ESSENTIAL “EIGHT”

ESSENTIAL Siberian airfields early 70-ies of the last century — the time of intensive development of the Tyumen oil fields — is hard to imagine without helicopters, created in OKB M. L. Mil. In the summer the airfield is a small airport in Surgut worked several hundred helicopters. In addition to local squadron here flew helicopters from all over the Soviet Union. Mi-2, Mi-4, Mi-6 and Mi-8 was raised to the sky during the long daylight hours. Mi-2 and Mi-4 was delivered to the place of work of geologists, drillers, and numerous teams of builders, heavy Mi-6 was carrying bricks, boards, barrels of fuel, pipe, power transmission towers, drilling equipment, mobile homes. Such intense and dedicated work is clearly confirmed, as required in terms of the local offroad helicopter.

 
On the background of the honored veterans of the Mi-4, zarabativali your resource engines have undergone another overhaul, especially advantageously looked, the novelty of the year — the Mi-8 helicopter. Elegant, fast and comfortable car, with a spacious living, charmed after the first flight the lower levels of noise and vibration. Taking on Board two times more passengers, she planted them in a tiny log cabin sites among the Tyumen taiga swamps. For the past several months this site has connected people from the mainland. Flights in the sky of Siberia once again confirmed the validity of the concept of the Mi-8, adopted at its creation.
 
The first study of the future of the Mi-8 began in 1957, when the country’s leadership is still quite cool to the little-known mind of aircraft. A new car was offered as a modification of the transport and assault helicopters Mi-4 with a wide borrowing of previously developed components and assemblies, but the expansion of the combat capabilities by replacing the piston, ASH-82V closest to the power gas turbine engine. In connection with the placement of the power plant above the cargo cabin and a clearing away of the fuselage has been possible to carry long loads. After the rebuild the front of the fuselage was significantly improved downward visibility from the cockpit, which was important when landing on platforms of limited size.
 
For new helicopter we decided to use a modified gas turbine engine AI-24, developed in OKB Zaporizhzhya motor plant under the leadership of chief designer A. G. Ivchenko for passenger aircraft An-24. Offer Mil OKB to develop a new helicopter was supported by the Ministry of civil aviation, which had ensured that the development of a new vehicle in the prototype development plan and the February, 1958 decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR about the development of the helicopter under the designation At-8 and modification of a gas turbine engine for him.
 
Mi-8, equipped with a buoyancy system for emergency landing on water
 
Mi-8, equipped with a buoyancy system for emergency landing on water
 
Mikhail mil was able to convince the leadership of the aviation industry that is optimal for the new helicopter is a twin-engine powerplant, which will improve safety. And shortly after the start of the detailed design came out a government resolution on the development of more cost-effective than the AI-24, a gas turbine engine and the construction of helicopter In-8 single and twin – engine variants.
 
Gas turbine engine TV-2-117 with capacity of 1,250 HP was developed at the Leningrad OKB-117 under the leadership of chief designer S. P. Izotov, he became the fourth Russian helicopter turbine engine. The previous two — T-2V and D-25V for MI6 — was created by the Perm design Bureau-19 chief designer P. A. Solovyov, and the third GTD-3 for the Ka-25 in EDO glushenkova V. A. Omsk engine plant.Baranov.
 
The construction of the first prototype V-8 in single-engine variant, representing a deep modernization of the Mi-4, finished by the summer of 1961, and on June 24, test pilot Boris V. Zemskov for the first time lifted the car into the air. After two weeks this car took part in the traditional air parade in Tushino. In the same month the helicopter In-8 could see the national exhibition of economic achievements — it was installed in front of the pavilion “engineering” in the spot currently occupied by the Royal carrier rocket “Vostok”. The second prototype, made in the autumn of 1961, the summer of the following year altered in the twin-engine variant, which in September 1962, the factory test pilot N. In.Lesin made its first flight. Power plant twin-engine V-8A more than one and a half times the capacity of the first embodiment, so the second prototype was a nearly new helicopter. In addition to the new engine and main gearbox on it were new: autopilot AP-34; five-blade main rotor with a modified profile of the blades and hydraulic dampeners, the vertical hinges, and the wooden tail rotor blades have replaced the metal; the revision was subjected to transmission and other nodes. To remove the “earth resonance” basic rack is equipped with two-chamber shock absorbers with cameras low and high pressure.
 
