CLASSROOM ABOVE THE CLOUDS

CLASSROOM ON THE CLOUDThe second of may 1952 from London Heathrow airport and went to the first commercial flight to Johannesburg, the world’s first passenger jet airliner “Comet” created by the British firm “De Hevilend”. Subsequent accidents and disasters that accompanied its operation, did not stop the desire of the world’s leading aviation powers to progress and the creation of new reactive machines.

 
The American company “the Boeing” when creating the jet model 707 was based on the rich experience of heavy jet bombers and large passenger aircraft with multiple piston engines. The engineers designed a sealed fuselage where fatigue cracks could lead to disastrous consequences, as in the English “Comet”.
 
In the USSR, OKB A. N. Tupolev solved the task set before him by the leadership of the country, traditional collective way. The first domestic jet airliner were essentially presented a deep modification of the long-range bomber Tu-16 with the new sealed fuselage of larger diameter, which allowed to significantly reduce the time and cost of development.
 
French designers of the company “Sud West”, not burdened with experience of creating long-range bombers chose for your liner layout of the engines on the pylons in the rear fuselage. This is a good layout decision had a number of operational advantages that gave rise to numerous imitations in all the countries-developers of aviation technology.
 
The pace of economic development in the USSR was determined five-year plans, then establishing the party congresses. In the directives of the Congress on the sixth five-year development plan of national economy of the USSR in 1956 — 1960 to civil aviation, the objective was: “to Increase five years the turnover doubled and the volume of passenger traffic approximately 3.8 times. To introduce into operation on trunk lines of high-speed multi-passenger aircraft. Reconstruction of the main airports on the main air lines.”
To solve this problem, in addition to the Tu-104, for the needs of civil aviation was created Il-18, An-10 and Tu-114. At the end of the sixth five-year plan has begun to develop the next generation of passenger aircraft — regional Tu-124 and An-24.
 
The widely held view that the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU N. With. Khrushchev loved aviation, not fully true. N. With. Khrushchev was treated to the new technology, especially one that was associated with the improvement of living conditions of Soviet people. He’s everywhere if possible, demonstrating achievements of Russian industry, with its inherent emotionality.
 
Tu-134Ш
 
Tu-134Ш
 
In the preparation of the official visit of N. With. Khrushchev to Britain in the international London Heathrow airport on 22 March 1956 landed three first Tu-104. The aircraft remained there until the beginning of April and became a sensation for many British experts who examined them.
 
N. With.Khrushchev travels around the country often used the services of aviation, and during the visit of the Soviet delegation in the United States in September 1959, he and members of his family went overseas on the Tu-114, state flight tests which at the time was not yet completed. General designer S. V. Ilyushin February 26, 1960, addressed a letter to the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR D. F. Ustinov with the initiative proposal on the establishment of long-haul aircraft with four engines located in the rear fuselage. Offer Ilyushin supported and 18 June 1960, left the corresponding decree of the USSR Council of Ministers.
 
In March 1960 the Tu-104 from the Soviet government delegation headed by N. With.Khrushchev landed at the airport of Paris. During the visit Khrushchev met the new French aircraft regional airliner “Caravelle”, drawing attention to the low noise level in the passenger compartment.
 
After returning to Moscow, he drew the attention of A. N. Tupolev on the merits of “Carabela”. The result of this meeting, in topolevska design Bureau under the leadership of chief designer D. Markov began work on creating modifications on the basis of the held test promising regional aircraft Tu-124. This aircraft made its first flight on 24 March 1960. To catalyse the creative process the resolution of the government No. 846-341 from 1 August 1960.
 
Modification of the liner received the designation Tu-124А. A new plane was created at a time when the cost of flights, given their volumes, became one of the defining criteria for the evaluation of the machine. Tu-124А stood more economical than the Tu-104 turbojet engines D-20P-125, developed by the Perm design Bureau-19 under the leadership of chief designer P. A. Soloviev. To improve profitability at the conceptual design phase increased the size of the interior of the liner: it housed the 46 passengers in tourist option and 58 in economy. The increased takeoff weight required an increase in wing area compared with the Tu-124. Preliminary design of the Tu-124А was prepared by April 1961, and its protection was held in July. In the autumn of the same year, the CAF has insisted on increasing the range of aircraft up to 3000 km with a payload of four tons, to determine the maximum value of seven tons, and the number of passengers up to 65 — 70.
 
