanized movement. It is used for irrigation irrigation of crops, vegetables, melons and technical crops with a maximum height of 1.5 m, artificial meadows and pastures. The machine performs a pre-sowing, planting (planting seedlings and saplings], vegetation and protivosudorozhny glaze. Connects Volzhanka to a fixed, closed or collapsible conduit in which water flows under pressure created by the pumps.
The machine consists of two wings, located on both sides of the irrigation network. The length of each wing is 39$ m. It is composed of stacked aluminum tubes with a length of 12.6 m, outer diameter of 130 mm. Thickness of pipe wall is 2.5 mm. Tubing at the same time is the axis of the supporting wheels, through which is transmitted torque from the engine.
The engine capacity of the 4 PS fixed in the centre of each wing on the leading truck (see Fig. 1]. Truck is a frame made out of channels, which is attached to the engine with reducer and chain transmission, wheels, tool kit.
Each wing duct 32 has a wheel assembled from two halves, connected by bolts. Each wheel has 16 spokes and 8 pacotaco (spurs), except for two wheel leading truck, which have 32 spokes and 16 pacotaco. The wheels are in the middle of each section. The only exceptions are end of pipe, which are two wheels at a distance of 2.8 m from each end of the pipe.
The sections are interconnected welded to their ends of the flanges and four bolts. In one of the flanges of each section there is a hole for the spray apparatus, It is circular steps, one nozzle, Ø7 mm nozzle IPI two Ø7 mm. and 4 depending on which are installed nozzle, the water flow rate is from 0.9 to 1.0 l/sec.
“Volzhanka” is connected to the pressurized irrigation network, open the hydrant, the water flows into the irrigation pipeline. Then the pressure rises, the water rushes in sprinklers and splashing.
Read the “war of the worlds” Walesa remember that in this fantasy novel weapons Marsan was moving triangular tower. The plant “Fregat” (photo 2) from a distance resembles a heavenly construction with a row of A-shaped supports and the huge wheels of that moving of the pipeline.
Fregat is designed for irrigation of all agricultural crops. It can work in the fields with difficult terrain and slopes of up to 0.05. The machine is also moving around the pipeline 16 mounted on self-propelled A-shaped supports of the trolleys (Fig. 2). Tubing made of galvanized steel pipe of variable cross section: from the center to the seventh support Ø178 mm; hereinafter Ø 152 mm.
In this machine first of all surprised that she, not having any engines, however, moves, rotates. Fregat operates through the same water.
Under running “Frigate”, is a network of underground pressure pipelines, and somewhere in the middle of the field there is a hydrant special construction, firmly attached to the Foundation. This hydrant is the axis of rotation of huge machines to it, and joins the water intake “Frigate”.
Water, going under pressure pipeline enters the cylinders of the supports of the machines, and those powered wheel (Fig. 3) through a system of levers and Cam followers. On the pipeline located srednesrochnuyu sprinklers jet type. They spin and when the machine moves in a circle. evenly watering the area.
But if the plot is square! How to water the corners, outside the area of a circle! For this case at the ends of the tubing installed dalnostroy the sprinkler is automatically activated at the corners of the square footage. The operator of the serving system sets a driving speed corresponding to a predetermined precipitation rate.
Ensure tubing does not bend and are not swayed, the machine is equipped with a system of vertical and horizontal cables, just like the rigging on a real frigate.
If one of the trucks runs ahead or is delayed when moving on a common pipeline, the quantity supplied to the cylinders of these trucks, the water is automatically changed, which affects the speed, and the pipeline is aligned. To support the truck by themselves, not rolled on grades, they are equipped with mechanical brakes.
If the bending of the pipeline exceeds the permissible limits, fires mechanical or electrical security system. In the first case the machine stops. The second turns off the feed pumps or the signal of closing electrohydrostatic. Translate “Frigate” from one position to another using a tractor of the class 3 so It requires 5-6 hours.
“Fregat” high — performance modern watering machine It evenly distributes the “rain” works on fields with complex topography, can withstand wind speeds up to 10 m/sec. It is especially advantageous to use a “Frigate” on the basis of shallow fertile layer, which couldn’t be leveled for surface irrigation. By automating the operation and reliability of the protection system “Fregat” can work round the clock. Finally, it can simultaneously with the water spray of liquid and soluble fertilizers.
Both new sprinkler installation “Volzhanka” and “Frigate” has already found wide application. In 1972, the farms were supplied 500 “Frigates” and 1000 “of Samara players”, in 1973, the supply of “Frigates” has grown twice, and “of Samara players” — three. And in the future they will find even wider application in the Volga region, in Ukraine, in Kazakhstan, the North Caucasus, in the Central zone of the European territory of the country, in the southern Urals, in Central Asia and other areas.