In the spring of 1963-8A in aeroflotska version presented at the joint state tests in GK NII VVS. Test team of the Institute headed by N. G.The smalko, and a leading test pilot appointed M. V. Ratmanova. In the summer the car was replaced by the third prototype troop-transport IN-8AT, which apparently differed sliding doors, pilot and cargo loaders. Along the sides of the cargo compartment was located twenty folding seats.
 
Tests of the Mi-8AT produced test pilots P. A. Korotkov, S. V. Petrov and A. P. Holopaw. From the outset it was clear that the helicopter managed: flight passed relatively smoothly. In the course of flight tests on the helicopter Mi-8AT set several world records. In April the crew of a test pilot V. P. Koloshenko set a distance record on the closed route (2465,7 km) and the speed record on the basis of more than 200 km (201,8 km/h). Female crew kopec and I. L. Isaeva set several women’s world records: speed 500-km route (273 km/h), range closed (2084 km) and direct (2263 km) routes.
 
In the spring of 1965, after the successful completion of the joint state flight tests of the serial production of the helicopter, designated the Mi-8 started the Kazan helicopter plant. By this time, successfully completed tests in the GosNII GA 28-passenger version of the helicopter IN-8AP.
 
Transport and assault helicopter Mi-8MT
 
Transport and assault helicopter Mi-8MT
 
Transport and assault helicopter Mi-8MT:
 
1 — 7.62-mm machine gun PKT; 2 — windscreen wiper; 3 — slip armored plate; 4 — rear view mirror; 5 — sliding blister with locks alarm reset; 6 — winch LPG-150 load capacity 150 kg; 7 — a dustproof device; 8 — nozzle of the auxiliary gas turbine engine AI-9V, 9 — station optical-electronic interference SOEP-В1А “Lime”; 10 and 13 — antenna VHF-radio R-852; 11 — antenna UHF command radio R-833; 12 — in-one DISS-15; 14 — flashing beacon; 15 — tail boom; 16 — louver ventilation of the intermediate gear; 17 — steering screw; 18 — terminal bar; 19 — the tail-Board air navigation light; 20 — antenna IFF systems; 21 — tail wheel; 22 — unit flares; 23 — louver ventilation of the cargo compartment; 24 — fold the cargo compartment; 25 — brake wheel CT-97/3 865×280 mm; 26 — beam holder BDZ-57КРВМ; 27 — consignment fuel tank; 28 — sliding door; 29— wheel-To-2-116 595×185 mm; 30 — cover of the battery compartment; 31 —receiver air pressure; 32 — upper maintenance hatch; 33 — heater K0-50; 34 — circuit fire of the rotor; 35 — cable antenna HF radio Р842; 36 — insulator antenna; 37 — stabilizer; 38 — tail gear; 39 — fairing blocks ASO-2V; 40— fan installation cooling oil system; 41 — block heat traps ASO-2V-02; 42 — blade rotor with modified profile NACA-230; 43 — washademoak АИ9В; 44 — cover hydropanels; 45 — screen-exhaust device (late version); 46 — horizontal hinge bushing rotor; 47 — used; 48 vertical hinge bushing rotor; 49 — electrogoth antiobledenitelnye and electrical systems; 50 — clamping blade of the rotor; 51 —charging fitting of the air injection into the spar, 52 — pressure switch; 53 — escape hatch; 54 — cooling air intake of the engine TVZ-117; 55 — the hood of the engine TVZ-117; 56 — pipe output of polluted air; 57 — non-directional antenna of the radio compass, ark-9; 58 — Luc for extra 7.62 mm machine gun PKT; 59 — right panel of the dashboard; 60 — remote control autopilot; 61 — left panel of the dashboard; 62 — pull of rotation of the blade; 63 — plate; 64 — thrust; 65 & leash; 66 — lever leash; 67 — transmitting antenna of the radio altimeter RV-3; 68 —receiving antenna RV-3; 69 and 76 — potoloki; 70 — the antenna amplifier and antenna of the radio compass ark-U2; 71 —frame suspension arms; 72 — antenna radio compass, ark-9; 73 — taxiway spotlight; 74 — sliding roof for a rope system external suspension; the 75 — tape attaching surface of the fuel tank; 77 is electrical de-icing system of the tail rotor

 
Unfortunately, the development and refinement of the helicopter Mi-8 was marred by the death of the crew of an experimental test pilot N. In.Leschine near the little village of Abramtsevo at the end of January 1966 during the factory flight tests of V-8A.
 