To the working design of the Tu-124А in OKB A. N. Tupolev started before the conceptual design review. And it attracted a serial design Department at the Kharkov aircraft factory, which was tasked to develop a new “clean” wing.
 
With this company EDO had a good relationship in the period of development of serial production of Tu-104.
 
The wing, designed in Kharkov, had a new S-shaped profile and geometric twist: angle varied from 1° at the side of the rib to minus of 1.55° from the end rib.
 
Training-chart Tu-134Ш
 
Training-chart Tu-134Ш
 
Training-chart Tu-134Ш
 
Training chart Tu-134Ш:
 
1 — lamp Navigator; 2 — laminated heated glass SHO-15; 3 — window of the cockpit; 4 — cap sensor of the angle of attack of DUA-9; 5 and 25 — antenna listening to FM radio, “the Cormorant”; 6 — the front door; 7 and 44 — vodootvedeniya plank doors; 8,24 and 98 flashing beacons media-2K; 9 — cable antenna HF radio; 10 — radiotransparent Radome stub antenna of the radio compass, ark-15; 11 —cover of the escape hatch; 12 — glass prism astronomical sextant of the stellar-solar benchmark BC-63; 13 — dorsal fin; 14 — rod antenna KB-radio “Microns”; 15 — rudder; 16 — exhaust pipe of the auxiliary power unit (APU) TA-8; 17 — cover operating hatches APU; 18 — fold compartment APU; 19 — hatch louver air outlet of air-to-air radiator; 20 and 48 of the antenna system of national recognition; 21 — glass of the left (red) side of air navigation fire BANO-45; 22 — brake wheel CT 81/3 (930×305 mm) main landing gear; 23 — multiple, beamed bomb holder BDZ-Y6-68; 26—front flap niches nose landing gear; 27 — wheel-To-288 (660×200 mm); 28 — radiotransparent Radome radar “Initiative-2”; 29 — antenna reception signals of the radio beacons navigation and landing system “Kurs-MP-2” and VOR; 30 — air intake cooling system of the starter-generator; 31 — intake air-to-air radiator; 32 — turbojet engine D-30-II series; 33 and 54 — aerodynamic partitions; 34 — static electricity discharger; 35 — trimmer of the rudder; 36 — rod trimmer rudder; 37 radio-transparent panels antenna navigation system short-range navigation RSBN-2S; 38 — louvers to release hot air anti-icing system of the keel; 39 — the window of the rear cargo compartment; 40 — the window of the toilet; 41 — fairing of wing; 42 — the window of the salon; 43 — service door; 45 receiver full pressure PPD-1B; 46 — the canopy pilots; 47 and 63 — landing-taxiing PFR-4; 49 — glass right (green) side of navigation fire BANO-45; 50 — cover rear cargo compartment; 51 — outlet of blow 3rd takatsuka; 52 — guide vane device of the thrust reverser of the engine; 53 — cover of the 3rd takatsuka; 55 — the tail gate of a niche nose landing gear; 56 and 60 radio panel antenna altimeter RV-5M; 57 and 106 — radio-panel antenna, automatic radio compass, ark-15; 58—plate receiver static pressure; 59 — cover of the 1st takatsuka; 61 —radio panel antenna measuring the Doppler ground speed and drift angle of DISS-013; 62 — hatch cover operating pump booster ESP-45; 64 — manhole cover support bracket installation of the Jack; 65 — front flap nacelle main landing gear; 66 — fold average; 67, 70 and 104 removable socks wing; 68 — detachable console of the wing; 69, 103 and 105 — connecting ribbon socks; 71 — slits for hot air anti-icing system of the wing; 72 — outer section of the Aileron; 73 — Flettner Aileron; 74 — internal section of the Aileron; 75 — trimmer-Flettner Aileron; 76 — fixed blind external flap; 77—double slit external flap; 78 —rear fairing; 79 — fold rear gondola; 80 — internal double slit flap; 81 — movable curtain of the inner flap; 82 — manhole cover 2-second technical compartment; 83 — exit openings for hot air anti-icing system air intake of the nacelle; 84 — bottom hinged cover; 85 — the outlet of the cooling turbine; 86 — louvers for supplying air to the APU; 87 — fold 4th takatsuka; 88 — adjustable stabilizer; 89 — the counterweight of the Elevator; 90 — limit spinner stabilizer; 91 — handlebar height; 92 — trimmer of the Elevator; 93 — tail navigation light (white) CH-57; 94 end fairing of the keel; 95 removable sock stabilizer; 96 — pole motor; 97 stekatel nacelle; 99 — cover for approach to the fuel pumps; 100 — gondola chassis; 101 — the spoiler; 102 end wing fairing; 107 — mounting hatch cover; 108 — obogreva laminated safety glass-24; 109 stock; 110 — strut; 111 — traverse; 112 and 115 of the swivel