Military-vehicle test-landing the helicopter Mi-8T was held at the Centre for combat training and re-training of flight personnel in Torzhok. In parallel with the serial production of the helicopter carried out a series of tests that assessed the potential of the car and makes recommendations for the combatant pilots. Military test pilots V. K. and P. A. PodolnyKorotkov worked out flights in adverse weather conditions, by V. M. Ratmanova, S. V. Petrov and A. P. Vasil Kolobovym — in the mountains.
 
In 1965, the Mi-8 helicopter was first presented at the Paris air show in Le Bourget, where it was appreciated by foreign experts, acknowledging one of the best helicopters in the middle weight category.
 
As the development of the car military and civilian pilots expanded the range of tasks for which a helicopter was used. During the years of serial production in OKB M. L. Mil, and then the constructors of the Kazan helicopter plant was established over a hundred versions of the machine.
 
In 1968, slightly modified rear portion of the cargo compartment of the Mi-8P: it was extended by one metre by reducing the size of the rear wings. Sash equipped with door-ladder. Based on the Mi-8P was created numerous variants of helicopter services, including helicopter Mi-8P, registration number LIST, which Pope John Paul II enjoyed during a visit to Poland in 1979 and 1983. Saloons were produced not only on the basis of the passenger version, often they were converted amphibious transport helicopters Mi-8T and their subsequent modifications. Depending on the underlying model and the number of such modifications were designated: seven — Mi-8PS-7, 11-local — Mi-8PS-11. The salons based on the Mi-8T was called Mi-8S, later, equipped with Mi-8MT, was called MI-8S-1, Mi-8МО, Mi-8МСО, etc. Helicopters-salons had generally more rich set of navigation and communication equipment, comfortable cabin, designed for long flights and the creation of conditions for work and rest in flight. Civil parlors look different from the serial helicopters additional anten and have, as a rule, original color, depending on the position of the main passenger car. Presidential helicopter Mi-8PS has the registration number RA 27080.
 
Spartan kind of salons are airborne command posts (BCP). The first Mi-8ВКП appeared a few years after the start of series production. Serial WCP Mi-9 or Mi-8ИВ, destined for the commanders of divisions and associations, depending on the kind of armed forces, equipped with additional radio communication facilities used in that service. Appeared in the second half of 80-ies of XX century the CPSU commanders of motorized infantry and armored divisions on the basis of the Mi-8MT had the designation Mi-19, and their variant for the missile troops, the Mi — 19R.
 
The unique capabilities of the helicopter in action in areas of natural and man-made disasters was the basis for the development of medical and search-and-rescue versions. In 1972, the Mil OKB developed the emergency medical helicopter Mi-8MB. Unlike a standard helicopter, which was only possible to transport passengers on stretchers the sick, he had additional medical equipment allowing to operate them in the vicinity of the landing. During the fighting in Afghanistan quite successfully used armoured helicopters Mi-8МТБ created on the basis of the Mi-9МТ.
 
Export version of Mi-8MT military transport helicopter Mi-17
 
Export version of Mi-8MT military transport helicopter Mi-17
 
One of the options of 7-seater cabin of the helicopter Mi-8
 
One of the options of 7-seater cabin of the helicopter Mi-8
 
The ability of Mi-8 to transport cargo on an external sling is also widely used in various parts of the country and abroad. In the spring of 1969 test pilot F. Belushkin four flight hours installed on the Kirovabad aluminum plant at a height of 43 m a few tens of metal that was several times faster and cheaper than the traditional way with the help of cranes. To perform installation operations in the 1970s developed a crane-Assembly modification of the Mi-8MT, which has taken the place of the valves cab mounted outboard of the cockpit, the operator with improved visibility of working area and more control of the car.
 
The high rating received by the helicopter at international exhibitions, have found their confirmation in the contracts offered to foreign partners, “Aviaexport”. First purchased the mi-8, a Dutch firm, which was later profitably sell it to an American company “petroleum Helicopters”. After the Dutch helicopters bought by the Egyptians and our other traditional partners in Africa and the East. To 1980-m to years of the Mi-8 of different modifications operated in more than 50 countries on almost all continents. USSR abroad supplied every third made Mi-8.
 
The needs of the national economy and the Armed Forces in the new helicopter was so great that to meet them for the release of Mi-8 in 1970, joined the Ulan-Odeski aircraft factory.
 
Despite the fact that helicopters were not the most expensive samples of aircraft, the share of Milewski machines in some years accounted for up to 50 percent of the value of sales of “Aviaexport”. For the creation of a Mi-8 helicopter of the leading specialists of OKB M. L. Mil, A. V. Kuznetsov, S. A. Kolupaeva, A. S. Braverman, E. V. Remezov, E. V. Yablonski was awarded the State prize of the USSR.
 
The versatility of the Mi-8 is not less clearly manifested in the creation of its military modifications. In 1968 he successfully completed the state trials of the shock variant of the Mi-8TV and it is officially accepted on arms of the Soviet Army. Arms, placed at the four nodes of the external suspension, included blocks of 57-mm unguided rockets S-5 and free-fall bombs caliber from 50 to 500 kg. It allows the helicopter to provide fire support for landed troops.
 
In the autumn of 1967 there was a decision of the government, providing for the creation of a modified Mi-8 helicopter, with a new gas turbine engine TVZ-117 power 1900 HP the New engine has been developed for multiple helicopters combat helicopter Mi-24 helicopter anti-submarine shore-based Mi-14. By installing a more powerful engine was planned to increase the capacity and altitude performance of the Mi-8T, for which he was inferior to the Mi-4.
 
Because of the large download OKB other machines work on the conceptual design completed in 1971, and a prototype of the modernized machine was built in the summer of 1975 at the Kazan helicopter plant, August 17 first took to the air. A new modification was equipped with a main gearbox VR-14, and enhanced transmission, auxiliary power unit AI-9 with a starter-generator and tractor tail rotor. The increased lifting capacity of the helicopter allowed us to increase the number of points of suspension of arms to six. The tests confirmed the General improvement of the flight performance, including high-rise. Since 1977, the serial production of the helicopter has mastered the Kazan helicopter plant.
 
Soon began the war in Afghanistan influenced the further destiny of Mi-8MT. Major airports in Afghanistan were located in mountainous desert terrain in most cases, at the height of a thousand meters, and hostilities were carried to even greater heights. Therefore, Mi-8MT ousted from production of the previous version, which did not meet the new tasks. In the course of hostilities in Afghanistan, the helicopter was modified. The intakes appeared dustproof devices (ROM), prevents accelerated engine wear due to dust erosion. Cabin crew screened patch armor plates. Blew the control cables tail rotor to avoid damage with a single bullet. From the fire behind the helicopter shielded pivot machine-gun placed in the hatch right aft the wing. For protection against missiles with thermal homing helicopters manned by units of the shooting of heat traps ASO-2V and optical-electronic station “Linden”. In fuel tanks, are covered with sponge rubber, mounted polyurethane sponge to prevent the explosion and ignition of the fuel when hit by large-caliber bullets. Mirrors significantly increased the effectiveness of flak maneuvering.
 
Export version of the Mi-8MT, Mi — 17, like its predecessor, in large quantities in different variants was exported and supplied at present by the Kazan helicopter plant abroad.
 
The war in Afghanistan contributed to the emergence in the mid-1980s high-rise versions of the Mi-8MTV equipped with altitude engines TVZ-117VM, which allowed the helicopter to take off from airports located at altitudes up to 4 km.
 
This modification was designed taking into account the combat experience gained in the course of the war, and were equipped with more advanced navigation equipment.
 
Production of the Mi-8MTV with modifications made according to the results of tests, mastered Ulan-Odeski aircraft factory under the designation Mi-8AMT. In the mid 1990-ies was built here, transport-assault version of the helicopter Mi-8AMTSH with the weapons systems of new generation, designed for helicopters Mi-28. In particular, the attack modification was equipped with a helicopter anti-tank missile complex “Attack”.
 
During these years at the Kazan helicopter plant has developed modified transport-amphibious helicopter Mi-8MTV-5, with an expanded composition of navigation equipment and weapons including upgraded anti-tank complex “Malyutka-2” rocket class “air — air” based on a compact anti-aircraft missiles “Igla”, 80-mm unguided rockets, free-fall bombs caliber up to 500 kg and small arms and cannon.
 
Main technical characteristics of the Mi-8 helicopters
 
The main technical characteristics of the Mi-8
 
Unlike the helicopter, developed in Ulan-Ude, Kazan machine is equipped with weather radar for operating the helicopter in adverse weather conditions and at night. To speed up the loading and landing of cargo equipment and cabin have undergone substantial revision: the width of the left door of the cargo compartment increased by half, right-side mounted standard door, fold the cargo compartment was replaced by mechanized ramp. Completion of the cargo compartment is allowed to drop 36 — 40 paratroopers in less than two minutes. The helicopter is equipped with ditching system, providing maintenance of the machine afloat for at least 30 minutes.
 
Except for the described modifications of the helicopter, there are specialist options designed for minesweeping, for mining areas, for electronic warfare, to fight fires, fly at night and in adverse weather conditions.

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