arms; 113 — hydraulic cylinder retract landing gear; 114 — the locking latch nasal support in the released position; 116 — the upper link of the folding brace; 117 — engine thrust; 118 — lower link foldable strut; 119 — clip fixation of nasal support in the retracted position; a 120-slot hinge; 121 — custom anti flap; 122—brace; 123—brake lever; 124 — elastic traction; 125 — duplica rocking; 126 — brace-cylinder retract; 127 — strut; 128, a bracket fixing the main bearing; 129 — slot-hinge; 130 — anti-roll shock absorber; 131 — rod hydraulic cylinder; 132 — cart chassis; 133 — post compensation mechanism; 134—bracket; 135—breakers electrotermia and flight segregates; 136 — remote control of limit temperature controller; 137 panel switches main systems; the 138 — unit control rolls; 139 switch altimeter, VEM-72; 140 switches the anti-icing system; 141 — switches of heating the PFA and the glass-24 co-pilot; 142 — the base of the switchboard; 143 remote control fuel pump system; 144 buttons of the squibs of fire-fighting; 145 — flashers fire in the nacelle of the left and right engines and APU; 146 — fire hydrants engines and the crane banding; 147 — pointer the position of the stabilizer UPS-1; 148 remote modes of operation of the flaps; 149 — pointer IP-32-07 of the position of the flaps; 150 — mechanism of the limit switch MV-43A with arm control flaps; 151 switch control cleaning and landing gear; 152—signal lamp; 153—hydraulic brake pressure gauge; 154 — gauge primary hydraulic; 155 — redundant hydraulic system pressure gauge; 156 — the base of the flap; 157 — gauge emergency brake lines of the hydraulic system; 158 — fuse box Navigator; 159 — remote control VHF radio Cormorant; 160 — mode switch operation of the automatic navigation system ANA-1; 161 —indicator ground speed and drift angle; 162 — indicator lateral deviation; 163 — master of the wind SG-1; 164 — unit course angle ZUK-1; 165 — meter path SP; 166 indicator range IDR-1; 167 — gauge outdoor temperature TNV-15; 168 — pointer of the Navigator USH; 169—speed indicator KUS-730/1100; 170 clock Achs-1MK; 171 — variometer VAR-30MK; 172 — control system of the course of COP-8; 173 — a base panel of the Navigator; 174 — control panels automatic radio compasses ark-15M; 175 — correction mechanism KM-4; 176 — dashboard; 177 — a pointer to the height of VM-15K; 178 — combined flight instrument KPP-MS; 179 control unit of a PSA; 180 — is that of a professional device range and azimuth, PDA-SH1; 181 — dashboard rangefinder; 182 — height sensor DV-47; 183 — pointer altimeter.-to 15 f; 184 — remote control-HF radio “Microns”; 185 selectors bearing kit “Kurs-MP-2”; 186 control units from the set of “Kurs-MP-2”; 187 — subscriber device from the set of SPU-7; 188 — base on the dashboard of the vehicle commander; 189 — voltmeter-1; 190 — based dashboard co-pilot; 191 — gauge MS-1K; 192 — electric turn indicator EUP-53k; 193 indicator directional angles of the IR-1A; 194 — pointer dashboard speed DC- & 195 — flight device PP-75; 196 — light display failure ABSU; 197 — integrated signal fire; 198 — light display mode “WITHDRAWAL”; 199 — light display of limit deviations; 200 — artificial horizon AGD-1; 201 — variometer VAR-30MK; 202 — pointer altimeter UV-5K; 203—pointer altimeter T-30-15K 2-series; 204 — mechanical altimeter VM-15K; 205 — flight and landing switch PPS-2M; 206—that of a professional device range, PDU-P1; 207 indicator range IDR-1; 208 — directional navigation device NKP-4 209 — pointer ambient air temperature TNV-1; 210 — a pointer machine trim UAT-3; 211 — variometer VAR-75Мк; 212 — the base of the medium boards; 213 — altimeter T-15Фк; 214 — techstroy pointer WIZ-3TR fuel pressure, temperature and oil-pressure engines; 215 — the pointer of a pressure gauge in fuel UI-1-4Тр engine; 216 — pointer angle of attack, UAP-3КР; a 217 — meter engine temperature, it-2T (2-series); 218 — light display ABSU; 219 — pointer of the tachometer 11 -th cascade ITE-2T; 220 — light display of the TC-1K and TC-2K; 221 — directional flow of fuel engines; 222 — remote control VHF radio No. 1; 223 — selector radio; 224 — remote control PU-37; 225 switch fuel gauge PG-4; 226 — a pointer to the height and pressure drop, UITD-5-0,8; 227 — information displays; 228 pointer air flow UVR-1500; 229 — pointer air flow, OIA -; 230 — temperature gauge TUE-48; 231 — pointer of the fuel gauge FTD-52

 
Another was the design of the main landing gear, it took not only the vertical but also the horizontal load is inevitable when landing on a dirt airfield. But, as shown by subsequent experience “periods” of operation, the service life of the aircraft is reduced by half.
 
In December 1962, work on the creation of the Tu-134 was headed by chief designer L. L.Selyakov, specialist with extensive experience in the aviation industry, in the past, one of the companions of V. M. Myasishchev. The entire subsequent history of this car is associated with him.
 
The first copy of Tu-124А built at the experimental plant No. 156 in Moscow with the use of the Kharkiv assemblies of the glider. July 29, 1963, the crew of a test pilot A. D. Kalina for the first time tore it from the runway the Flight research Institute. In fairness I must say that the Il-62 is built on a similar scheme, made its first flight on 2 January 1963.
 
20 November 1963 the Tu-124А got a new name — the Tu-134.
 
8 September 1964, flew the second prototype of the new 64-bed liner. This machine is entirely built in Kharkov, different extended a foot fuselage, substantially modified wing. She has had other changes made as a result of flight tests of the first copy of the aircraft.
 
During state testing the second instance of the prototype in NII VVS in the first flight, on 14 January, 1966, it crashed. For eight military test crew V. M. Evseeva this flight was the last. The elucidation of the causes of the disaster showed that the implementation of a platform at a height of 10 km there was a strong oscillation of the rudder, the worsened handling of the car. The plane was too to decline sharply and at an altitude of about 250 m began to crumble. The only thing that managed to make the pilots of a falling car, to take her from the village near the town of Kirzhach Vladimir region.
 
After this disaster management system, rudder modified to include a spring segregating limiting the efforts of the angles of deflection of the rudder to five degrees in both directions. At the same time restricted the maximum number M in the operation value of 0.82.
 
The third copy of the prototype equipped with new engines D-30, created under the leadership of chief designer P. A. Solovyov. The prototype Tu — 134 made its first flight on 25 October 1966 with the factory airfield in Kharkov.
 
For the prototypes were followed by six pre-production cars destined for public and service tests.
 
Simultaneously with the conduct of the performance tests on the HAZ finished preparation for serial production of Tu-134. In March 1967, the plant was transferred “to Aeroflot” the first production aircraft with the registration number of the USSR-65608. The release of this version lasted until the II quarter of 1969. It was built in 78 cars, of which thirty — exported.
In the beginning of 1969 to the test gave the first copy of the Tu-134A, which took its first flight on April 22. It was piloted by factory test pilots, V. M. Petlyakov and F. F. Dotsenko.
 
From its predecessor, the new modification differed enhanced wing, the elongated front of the wing for 2.1 m fuselage, in the region of 15-th frame on the right and left side added one window. Aircraft equipped with engines D-30 And the series, with the device of reverse thrust and auxiliary propulsion. Cable antenna HF radio replaced the pin inserted in the toe of the fairing of the keel.
 
Operation of the Tu-134A began in November 1970. This modification was the most numerous family of the Tu-134. Improvement of the machine is continued during the further serial production. In 1981, the aircraft was fitted with improved engines D-30 III series with the additional steps of the low-pressure compressor and a thrust of 7,000 kgf. The first commercial flight of the Tu-134A-3 with passengers took place on 6 January 1982. Until the termination of the serial production in Kharkiv built the 852 Tu-134 various modifications.
 
The first modification of the Tu-134A for the Armed Forces began training the pilots Tu-134Ш. The plane was designed to replace the training machines of similar purpose Tu-124Ш-1, built by the Kharkov aviation plant named after Lenin Komsomol.
 
In December 1967, in connection with the shortage of navigators in the air force and naval aviation, in the city of Lugansk by order of the commander of the air force was organized by the higher military school of navigators (hereinafter Voroshilovgrad higher military aviation school for navigators imeni Proletariat Donbass). Your name new school inherited from being here before the war 11 th military aviation school of pilots, more than two hundred graduates of which became heroes of the Soviet Union, and ten of them this high rank was awarded twice. Among the most famous of the pupils of the named school — N.F.Gastello and cosmonaut G. T. Beregovoy. The school was supposed to prepare navigators for Maritime reconnaissance, anti-submarine and military transport aircraft.
 
Chelyabinsk, which had trouble with the aircraft (while the school still used for education and training-Navigator Li-2), gave his colleagues a part of the learning machines, including Tu-124Ш1. Therefore the problem of training machines to train navigators were sharp.
 
Tu-134УБ-L
 
Tu-134УБ-L
 
Tu-134Ш developed proactively in the Department of the chief designer (OGC) of the Kharkov plant on the basis of the Tu-134A. The idea of moving training equipment with the Tu-124Ш-1 on the new aircraft supported the chief designer of the Tu-134, L. L. Selyakov, but warned that releasing the technical documentation for the modification will have to Kharkiv citizens, as they are familiar with both machines. For his part, he promised to assist in the coordination of this documentation topolevska of the design Bureau and with the customer. The work of the OGC has supported the management of the plant, as for the production of Tu-124Ш-1 required tooling, occupied a large production area, which the company lacked. While HAZ was producing four aircraft per month, with a lot of stress worked shop, aggregate Assembly, therefore, the company established a branch in the city of Konotop.
 
In order to take into account the wishes of future operators of the Tu-134Ш, designer OGK for avionics N.G.Anathema sent on business trips to navigation school and training centers of the air force: from the 6th aviation regiment training in Voroshilovgrad to drill the 64th air defense regiment in Omsk. During meetings with teachers and instructors of nautical colleges and line pilots have been collected and systematized valuable material, which formed the basis of the technical specifications for the development of the flying class Ту134Ш.
 
From the basic Tu-134A machine was reinforced wing and tail due to the large number of takeoffs and landings, compared with machines carrying out passenger transportation. In addition to the amplified spars were fastened with multi-position beam holders, designed for the suspension of eight practical bombs caliber from 50 to 250 kg. the Plane was allowed to produce educational bombing using an optical sight mounted on the workplace of the Navigator and radar — jobs of students. In the passenger cabin was equipped with 12 jobs with comfortable chairs for the students. The initial composition of navigation equipment consistent with a supersonic long-range bomber Tu-22. Further equipment options specified in the process of ordering another series of machines in accordance with the curriculum of nautical colleges.
 
12 Feb 1971 factory test pilot F. F. Dotsenko took to the air first serial Tu-134Ш. In factory tests of the machine, besides him, participated in the pilot V. M. Petlyakov, navigators A. I. Davydov, and I. V. Gubarev, radio operators, A. I. Kurchenko and V. Ryakhovsky, flight engineers Yuri I. Nalivaiko and A. E. Caitlin.
 
The car was produced in two main variants: Tu-134111-1 radar “Rubin” — for training of navigators long-range and naval aviation, operating Tu-22M and Tu-134111-2 radar “Initiative-2” — for training of navigators and tactical aviation.
 
Externally training chart Tu-134Ш-1 radar “Rubin-1” different from the passenger version Tu-134A fairing larger than the radar reticle ROSES-1; mounted under the center section four usami suspension mnogoportsionnyh two beam holders; cable antenna HF radio, two fairings base of the truncated hexagonal prisms astronomical sextant of the stellar-solar benchmark BC-63, mounted on the left side of the fuselage in the area of center. Beamed holders allow to hang up to eight bombs practical PB-50-75 or PB-120. Both the basic variant under the designation Tu-134Ш (regardless of the navigation and special equipment) was built from 1971 to the early 1980s.
 
The main consumers of 54 training machines on the Tu-124 and 90 on the basis of the Tu-134A was navigation school, Chelyabinsk and Voroshilovgrad. Tu-124Ш and 134Ш trained cadets from first to third year of study in the 46th training wing (ADF) in Voroshilovgrad until 1984, when the school was reoriented to preparation navigators mainly for military transport aircraft. Your machine it gave the Chelyabinsk, receiving from them in exchange for training and navigation of the machine based on the An-26. 108-m ALM Chelyabinsk schools on the airfield shagol Tu-124Ш was used until the mid 1980-ies. In 1972 in the city of Shadrinsk has formed a second training regiment school in Tu-124Ш-1.
 
Inspired by the slogan “the Economy must be economical”, the Ministry of defence in February 1977 disbanded 457 th ALM on the Tu-16 Voroshilovgrad school in Mirgorod, and in 1980 — 45th ADF in Kustanai. Newly manufactured Tu-134Ш did in training regiments in 604 (1980) in Chelyabinsk and the 108th (1974) in Shadrinsk. In 1982, in accordance with the Directive of the General staff of the USSR formed the 607-th ALM on the Tu-134Ш on the basis of two squadrons of the 108th ADF in Yuzhno-Uralsk at the airport, Upon. In the years of perestroika naapsa the landslide process of reducing Armed Forces and military educational institutions. In 1989, disbanded aviation training regiment in Shadrinsk, in 1992 ceased to exist 607-th ADF. Currently surviving training-mate Tu-134Ш are based on the airfield shagol in Chelyabinsk the only training regiment of the red banner higher military aviation school, who managed to return in 2001 the historical name. The school still trains specialists for the air force, air defense, Navy, border troops and other law enforcement agencies. Tu-134Ш used to date as machines for group training of future navigators piloting in simple and complex weather conditions, day and night, working off of practical skills of bombing, and also to perform the service of transportation of passengers.
 
In the years of perestroika and the dismantling of training aviation regiments, armed Tu-134Ш, part of the aircraft hit the Tambov higher military aviation school of pilots imeni Mariny Raskovoy, where they were used for training pilots of bomber command. One of the Tu-134Ш in preparation for the 75th anniversary of the school was named after a famous Navigator, initiator and organizer of women’s aviation regiments, one of the first Heroes of the Soviet Union Marina Mikhailovna Raskova.
 
In February 1981, during takeoff from the airfield repair plant in Pushkin in the Leningrad region crashed Tu-104, which belonged to naval aviation. Among the numerous victims was the command aircraft of the red banner Pacific fleet. After this catastrophe, began a massive write-down remaining in service the Tu-104, while the replacement of Tu-134 in the versions “interior” and “airborne command post” (the CPSU) to official flight commanders at various levels. Tu-134A-3 in the embodiment of the CPSU looked different whip antenna communication system “the Balkans”, placed on the tail cover of the fuselage under the exhaust gas outlet of the APU. Tu-134A and Tu-134A-3 and earlier were produced in saloon version — with the beginning of serial production. These aircraft served in the government 235th squadron and the suburban 8th red banner air division special purpose. One of the Tu-134 of the 235-th unit, which was used by General Secretary of the CPSU Leonid Brezhnev, was equipped with radio communication “Tatra”, providing passenger No. 1 operational communication with almost all the world. Tu-134A defense Minister Marshal of the Soviet Union A. A. Grechko manned satellite communications “Carpathians”, with higher capabilities. Tu-134 cabin layout produced according to the orders of foreign airlines and organizations providing transportation leaders of the socialist countries. They were equipped with radio communication equipment taking into account wishes of the customer.
The crews of Tu-134A-3, providing transportation of the Soviet military, was trained in the training regiments of both higher navigational schools. In addition, in the 46th of UAP produced from the personnel of the eight crew commanders (two in each squadron) approved for the transport of senior officers.
 
Tu-134Ш was considered a reliable machine and during the operation is seldom failed their crews. Until 1984 in the Voroshilovgrad higher military aviation school of navigators did not lose a single aircraft
 
“The trouble came, as tears to the eyes”: during the flight from the airfield Zhdanov training regiment may 25, 1984, was destroyed in the air at the altitude of 2750 m above the Proletarian district of Donetsk Tu-134Ш 46 ADF. Killed the crew experienced commander V. Syutkin and the only passenger — head of school the General-major of aviation Yu. Marchenko. The investigation showed, Tu-134Ш was manufactured in August 1972, he has flown since the beginning of operation 3173 hours and produced 2370 planting, and after the last planned repairs at Chelyabinsk aviaremzavod in November 1979 — still 1034 hours and 773 landing. 12 minutes of flight over the Donetsk, the aircraft, following in a given tier at a height of 4200 m, were in severe atmospheric conditions: enhanced turbulence with strong vertical gusts and overloads, greatly exceeding not only the maximum permissible performance, but also design, the result of which was the destruction of the structure. Studying of records “black box” in Rostov scientific research Institute of operation and repair of aviation technique showed that the angles of deflection of the rudder from the point of view of intelligent behavior of an experienced pilot and his physical abilities difficult to explain. The actual reason for this, as shown by the modeling, was the entanglement of the wires of the power supply switching on the reserve Converter to the main bus when the repair of aircraft Chelyabinsk figs AP3. When washing the main bus from the backup Converter has occurred the phase sequence of the alternating current that led to the change of the direction of rotation of gyromotion devices and gyroscopes.
 
After a scheduled repair the car a long time flying using the inverter. The defect is manifested in the extreme conditions of flight, when automatically switched to the backup power supply Converter and the subsequent incorrect operation of the damper caused severe build-up of the aircraft, the slide with large angles and loss of altitude. The crew within 38 seconds tried to fend off the arising vibrations in the roll and overload. Upon reaching air speed of 550 km/h the crew was sitosterol engines, but it didn’t help… The saddest thing in the above story, that the possibility of incorrect wiring to the inverter drew attention to the Czechoslovak airline CSA in early February 1984, agreeing with OKB A. N. Tupolev Bulletin on completion of their aircraft. We did the innovations seven years after the events described.
 
The author, whose adult life passed in close proximity to airfields, Tu-134 first met in the summer of 1968. New, unpainted car, frightening roar of their engines are indestructible crows in the HAZ adjacent to the Park, broke away from the runway of the factory, took place at an altitude of fifty meters above the corps of engineers and Khai went for your first flight. A few days later the aircraft was transferred to the customer. (His first painting was a traditional, accepted in “Aeroflot”, then it was replaced by more original — “Blue bird”. With the beginning of perestroika and beyond the riot of colors in the shape of “one hundred and thirty-four” struck the airfield the audience, but this is reminiscent of the efforts of an aging ladies, hiding under the abundant cosmetics deep wrinkle. Against the background of their more successful peers, “Boeing-737”, which is constantly kept in shape: improved on-Board electronics, had invested millions in improving their fuel economy and improve aerodynamics, Tu-134 all modifications is outdated morally and physically. Every year the car happen more seldom, but her mark in the history of domestic aviation will remain forever.
 
The main performance characteristics of the Tu-134Ш:
 
Wing span, m………………………….29
Wing sweep
for linii1/4 chords, hail………………… 35
Length of aircraft, m……………………..37,1
The height of the parked aircraft, m……Of 9.02
Track width, chassis, m……………..9,45
The base chassis with a maximum
takeoff weight, m…………………….16,04
Engines……………………D-30 III series
The take-off thrust in standard
conditions, kgf…………………………..2×7000
Maximum takeoff
weight, t ……………………………………….47,6
Maximum cruising speed
at an altitude of 10 km, km/h…………………….882
Service ceiling, km…………..11, 8
The maximum range
flight, km……………………………………3300
The length of the runway
distance, m ……..2140
Landing
distance, m 2200

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